Tag Archives: potato

xxx P. Prochazka, A. Murjan, V. Hönig and K. Pernica
Some factors affecting the efficiency of potato production, under Al–Ghab plain conditions, Syrian Arab Republic
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Some factors affecting the efficiency of potato production, under Al–Ghab plain conditions, Syrian Arab Republic

P. Prochazka¹*, A. Murjan¹, V. Hönig² and K. Pernica²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Economics and Management, Department of Economics, Kamýcka 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
²University of Economics, Faculty of Business Administration, Department of Strategy, W. Churchill Sq., CZ130 67 Prague 3, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: pprochazka@pef.czu.cz

Abstract:

Data were collected by a field survey of 300 farmers from Al–Ghab region (Syria) during 2014–2015. The non–parametric Data Envelopment was used in analyzing the Technical efficiency. The relationship between farm size and production efficiency was considered. Technical efficiency amounted about 53% and most of farms are operating at low level of technical efficiency. The relationship between farm size and productivity efficiency is Non–linear, it decreases from small to medium farm size and then increases as the size increase. Large farms have the higher net farm income per thousand square meters and are the most efficient technically followed by small and medium farm size. To disclose that factors causing the technical efficiency, Two–limit Tobit Regression Model was used. The calculated results showed that, Household Size, Occupation, Farm Size, Experience in Farming, Seed Type and Membership are factors that cause the technical inefficiency potato farming at Al–Ghab region. Therefore, the Syrian Planning Board and Decision Makers should take this results into account when they draw their plans to improve farmer’s skills by allocating more investment in farm research and extension programmers.

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877–885 R. Simson,, L. Tartlan, E. Loit and V. Eremeev
The effect of different pre-crops on Rhizoctonia solani complex in potato
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The effect of different pre-crops on Rhizoctonia solani complex in potato

R. Simson¹,*, L. Tartlan², E. Loit³ and V. Eremeev³

¹ Estonian Crop Research Institute, Department of Plant Biotechnology, Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva, Estonia
² Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Department of Plant Sciences, Teaduse 13, EE75501 Saku, Estonia
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Department of Field Crop and Grassland Husbandry, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: reijo.simson@etki.ee

Abstract:

Rhizoctonia disease in potato is widely distributed in Estonia. Field experiments with cv. ‘Red Fantasy’ were undertaken with seven pre-crop treatments at the Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture in 2009 and 2010. Monocropped potato, spring barley, spring barley underseeded with red clover, spring wheat, grain pea, spring oil seed rape and oil seed radish were involved in the study as pre-crops. Growing conditions on both years were rather optimal for potato growth but year 2010 was drier at early bulking stage. The effect of different pre-crops on Rhizoctonia solani complex was studied (i.e. incidence and severity of stem and stolon canker and black scurf) at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 days after planting. Results indicated that pathogenfree
seed tubers are of primary importance in the disease control and no pre-crop was suppressive to disease if seed tubers had sufficient amount of inoculum. However, to achieve consistent reduction in disease development, inoculum-free seed tubers and crop rotation with non-host crops should be considered.

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1486-1493 R. Simson, L. Tartlan, E. Nugis and V. Eremeev
The effect of fertilizer and growing season on tuber dry matter and nitrate content in potato
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The effect of fertilizer and growing season on tuber dry matter and nitrate content in potato

R. Simson¹*, L. Tartlan², E. Nugis¹ and V. Eremeev³

¹Estonian Crop Research Institute, Department of Plant Biotechnology, Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva, Estonia
²Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Department of Plant Sciences, Teaduse 13, 75501 Saku, Estonia
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Department of Field Crop and Grassland Husbandry, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: reijo.simson@etki.ee

Abstract:

Field trials with two potato varieties were undertaken at the Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture in 2005 and 2006. Year 2005 was generally optimal for potato growth but year 2006 was dry and very warm, hence, it was adverse for growth. The effect of fertilizing on two main traits of potato, i. e. tuber dry matter (DM) and nitrate content was examined. Five rates of compound fertilizer were applied, N50P20K85, N70P28K119, N90P36K153, N110P44K187 and N130P52K221. Results indicated that DM content was largely determined by variety but it also depended on fertilizer amounts and particular environmental conditions of a year. Nitrate content of tubers was quite clearly dependent upon variety, but growing season had significant effect on final nitrate content in tubers. Water stress during early and main bulking periods resulted in high tuber nitrate levels. In order to gain tuber yield fit for intended use, it is necessary to manage nutrient acquisition based on expected yield and nutrient supply from soils.

