Impact of rootstock on heavy metal bioaccumulation in apple plant grown near an industrial source in Obiliq, Kosovo
¹Agricultural University of Tirana, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Koder-Kamez, AL1029 Tirana, Republic of Albania
²University of Prishtina, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary, Department of Agriculture, George Bush, nr. 31, XK10000 Prishtine, Republic of Kosovo
³University of Prishtina, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Department of Biology, George Bush, nr. 31, XK10000 Prishtine, Republic of Kosovo
Food exposure to heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, As, Zn, Cu and Fe is considered a risk to human health. This study analyzes the level of heavy metals in soil and delicious apple tissues (fruit, leaf, shoot) in three different rootstocks: mm106, m26 and m9 grown in the Obiliq region (considered as a polluted region). The data obtained from the Obiliq areas are compared with those grown in reference clear area. Individual soil samples were collected from each plant to assess metal content in the immediate plant environment. Samples of soil, fruit, leaf and shoot have been analyzed for heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, As, Zn, Cu, Cr and Fe) using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS).
The results indicated that the average concentrations of Pb, Cd, Ni, As, Zn, Cu, Cr and Fe in soil of Obiliq areas were 2.03, 0.15, 6.99, 12.4, nd, 12.3, 4.68, 5.32 mg kg-1 d.w. respectively. The concentration of metals in the apple tissue increased with the increase of heavy metals in soil from polluted area. The accumulation ratios of heavy metals were calculated to assess the potential health risks. The mean concentrations of the heavy metals in the soil were in order of magnitude Ni > Zn > Cr > Cu > Fe > Pb > Cd > As while that in the fruits of apple were in order of magnitude Cr > Fe > Cu > Ni > Pb > Zn > Cd > As; in the leaves were Fe > Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > Ni > Cd > As; in shoots were Zn > Fe > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cr > Cd > As.
Mobility of heavy metals and potentially hazardous in studied lands threatens the quality of apple fruit consumption, with a real risk that these elements (Cd, Pb, Ni and Cr) can enter the food chain.