Tag Archives: potato

xxx V. Bulgakov, S. Nikolaenko, M. Arak, I. Holovach, Z. Ruzhуlo and J. Olt
Mathematical model of cleaning potatoes on surface of spiral separator
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Mathematical model of cleaning potatoes on surface of spiral separator

V. Bulgakov¹, S. Nikolaenko¹, M. Arak², I. Holovach¹, Z. Ruzhуlo¹ and J. Olt²*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Heroyiv Oborony street 15, UA03041Kyiv, Ukraine
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

Cleaning potato tubers from soil impurities and plant debris after digging them out of soil is a topical problem in the work process of potato production. Therefore, the engineering of new designs of potato heap separators necessitates the further studying of them and the optimisation of their kinematic and design parameters, which must not only ensure the high quality of cleaning, but also rule out the possibility of damaging the tubers. The aim of this study is to determine the design and kinematic parameters of the improved design of the spiral potato separator, which will ensure the high quality of cleaning and rule out the possibility of damaging the tubers, on the basis of the development of the new theory of potato tuber’s motion on the surface of the separator. An analytical study has been carried out resulting in the construction of the equivalent schematic model of the interaction between the potato tuber and separator, the tuber being approximated by a material point on the surface formed by the two cantilevered spirals, which are the separator’s tools. The separator’s spirals are driven to rotate and at the same time they can perform oscillations in the vertical and axial plane under the action of the varying load generated by the continuous feeding of the potato heap for separation. In the model, the forces acting on the potato tuber’s body are applied to it, the coordinate axes that have been selected and appropriately oriented are shown. A system of equations has been set up for the constructed equivalent schematic model, comprising three differential equations of the potato tuber body’s motion on the surface of the trough formed by the two cantilevered spirals. The determined kinematic and design parameters will allow to raise the quality of cleaning potato tubers from soil impurities and plant debris.

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52-63 V. Bulgakov, S. Nikolaenko, V. Adamchuk, Z. Ruzhуlo and J. Olt
Theory of impact interaction between potato bodies and rebounding conveyor
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Theory of impact interaction between potato bodies and rebounding conveyor

V. Bulgakov¹, S. Nikolaenko¹, V. Adamchuk², Z. Ruzhуlo¹ and J. Olt³*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15, Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²National Scientific Centre, Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification, 11, Vokzalna Str., Glevaкha-1, Vasylkiv District, UA08631 Kiev Region, Ukraine
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

In order to increase substantially the quality of the potato heap separation, it is necessary to carry out the theoretical substantiation of the spiral separator’s parameters with regard to the impact interaction between the product and the tools of the unit under the condition of not damaging the tubers. An equivalent schematic model of the impact interaction between a potato tuber and the surface of the rebounding conveyor has been devised. Taking into account the coefficient of restitution of the tuber’s velocity in case of an impact, new analytical expressions have been obtained for determining the magnitude and direction of the potato tuber’s velocity after the impact. They provided the basis for applying the principle of momentum at impact and obtaining the analytical expressions that allow determining the impact impulse and impact force at the impact of the tuber on the surface of the rebounding conveyor and, eventually, the dynamic constraints on the permitted velocity of the tuber prior to the impact interaction under the condition of not damaging it. A new analytical mathematical model of the impact interaction of the potato tuber during the potato heap separation has been developed. On the basis of the obtained theoretical results, studies have been carried out on the rational kinematical parameters of the high-quality performance of the above-mentioned work process under the condition of keeping the potato tubers undamaged.

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41-51 V. Bulgakov, S. Nikolaenko, V. Adamchuk, Z. Ruzhуlo and J. Olt
Theory of retaining potato bodies during operation of spiral separator
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Theory of retaining potato bodies during operation of spiral separator

V. Bulgakov¹, S. Nikolaenko¹, V. Adamchuk², Z. Ruzhуlo¹ and J. Olt³*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15, Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA03041Kyiv, Ukraine
²National Scientific Centre, Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification, 11, Vokzalna Str., Glevaкha-1, Vasylkiv District, UA08631 Kiev Region, Ukraine
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

