Tag Archives: perennial grasses

198–210 S. Rancane, A. Karklins, D. Lazdina, P. Berzins, A. Bardule, A. Butlers and A. Lazdins
The evaluation of biomass yield and quality of Phalaris arundinacea and Festulolium fertilised with bio-energy waste products
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The evaluation of biomass yield and quality of Phalaris arundinacea and Festulolium fertilised with bio-energy waste products

S. Rancane¹*, A. Karklins², D. Lazdina³, P. Berzins¹, A. Bardule³, A. Butlers³ and A. Lazdins³

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, Institute of Agriculture, Lielā iela 2, LV-3001,
Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Soil and Plant
Sciences, Lielā iela 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
³Latvia State Forest Research Institute ‘Silava’, Rīgas iela 111, LV-2169 Salaspils,
Latvia
*Correspondence: sarmite.rancane@inbox.lv

Abstract:

 Tall growing perennial grasses such as Phalaris arundinacea and Festulolium can be used as an alternative source for bioenergy production in northern latitudes as they can be grown in less cultivated areas and can be potentially used as a dual purpose crop (bioenergy and forage). The aim of studies was to investigate the effectiveness of using bioenergy waste products – fermentation residues (digestate) and wood ash as fertilisers for perennial grasses. The field experiment was conducted in the central part of Latvia (56°42′ N and 25°08′ E) from 2013 to 2015. For all fertiliser treatments (wood ash, digestate once per season; digestate twice per season and mineral fertilisers) the same amount of plant nutrients (N, P, K) was applied annually: N (100), P2O5 (80), K2O (160); and the missing quantities of elements in ash and digestate were compensated by mineral fertilisers. Dry matter yield (DMY) in two harvest regimes (single cut and two cut) and chemical composition (ash content; total C and N) of grass biomass partitioning among tillers, leaves and panicles were estimated.
Biomass yield in the three years of use varied considerably depending on the fertiliser, harvest regime and species, ranging up to 10.0 Mg ha-1 for RCG and 7.73 Mg ha-1 for festulolium. All fertilisers provided a significant increase of DMY, however, better results for both species were obtained using wood ash and mineral fertilisers. The harvest regime and species affected directly the quality of biomass, single cut of RCG contained significantly less ash and more carbon. There were significant differences between sward fractions – culms in comparison with leaves contained less ash and nitrogen, and more carbon, what are desirable features for solid fuel.

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13-24 A. Bardule,, S. Rancane, I. Gutmane, P. Berzins, V. Stesele, D. Lazdina and A. Bardulis
The effect of fertiliser type on hybrid aspen increment and seed yield of perennial grass cultivated in the agroforestry system
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The effect of fertiliser type on hybrid aspen increment and seed yield of perennial grass cultivated in the agroforestry system

A. Bardule¹,*, S. Rancane², I. Gutmane², P. Berzins², V. Stesele², D. Lazdina¹ and A. Bardulis¹

¹Latvia State Forest Research Institute ‘Silava’, Riga street 111, Salaspils, Latvia;
*Correspondence: arta.bardule@silava.lv
²LLU Research Institute of Agriculture, Zemkopibas instituts 7, Skriveri, Latvia

Abstract:

Agroforestry is a perspective way of biomass production which combines simultaneous growing of woody plants with agricultural crops on the same area for different purposes. The advantage of agroforestry lies in the improved efficiency of resource utilisation and smaller competition of plants for nutrients. In this system the woody plants are less influenced by lasting periods of drought, and a stable annual increase in biomass is ensured. Accordingly, agroforestry is biologically more productive, economically – more favourable, and it is more sustainable than the monocultures of forestry or agriculture separately. The work was done to test the effect of fertiliser type on the increment of two clones of hybrid aspen (Populus tremuloides x Populus tremula) and the seed yield of perennial grasses (Phalaris arundinacea L., x Festulolium pabulare) and legumes (Lupinus polyphyllus L., Galega orientalis Lam.) cultivated in the agroforestry system on loam/sandy soils. Fertilisers used at the planting were wastewater sludge (dose 10 tDM ha-1) and wood ash (dose 6 tDM ha-1). Wastewater sludge fertilisation increased the stem length of hybrid aspen by 20% after the first growing season. The effect of wastewater sludge fertilisation on stem length was still significant after the second growing season. Soil and soil solution analysis indicated that the main Hybrid aspen growth response was due to the P and N supplied by fertiliser. Reed canary grass (RCG), festulolium and fodder galega can be successfully cultivated for seeds in the first year of use, locating the crop fields in the plantations of energy plants interchangeably with trees. The use of wastewater sludge provided an essential increase in seed yields for all species of herbaceous plants. However, the influence of fertilisers on the grass species was different: the greatest increase in seed yields was established by the use of wastewater sludge in RCG, mineral fertiliser in festulolium, and ash in galega, and the fertilisation provided the seed yield increase of 136%, 31% and 163%, respectively.