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294-302 V. Dubrovskis and I. Plume
Anaerobic digestion of vegetables processing wastes with catalyst metaferm
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Anaerobic digestion of vegetables processing wastes with catalyst metaferm

V. Dubrovskis* and I. Plume

Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Engineering, Institute of Agriculture Energetics, 5, Cakstesblvd, LV3001 Jelgava, Latvia *Correspondence: vilisd@inbox.lv

Abstract:

There are 54 active biogas plants in Latvia today. It is necessary to investigate the suitability of various biomasses for energy production. Maize is the dominating crop for biogas production in Latvia. The cultivation of more varied crops with good economical characteristics and a low environmental impact is thus desirable. One of the ways for improving biogas yield in Latvian conditions is using biological catalysts. This paper explores the results of the anaerobic digestion of vegetables’ processing wastes using the new biological catalyst Metaferm. The digestion process was investigated in view of biogas production in sixteen 0.7 l digesters operated in batch mode at the temperature of 38 ± 1.0 °C. The average methane yield per unit of dry organic matter added (DOM) from the digestion of onions was 0.433 l g–1DOM; with 1 ml ofMetaferm: 0.396 l g–1–1DOM, and with 2 ml of Metaferm: 0.394 l gDOM . The average methane yieldfrom the digestion of carrots was 0.325 l g–1–1DOM; with 1 ml of Metaferm: 0.498 l gDOM , and with2 ml of Metaferm: 0.426 l g–1DOM. The average additional methane yield per unit of dry organicmatter from the digestion of 50%:50% mixed onions and carrots was 0.382 l g–1DOMwith 2 mlof Metaferm. The average additional methane yield per unit of dry organic matter from the digestion of cabbage leftovers was 0.325 l g–1–1DOM; with 1 ml of Metaferm: 0.375 l gDOM , andwith 2 ml of Metaferm: 0.415 l g–1DOM. The average additional methane yield per unit of dryorganic matter from the digestion of potato cuttings was 0.570 l g–1DOM; with 1 ml ofMetaferm: 0.551 l g–1–1DOM, and with 2 ml of Metaferm:0.667 l gDOM . The average additionalmethane yield per unit of dry organic matter from the digestion of 50%:50% mixed cabbages and potatoes was 0.613 l g–1DOMwith 2 ml of Metaferm. All investigated vegetable wastes canbe successfully cultivated for energy production under agro-ecological conditions in Latvia. Adding the catalyst Metaferm increased methane yield, except for onions.

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695-704 M. Ahokas,, A.-L. Välimaa, T. Lötjönen, A. Kankaala, S. Taskilaand E. Virtanen
Resource assessment for potato biorefinery: Side stream potential in Northern Ostrobothnia
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Resource assessment for potato biorefinery: Side stream potential in Northern Ostrobothnia

M. Ahokas¹,³⋅*, A.-L. Välimaa¹, T. Lötjönen², A. Kankaala¹, S. Taskila³and E. Virtanen¹

¹MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Biotechnology and Food Research, P.O. Box 413, FI90014 University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland 2MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Plant Production Research, Tutkimusasemantie 15, FI92440 Ruukki, Finland 3University of Oulu, Chemical Process Engineering, P.O. Box 4300, FI90014 University of Oulu, Finland; *Correspondence: mikko.ahokas@oulu.fi

Abstract:

Potato industry side-streams consist of a significant amount of the original biomass. However, tightened demands of EU legislation together with the costs of side stream processing have forced potato industry towards more efficient use of the raw material. For this purpose, we have examined the possibility to recover main fractions from potato side streams, such as proteins, fibers and starch, and utilize them in a manner of biorefinery concept. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the potential for a potato biorefinery based on biomasses available at area of Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland. Study shows, that there is enough side-streams available to build a concept, which produces more value added products, like fibers and proteins. In this report, the main conclusions of the research are presented together with state-of-art on potato waste water processing technologies and current applications of their products.