The increase of the efficiency and quality of performance of the work process of potato heap separation can be achieved by means of improving the design of the vibrational spiral separator and substantiating theoretically its rational parameters under the condition of eliminating damage to the potato tubers. An equivalent schematic model of the interaction between the potato tuber and the surface of the cantilever spiral springs has been devised. On the basis of the model, the kinematic characteristics of the tuber’s flight and its impact contact with the elastic surface of the over mounted rebounding conveyor have been investigated. A new analytical mathematical model of the potato tuber’s flight from the surface of the spiral separator and its subsequent encounter with the rebounding conveyor mounted above the spiral springs has been developed. New analytical dependences have been obtained for finding out the distance and height of the potato tuber’s flight to the point of impact contact as well as the trajectory equation for the travel to the said contact, which makes it possible to obtain the kinematic constraints imposed on the allowed rate of travel under the condition of not damaging the tuber. On the basis of the obtained analytical dependences, the kinematic parameters of the improved design of the spiral potato harvester separator in its interaction with a potato tuber under the condition of not damaging the latter have been investigated.

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1743–1755 P. Prochazka, A. Murjan, V. Hönig and K. Pernica
Some factors affecting the efficiency of potato production, under Al–Ghab plain conditions, Syrian Arab Republic
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Some factors affecting the efficiency of potato production, under Al–Ghab plain conditions, Syrian Arab Republic

P. Prochazka¹*, A. Murjan¹, V. Hönig² and K. Pernica²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Economics and Management, Department of Economics, Kamýcka 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
²University of Economics, Faculty of Business Administration, Department of Strategy, W. Churchill Sq., CZ130 67 Prague 3, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: pprochazka@pef.czu.cz

Abstract:

Data were collected by a field survey of 300 farmers from Al–Ghab region (Syria) during 2014–2015. The non–parametric Data Envelopment was used in analyzing the Technical efficiency. The relationship between farm size and production efficiency was considered. Technical efficiency amounted about 53% and most of farms are operating at low level of technical efficiency. The relationship between farm size and productivity efficiency is Non–linear, it decreases from small to medium farm size and then increases as the size increase. Large farms have the higher net farm income per thousand square meters and are the most efficient technically followed by small and medium farm size. To disclose that factors causing the technical efficiency, Two–limit Tobit Regression Model was used. The calculated results showed that, Household Size, Occupation, Farm Size, Experience in Farming, Seed Type and Membership are factors that cause the technical inefficiency potato farming at Al–Ghab region. Therefore, the Syrian Planning Board and Decision Makers should take this results into account when they draw their plans to improve farmer’s skills by allocating more investment in farm research and extension programmers.

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877–885 R. Simson,, L. Tartlan, E. Loit and V. Eremeev
The effect of different pre-crops on Rhizoctonia solani complex in potato
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The effect of different pre-crops on Rhizoctonia solani complex in potato

R. Simson¹,*, L. Tartlan², E. Loit³ and V. Eremeev³

¹ Estonian Crop Research Institute, Department of Plant Biotechnology, Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva, Estonia
² Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Department of Plant Sciences, Teaduse 13, EE75501 Saku, Estonia
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Department of Field Crop and Grassland Husbandry, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: reijo.simson@etki.ee

Abstract:

Rhizoctonia disease in potato is widely distributed in Estonia. Field experiments with cv. ‘Red Fantasy’ were undertaken with seven pre-crop treatments at the Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture in 2009 and 2010. Monocropped potato, spring barley, spring barley underseeded with red clover, spring wheat, grain pea, spring oil seed rape and oil seed radish were involved in the study as pre-crops. Growing conditions on both years were rather optimal for potato growth but year 2010 was drier at early bulking stage. The effect of different pre-crops on Rhizoctonia solani complex was studied (i.e. incidence and severity of stem and stolon canker and black scurf) at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 days after planting. Results indicated that pathogenfree
seed tubers are of primary importance in the disease control and no pre-crop was suppressive to disease if seed tubers had sufficient amount of inoculum. However, to achieve consistent reduction in disease development, inoculum-free seed tubers and crop rotation with non-host crops should be considered.