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149-155 A. Arlauskienė, A. Šlepetienė, S. Maikštėnienė and D. Nemeikšienė
The variation of mobile humic acids and mineral nitrogen in the soil as affected by the use of perennial grasses for green manure
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The variation of mobile humic acids and mineral nitrogen in the soil as affected by the use of perennial grasses for green manure

A. Arlauskienė¹, A. Šlepetienė², S. Maikštėnienė¹ and D. Nemeikšienė¹

¹Joniškėlis Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture,Joniškėlis, LT–39301, Pasvalys distr., Lithuania; e-mail: joniskelio_lzi@post.omnitel.net
²Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Akademija, LT 58344, Kėdainiai distr., Lithuania;e-mail: alvyra@lzi.lt

Abstract:

The paper presents the findings of the experiments conducted on a clay loam gleyic Cambisol at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s Joniškėlis Research Station and the results of analyses done at LIA’s Laboratory of Chemical Research in 2007–2008. The tests were designed to establish the effects of the use of perennial grasses – red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), lucerne (Medicago sativa L.), their mixtures with festulolium (x Festulolium), pure festulolium and their biomass as green manure on the variation and migration of mobile humic acids and mineral nitrogen in the soil of organic farms. Experimental evidence indicated that the content of mobile humic acids depended little on the plant species, however, when mixed management of the aboveground mass of perennial grasses (herbage of the first cut is removed from the field; second and third cut herbage left for green manure) was used, it increased significantly compared with the treatment where herbage had been removed from the field. Before ploughing-in of perennial grasses, the content of Nmin. in the 0–30 cm soil layer was significantly reduced (by 18.3 and 10.1%) by the cultivation of red clover and lucerne in mixtures with festulolium, compared with pure crops of respective legumes. The averaged data suggest that the highest Nmin. content in the soil was recorded in the treatments where mixed management of herbage had been used compared with the treatments where herbage had been removed from the field. In late autumn, 2.5 months after herbage ploughing-in, Nmin. concentration in the –30 cm and 3–60 cm soil layers increased by 8.9–53.9%, 7.8–93.7%, compared with that present in the soil at the end of August. Significantly lower Nmin. concentration in the 0–30 cm soil layer was found after festulolium cultivation, compared with red clover, and its content was also the lowest in the deeper layer (30–60 cm). When the herbage of perennial grasses had been used as green manure by four–time mulching, Nmin concentration significantly increased in the topsoil layer (0–30 cm) by 23.1% and tended to increase in the deeper soil layer (30–60 cm) by 11.4%.

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492-497 R. Skuodienė and R. Nekrošienė
Effect of perennial grasses ploughed in as green manure on the occurence of net blotch in spring barley
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Effect of perennial grasses ploughed in as green manure on the occurence of net blotch in spring barley

R. Skuodienė¹ and R. Nekrošienė²

¹Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Vėžaičiai Branch, Gargždų 29, LT–96216 Klaipėda distr.,Lithuania; tel: + 370 46 458233; e-mail: rskuod@vezaiciai.lzi.lt
²Botanical Garden of Klaipėda University, Kretingos 92, LT–92327 Klaipėda, Lithuania;e-mail: rita_nekrosiene@mail.ru

Abstract:

Experiments were carried out in the Vėžaičiai Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture (West Lithuania) in 2005–2007. The aim of this research was to assess the impact of using perennial legumes (red and white clover, lucerne) and timothy as green manure in crop rotation on the occurence of net blotch disease (causal agent Drechslera teres (Sacc.) Shoem.) in spring barley. Preceding crops of spring barley were winter triticale and winter rye (perennial grasses were preceding crops of these winter cereals). The yearly occurence of net blotch disease was high: incidence was about 70.00–100.00% severity; at the spring barley booting stage (BBCH 37-39) – from 4.45 to 12.25%, at milk maturity stage (BBCH 73-75) – 43.75–70.95%. The variously-managed perennial grasses in the crop rotation had a significant effect on the occurence of net blotch: the spring barley grown after timothy was 1.1–1.5 times less affected in 2005 and 2007, compared to the spring barley grown after red and white clovers, and about 1.2 times less affected grown after lucerne, compared with spring barley grown after other grasses in 2006.

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229-239 A. Kryževičienė, A. Jasinskas and A. Gulbinas
Perennial grasses as a source of bioenergy in Lithuania
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Perennial grasses as a source of bioenergy in Lithuania

A. Kryževičienė¹, A. Jasinskas² and A. Gulbinas²

¹ Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto al.1, LT-58344 Akademija,Kėdainiai reg., Lithuania; e-mail: akryzeviciene@lzi.lt
² Institute of Agricultural Engineering Lithuanian University of Agriculture,Raudondvaris, LT-54132 Kaunas reg., Lithuania; e-mail: aljas@mei.lt

Abstract:

The study was designed to investigate the feasibility of cultivating perennial grasses as energy crops and their effect on soil agroecological potential. Field experiments with different grasses were conducted at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture from 2000–2004. Perennial grasses Phalaroides arundinacea L. and Bromopsis inermis Leysser were grown pure and in mixtures with legumes. Melilotus officinalis, Lupinus polyphyllus and Galega orientalis on a light gleyic loam soil (Cambisol) with a humus content of ca. to 2%. Pure swards of grasses were either fertilized with nitrogen or not. Mixtures did not receive any N. The swards were cut once per season when their biomass was used for combustion, and twice per season when their biomass was used for biogas. Dry matter yield of grasses in pure stands ranged from 6.4 to 9.3 t ha-1. Under normal weather conditions grass-legume mixtures without nitrogen (N) fertilization were higher yielding than N-fertilized (60+60 kg N ha-1) grass in pure swards, but the mixtures were lower yielding in the years with inadequate rainfall. In all cases mixtures had an important ecological advantage over N-fertilized grass swards. The swards had a positive soil conservation effect and maintained soil fertility potential.The energy potential of perennial grasses in both cases of biomass utilization variedaccording to DM yield variation and totaled up to 153 GJ ha-1; energy input for biofuel production amounted to 8.0 – 19.2 GJ ha-1. Our experimental evidence suggests that the tested swards sown on less fertile soil, amounting to over 0.5 million ha in Lithuania, would be able to produce to 4 million tons of biomass for energy production annually.

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