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705-710 I. Skrabule, D. Grauda, A. Mikelsone and A. Vasariete
Adaptation of glycoalkaloids detection method for evaluation of Latvian potato genetic resources
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Adaptation of glycoalkaloids detection method for evaluation of Latvian potato genetic resources

I. Skrabule¹, D. Grauda², A. Mikelsone² and A. Vasariete²

¹State Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute, Zinatnes 1A, Priekuli, LV-4126, Latvia; e-mail: skrabuleilze@navigator.lv
²Institute of Biology, University of Latvia, Miera 3, Salaspils, LV-2169, Latvia; e-mail: dace@email.lubi.edu.lv

Abstract:

The glycoalkaloid content in potato tubers can be influenced by several factors: variety, weather, storage environment, maturity, damage, temperature and exposure to light. Potato varieties vary with regard to their inherited total glycoalkaloid (TGA) content. The problem in the practical use of most TGA detection methods is that they are money and time consuming. The aims of the investigation were adaptation of a rapid and rather cheap method and evaluation of TGA content of varieties included in Latvia potato genetic resources. The used method was based on three earlier elaborated protocols of different authors. 31 varieties of Latvian potato genetic resources were examined for TGA content for two years, 10 of them for three years. TGA content depending on the variety ranged from 2 till 27 mg 100 g-1 fresh weight, the variance between genotypes was high. Th e significant genotype influence on TGA content was established. The influence of growing conditions on TGA content was not significant.

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361-366 E. Nugis, T. Võsa, K.Vennik, H. Meripõld, J. Kuht, M. Müüripeal
Results of observations of damages to field and landscape
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Results of observations of damages to field and landscape

E. Nugis¹, T. Võsa¹, K.Vennik², H. Meripõld¹, J. Kuht³, M. Müüripeal¹

¹Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, Saku 75501, Estonia; e-mail:edvin.nugis@eria.ee, taavi.vosa@eria.ee.
²Tartu University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Vanemuise 46, Tartu 50090; e-mail: kersti.vennik@ksk.edu.ee
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, Tartu 51014; e-mail:jaan.kuht@emu.ee

Abstract:

It is a fact that crop growth conditions vary greatly within the same field. Provisionally actual growth conditions are made up of many components, i.e. variation of natural conditions (climate & soil), results of effects of machinery on soil (soil compaction) and unfavourable conditions for plant growing. In Estonia rather widely used ATV’s are causing remarkable damage to landscapes.All collected data were geo-referenced by means of a GPS-receiver and post-processed forposition correction. For All Terrain Vehicle (ATV) damage assessment the trajectory was recorded. Both the area and forms of damages were assessed for damaged sites, (e.g.) damage to potato by Colorado beetles. The collected data were compared to the digital soil map.Economic loss on the average, due to unfavourable conditions for plant growth, in thecase of winter rye "Portal" was 131 euros per ha, for medicago 18.5 euros per ha, for spring barley "Anni" 1000 euros per ha and for potato “Ando” 27.1 euros per ha.

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427-432 T. Saue, P. Viil, J. Kadaja
Do different tillage and fertilization methods influence weather risks on potato yield?
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Do different tillage and fertilization methods influence weather risks on potato yield?

T. Saue, P. Viil, J. Kadaja

Estonian Research institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, Saku, Harjumaa, Estonia;e-mail: triin.saue@eria.ee, peeter.viil@eria.ee, jyri.kadaja@eria.ee

Abstract:

The influence of weather variability on potato yield was assessed with an aim to address different soil tillage and fertilization regimes by their weather sensibility. The strong effect of an experimental year on potato yields was proved for the experimental period; the effect of fertilization proved significant only between the highest and the lowest fertilization rates; the effect of tillage tested insignificant. If synthesized statistically over the population (over an untested period of time), significant interactions occur between years and tillage/fertilization treatments, verifying that the effect of both tillage and fertilization is dependent on year-to-year weather differences. Yields of all examined variants were found to be significantly correlated to spring weather – positively to temperatures and negatively to precipitation. Negative correlation exists between yields and temperatures summed from emergence to flowering, positive between yields and precipitation from flowering to harvest.

