Tag Archives: pollution

xxx P. Kic, L. Ruzek and E. Popelarova
Concentration of air-borne microorganisms in sport facilities
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Concentration of air-borne microorganisms in sport facilities

P. Kic¹*, L. Ruzek² and E. Popelarova²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamycka 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Microbiology, Nutrition and Dietetics, Kamycka 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: kic@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This paper is focused on the microclimatic research in several buildings and rooms used for sport at the University. The attention is paid mainly to the problems of dimensions of space, capacity and activity of sportsmen, and influence of space ventilation. The air samples for microbiological analyses were taken by the microbial air sampler Merck Mas-100 Eco and cultivated by potato-dextrose agar and nutrient agar. Captured microorganisms, are expressed as colony forming units per m3 (CFU m-3). Measurement results showed that bacteria average quantity was statistically significantly less without students (562 CFU m-3) than with students (1,024 CFU m-3). The students inside the rooms increased the bacteria concentration. From this point of view the ventilation is not adequate for the removal of bacteria from ventilated spaces. From the results we can conclude that the great importance on the air quality in terms of a specific bacteria concentration has the specific volume of the room per one athlete. The worst situation is in rooms with the smallest volume, which has the largest biological load of the space. The lowest quantity of bacteria was in the swimming pool all year round (152 to 300 CFU m-3). The opposite situation was in average quantity of filamentous fungi, which was with students and ventilation (57 CFU m-3) and without students but without ventilation (109 CFU m-3). The pollution of air by fungi was higher without ventilation.

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443-453 M.A. Kamberi, S. Muji, A. Kryeziu, R. Kastrati and N. Mestani
The excretion of Ca, Mg, Zn and Cu via excreta of laying hens fed low phosphorus diets and phytase
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The excretion of Ca, Mg, Zn and Cu via excreta of laying hens fed low phosphorus diets and phytase

M.A. Kamberi, S. Muji*, A. Kryeziu**, R. Kastrati and N. Mestani

University of Prishtina, ‘Hasan Prishtina’, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary, Department of Biotechnology in Zootechnics, Tahir Zajmi 34, XK10000 Prishtinë, Republic of Kosovo
*Correspdence: skender.muji@uni–pr.edu
**This author contributed equally to this work

Abstract:

An 8–week experiment was conducted to study the effect of adding phytase (Natuphos® 5000 BASF) to low and normal available phosphorus diets of laying hens on the excreta content and excretion of Ca, Mg, Zn and Cu. A total of 144 Hisex Brown laying hens that were 22 weeks old at the start of the experiment were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments. Treatments included three replicates (12 hens each) or 36 hens per treatment in total. Four corn-soybean meal-based diets were formulated to contain two levels of available phosphorus (AP; 0.12 and 0.46%) and two phytase levels (0 and 600 FTU kg–1). The results showed that there was no significant effect of added phytase on excreta Ca and Mg content (P > 0.05), but there was a significant effect of the dietary treatment on the content of Zn (P = 0.0075) and Cu (P = 0.0002). In terms of the excretion of these minerals, the dietary treatment had no effect on Ca and Zn excretion and a borderline effect (P = 0.0522) on Mg excretion measured as the amount of the mineral excreted per egg mass produced is observed. The results however showed a very strong effect of all three factors (available phosphorus, phytase and their interaction) on Cu excretion. The results indicate that adding 600 FTU to the corn-soybean meal laying hen diet with 0.12% or 0.46% AP beneficially affects the content and the excretion of Ca, Mg, Zn and Cu. Therefore, we can conclude that a laying hen diet containing 0.12% available phosphorus and 600 FTU during the first production cycle may not only satisfactorily support hens’ performance but will also beneficially affect the environment.

