Tag Archives: ploughing

xxx O. Šařec and P. Šařec
Results of fifteen-year monitoring of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) production in selected farm businesses of the Czech Republic from the viewpoint of technological and economic parameters
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Results of fifteen-year monitoring of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) production in selected farm businesses of the Czech Republic from the viewpoint of technological and economic parameters

O. Šařec* and P. Šařec

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilization, Kamycka 129, CZ165 00 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: sarec@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The paper presents field trials focused on technological and economic comparison of conventional tillage (CT) and reduced tillage (RT) technologies of soil cultivation and drilling of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). During fifteen production years starting in 2001/02, trials were set up in 520 fields of around 40 farm businesses located in all of the districts of the Czech Republic. With respect to average seed yields, no significant differences were proved with respect to tillage systems, to the application of organic fertilizers and to the fertilization during sowing. Irregular distribution of trial fields into the individual production areas influenced the outcomes thou. Concerning winter rape seed yields, costs per production unit, and earnings per hectare, the most suitable production area proved still to be the potatoes one, but particularly over the recent period also beet production area. The corn production area produced, despite some exceptions, worst results. Over the fifteen-year time, the average oilseed rape yield of all 520 monitored fields was 3.72 t ha–1. Reduced tillage attained average yield of 3.73 t ha–1, i.e. matched almost exactly the one of 3.70 t ha–1 attained by conventional tillage. Unit production costs realized by conventional tillage surpassed by 4.1% those gained by reduced tillage. Related earnings per hectare were on the other hand lower by 17.0%. With respect to fuel and labour consumption, reduced tillage brought significant savings reaching in average 20.2%, respectively 24.0%. In terms of yields, reduced tillage with deeper soil loosening proved repeatedly favourable results.

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094–111 J. Gailis, I. Turka and M. Ausmane
Soil tillage and crop rotation differently affect biodiversity and species assemblage of ground beetles inhabiting winter wheat fields
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Soil tillage and crop rotation differently affect biodiversity and species assemblage of ground beetles inhabiting winter wheat fields

J. Gailis*, I. Turka and M. Ausmane

Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Soil and Plant Sciences, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: janis.gailis@llu.lv

Abstract:

This paper continues studies on ground beetles (Carabidae) in differently managed winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) fields in Latvia. The main task of those studies was to assess how different soil tillage regimes (ploughing and non-inverse tillage) and different pre-crops (winter wheat and spring rapeseed (Brassica napus) affect assemblage and biodiversity of ground beetles in winter wheat fields. The research was carried out in the Latvia University of Agriculture Research and Study Farm ‘Pēterlauki’ (56°30’39.38’’N; 23°41’30.15’’E) during vegetation season of 2013. The results were compared with the results of similar research carried out at the same place during 2012. Totally 57 ground beetle species were observed in studied fields in 2013. Total species assemblage varied between both consecutive vegetation seasons of the research, however these were minor differences not connected with studied agro-ecological factors. Dominance structure of ground beetle species was significantly different between both vegetation seasons – species which were dominant and subdominant in 2012 became subdominant and dominant one year later, accordingly. Annual effects of soil tillage regime and pre-crop on ground beetle dominance structure also were observed, however some differences were recognized between both vegetation seasons. In case, if weed control was successful, higher ground beetle biodiversity might be observed in ploughed fields pre-cropped with spring rapeseed. Otherwise, significantly higher ground beetle biodiversity may be observed in harrowed soil independently from the pre-crop.