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59-72 A. Razukas, Z. Jankauskiene, J. Jundulas and R. Asakaviciute
Research of technical crops (potato and flax) genetic resources in Lithuania
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Research of technical crops (potato and flax) genetic resources in Lithuania

A. Razukas¹, Z. Jankauskiene, J. Jundulas¹ and R. Asakaviciute¹*

¹ Voke Branch of Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Zalioji a. 2, Vilnius, Lithuania.
² Upyte Research Station of Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Linininku 3, Upyte, Panevezys distr., Lithuania.
* Corresponding author; e-mail: rita.asakaviciute@voke.lzi.lt

Abstract:

The research of potato accessions preserved in Lithuanian potato gene bank genetic diversity research was carried out at the Voke branch of Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in years 1990–2006. Research was provided with potato collection covering 200 varieties and hybrids from the main potato origin and growing regions and selection material bred in Lithuania. Potato varieties varied in accordance of morphologic, physiologic, immunologic and farming features in the different maturity groups and between groups. Using transgenic hybridization method and working with genetic material of local potato collection were selected potato varieties of Lithuanian origin. The key objective was to select the varieties immune to wart disease, cyst nematodes, with high resistance to other diseases, with excellent agronomic and cooking qualities, suitable for the processing industry. Over 1966–2006 years the collection of more than 350 flax breeding lines and varieties from different countries were investigated at the Upyte Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture. Therefore it is desirable for the new flax varieties to be highly adaptable, stabile yielding and high fiber quality under different growing conditions. The collection serves as a base while selecting flax varieties for hybridization. There have been chosen the varieties and breeding lines having the complex of qualities and positive characters. The varieties and breeding lines with positive characters were involved into the program of fiber flax breeding.

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273-280 H. Lõiveke
Incidence of Fusarium spp. on several field crops in Estonia and their toxicity towards Bacillus stearothermophilus
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Incidence of Fusarium spp. on several field crops in Estonia and their toxicity towards Bacillus stearothermophilus

H. Lõiveke

Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, EE75501 Saku, Harjumaa, Estonia;e-mail: heino.loiveke@eria.ee

Abstract:

The article provides an overview of the occurrence of Fusarium spp. on grain produced in Estonia from 1973–2004, the occurrence of Fusarium spp. in the common root rot complex of cereals in 1977–1985 and potato tubers with dry rot symptoms in the yield of 1996–2000. The dominating species on grain were (contaminated samples, %) F. avenaceum (Fr.) Sacc. – 28.0–30.3; F. poae (Pk.) Wr. – 7.4–9.5 F. semitectum Berk. et Rav. – 7.0–9.0; F. oxysporum (Schlecht) Snyd. et Hans. – 7.4-8.0; accompanied by F. ventricosum App. et Wr., F. sporotrichioides Sherb. var. minus Wr., F. verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg, F. culmorum (W. G. Sm.) Sacc. and F. sambucinum Fuck. In the common root rot complex of barley, F. culmorum – 16.8; F. sambucinum – 2.5; F. avenaceum – 2.2; F. oxysporum – 1.7; and F. poae – 1.3 (contaminated samples, %) dominated. In potato with dry rot, F. culmorum – 26.7; F. solani (Mart.) Sacc. – 20.0; F. poae – 15.0; F. oxysporum – 13.3 and F. sulphureum Schlecht – 8.3 (contaminated tubers, %) dominated. The occurrence of toxic isolates both on grain and potato was established. Of Fusarium isolates recovered from grain (total 287) 5.6% were highly toxic, and 88.1% mildly or medium toxic to Bacillus stearothermophilus. Of 15 isolates found on potato, 1 was highly toxic and 9 were mildly to medium toxic. Fusarium spp. has been presented according to Gerlach & Nirenberg (1982).

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