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75-84 A. Jasinskas, I. Ulozevičiūtė, E. Šarauskis and A. Sakalauskas
Impact of immature willows stems chopping quality on the harmful emissions evaluation
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Impact of immature willows stems chopping quality on the harmful emissions evaluation

A. Jasinskas, I. Ulozevičiūtė, E. Šarauskis and A. Sakalauskas

Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, KaunasAkademija,
Studentu str. 15A, LT-53361 Kauno r., Lithuania;

Abstract:

The analytical review of the experimental research results of energy plants preparation, burning efficiency and the emissions of harmful substances into the air while burning these plants, is presented in this paper. After the experimental study, immature (1–2 year of growth) willow (Salix viminalis) stems chaff chopping quality were observed. In truth, use of the drum chopping equipment prepared chaff fractional composition, and there were defined and calculated immature willow stems chaff of theoretical length (from 11.8 till 61.3 mm). They were presented and compared with the experimental research results of the low power boiler efficiency and harmful emissions into the air while burning energy plants – immature willow, chopped by the drum chopper of Maral-125 combine. The test was carried out in the laboratory of the low power boiler, which is designed to burn wood, wood briquettes and large wood chaff. After determination of boiler efficiency and harmful substances (CO2, CO, NO, NOx) emissions into the environment while burning different lengths of willow chaff, it was concluded that the boiler developed about 66–86% of nominal boiler power, and pollution emissions concentration into the environment was lower when willow chaff of 49.2 mm length was burned.

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781-795 P. Felix-Henningsen, T. Urushadze, D. Steffens, B. Kalandadze, E. Narimanidze
Uptake of heavy metals by food crops from highly-polluted Chernozem-like soils in an irrigation district south of Tbilisi, eastern Georgia
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Uptake of heavy metals by food crops from highly-polluted Chernozem-like soils in an irrigation district south of Tbilisi, eastern Georgia

P. Felix-Henningsen¹, T. Urushadze², D. Steffens³, B. Kalandadze², E. Narimanidze⁴

¹Institute of Soil Science and Soil Conservation, Justus Liebig University Giessen,
Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, D-35392 Giessen, e-mail: Peter.Felix-H@umwelt.unigiessen.de
²Tbilisi State University, Ilia Chavchavadze Ave.3, 0128, Tbilisi, Georgia, e-mail:
t_urushadze@yahoo.com; kalandabeso@gmx.net
³Institute of Plant Nutrition, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26,
35392 Giessen, Germany, e-mail: Diedrich.Steffens@ernaehrung.uni-giessen.de
⁴Centre for International Development and Environmental Research, Justus Liebig
University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, 35392 Giessen, Germany e-mail:
nareli@gmx.net

Abstract:

In the middle and lower reaches of the Mashavera valley in SE Georgia, most of the
irrigated soils under different agricultural land use display a strong enrichment of heavy metals
(HM) that can be traced back to irrigation with water polluted by mining wastes contributed
over a period of several decades. The concentrations of total amounts of Cu, Zn and Cd increase
with intensity of land use and amount of irrigation in the following sequence: arable fields < occasionally submerged meadows < vegetable gardens < wine gardens and orchards with mixed cropping of vegetables. A high proportion of HM belongs to the supply fraction, which displays the (un-)specifically adsorbed HM, dissolvable in ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA). The narrow correlation of this fraction with the mobile and plant-available fraction of HM indicates a high long-term risk potential for the food chain. Due to the recent high adsorption capacity of the soils for HM, only a small amount of HM in the mobile fraction was found with proportions less than 1 % of the total amounts for Cu and Zn, and a maximum of 1.5 % for Cd. On the other hand, initial investigations of cereals and vegetable species indicate a high uptake of Cu, Zn and Cd, which for Cu and Cd causes concentrations in plants exceeding the tolerance thresholds for plants, animals and human beings. A field experiment established the strong uptake of heavy metals by spinach, which was unexpected due to the weakly alkaline pH as well as the high contents of clay and organic matter of the soils. This result indicates the high risk of soil pollution by heavy metals for the food chain and consumers.

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