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103-112 E. Stasinskis
Effect of preceding crop, soil tillage and herbicide application on weed and winter wheat yield
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Effect of preceding crop, soil tillage and herbicide application on weed and winter wheat yield

E. Stasinskis

LLU, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Management, Liela iela 2, Jelgava, LV-
3001, Latvia, e-mail: eriks@dobeleagra.lv

Abstract:

This article describes results obtained in three years of experiments (2001–2003) carried out at farm Dobele Agra SIA located in the Dobele region of Latvia. Trials were established in two different crop rotations (Factor A): 1. winter wheat sown after winter wheat, 2. winter wheat sown after winter rape. Three different soil tillage and sowing methods were compared (Factor B): 1. – minimal conservation soil tillage in 10–15 cm deep with mixing of soil; 2. – direct sowing into stubble without any previous soil cultivation; 3. – traditional soil tillage with ploughing on 25 cm with cultivation before sowing. Additionally we compared the impact of those soil tillage methods on weed infestation in winter wheat (Factor C): 1. – using herbicide Secator 0.3 kg ha-1, 2. – without herbicide treatment. A significantly smaller total number of weeds was observed in treatments where winter wheat was grown in recurrent sowing, primarily caused by differences in numbers of oil seed rape in this treatment. A significantly smaller number of weeds was also observed after traditional soil tillage with ploughing. Data analysis shows significant linear negative correlation between winter wheat yield and the number of total weed infestation and several weed species – Stellaria media (L.) Vill., Sinapis arvensis L., Matricaria perforata Merat. and Lamium purpureum L. The highest impact on changes of winter wheat grain yield was made by herbicide use – 64.1%

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91–98 K. Pranaitis and S. Marcinkonis
Effect of stubble breaking and ploughing at different depths on cultivation of peas
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Effect of stubble breaking and ploughing at different depths on cultivation of peas

K. Pranaitis and S. Marcinkonis

Voke branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Žalioji aikštė 2, Trakų Vokė,
LT-02232 Vilnius; e-mail: kestas.pranaitis@voke.lzi.lt

Abstract:

Field trials were conducted over the period 1998–2001 at the Voke Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture on a sandy loam Haplic Luvisol (LVh). Pea’s precrop was winter rye. Crop residues were returned to the soil; straw was chopped at harvest. The aim of the investigation was to determine the effect of stubble breaking, ploughing at different depths on the weediness of cultivated crop, as well as on the crop yield.
Most couch-grass (Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski) infested were unbroken-stubble and shallow-ploughed plots. It caused a yield reduction by 11–20%. The lowest numbers of weeds were counted and the highest pea’s yield was obtained on broken stubble, 0.22–0.25 m depth ploughed.

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63–70 E. Lauringson, L. Talgre, H. Roostalu and H. Vipper
The effect of tillage and crop rotation on the content of available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium
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The effect of tillage and crop rotation on the content of available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium

E. Lauringson¹, L. Talgre¹, H. Roostalu² and H. Vipper¹

¹Department of Field Crop Husbandry, Estonian Agricultural University, Kreutzwaldi 64, 1008 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: ennlaur@eau.ee
²Department of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Estonian Agricultural University, Kreutzwaldi 64, 1008 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: roostalu@eau.ee

Abstract:

This research (A long-term field experiment from 1982 to 1997) was conducted at the experimental station of the Department of Field Crop Husbandry of the Estonian Agricultural University. The soil of the experimental site is moderately moist slightly podzolised sandy clay.
Insofar as field crop husbandry is concerned the soil should contain optimal amounts of available nutrients. If the level of available nutrients in the soil is low the plants will suffer and the yield will be low. A rise in soil available nutrient content leads to increased yield of crops, but only up to a certain level (optimal content). Thereafter, a further rise in soil nutrient content fails to effect any significant increase in the harvest.
The soils of the Eerika trial plot have optimal nutrient content and little need for fertilisation. After two crop rotations significant changes in nutrient content and location were observed in the ploughed layer. Compared to the nutrient content determined at the start of the trial period (1982), the greatest changes occurred in the soils under a crop rotation involving cereals, potato and a mixture of red clover and timothy, in which the supply of available phosphorus decreased by 19 mg kg-1 and that of potassium by 121 mg kg-1 on average after two rotations. Compared to the cereal rotation and the rotation containing 50% of cereals and 50% of potato the available phosphorus content dropped by 12–33% and the potassium content by 41–46% in the upper 25-cm soil layer.

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