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1486-1493 R. Simson, L. Tartlan, E. Nugis and V. Eremeev
The effect of fertilizer and growing season on tuber dry matter and nitrate content in potato
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The effect of fertilizer and growing season on tuber dry matter and nitrate content in potato

R. Simson¹*, L. Tartlan², E. Nugis¹ and V. Eremeev³

¹Estonian Crop Research Institute, Department of Plant Biotechnology, Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva, Estonia
²Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Department of Plant Sciences, Teaduse 13, 75501 Saku, Estonia
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Department of Field Crop and Grassland Husbandry, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: reijo.simson@etki.ee

Abstract:

Field trials with two potato varieties were undertaken at the Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture in 2005 and 2006. Year 2005 was generally optimal for potato growth but year 2006 was dry and very warm, hence, it was adverse for growth. The effect of fertilizing on two main traits of potato, i. e. tuber dry matter (DM) and nitrate content was examined. Five rates of compound fertilizer were applied, N50P20K85, N70P28K119, N90P36K153, N110P44K187 and N130P52K221. Results indicated that DM content was largely determined by variety but it also depended on fertilizer amounts and particular environmental conditions of a year. Nitrate content of tubers was quite clearly dependent upon variety, but growing season had significant effect on final nitrate content in tubers. Water stress during early and main bulking periods resulted in high tuber nitrate levels. In order to gain tuber yield fit for intended use, it is necessary to manage nutrient acquisition based on expected yield and nutrient supply from soils.

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294-302 V. Dubrovskis and I. Plume
Anaerobic digestion of vegetables processing wastes with catalyst metaferm
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Anaerobic digestion of vegetables processing wastes with catalyst metaferm

V. Dubrovskis* and I. Plume

Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Engineering, Institute of Agriculture Energetics, 5, Cakstesblvd, LV3001 Jelgava, Latvia *Correspondence: vilisd@inbox.lv

Abstract:

There are 54 active biogas plants in Latvia today. It is necessary to investigate the suitability of various biomasses for energy production. Maize is the dominating crop for biogas production in Latvia. The cultivation of more varied crops with good economical characteristics and a low environmental impact is thus desirable. One of the ways for improving biogas yield in Latvian conditions is using biological catalysts. This paper explores the results of the anaerobic digestion of vegetables’ processing wastes using the new biological catalyst Metaferm. The digestion process was investigated in view of biogas production in sixteen 0.7 l digesters operated in batch mode at the temperature of 38 ± 1.0 °C. The average methane yield per unit of dry organic matter added (DOM) from the digestion of onions was 0.433 l g–1DOM; with 1 ml ofMetaferm: 0.396 l g–1–1DOM, and with 2 ml of Metaferm: 0.394 l gDOM . The average methane yieldfrom the digestion of carrots was 0.325 l g–1–1DOM; with 1 ml of Metaferm: 0.498 l gDOM , and with2 ml of Metaferm: 0.426 l g–1DOM. The average additional methane yield per unit of dry organicmatter from the digestion of 50%:50% mixed onions and carrots was 0.382 l g–1DOMwith 2 mlof Metaferm. The average additional methane yield per unit of dry organic matter from the digestion of cabbage leftovers was 0.325 l g–1–1DOM; with 1 ml of Metaferm: 0.375 l gDOM , andwith 2 ml of Metaferm: 0.415 l g–1DOM. The average additional methane yield per unit of dryorganic matter from the digestion of potato cuttings was 0.570 l g–1DOM; with 1 ml ofMetaferm: 0.551 l g–1–1DOM, and with 2 ml of Metaferm:0.667 l gDOM . The average additionalmethane yield per unit of dry organic matter from the digestion of 50%:50% mixed cabbages and potatoes was 0.613 l g–1DOMwith 2 ml of Metaferm. All investigated vegetable wastes canbe successfully cultivated for energy production under agro-ecological conditions in Latvia. Adding the catalyst Metaferm increased methane yield, except for onions.

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695-704 M. Ahokas,, A.-L. Välimaa, T. Lötjönen, A. Kankaala, S. Taskilaand E. Virtanen
Resource assessment for potato biorefinery: Side stream potential in Northern Ostrobothnia
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Resource assessment for potato biorefinery: Side stream potential in Northern Ostrobothnia

M. Ahokas¹,³⋅*, A.-L. Välimaa¹, T. Lötjönen², A. Kankaala¹, S. Taskila³and E. Virtanen¹

¹MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Biotechnology and Food Research, P.O. Box 413, FI90014 University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland 2MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Plant Production Research, Tutkimusasemantie 15, FI92440 Ruukki, Finland 3University of Oulu, Chemical Process Engineering, P.O. Box 4300, FI90014 University of Oulu, Finland; *Correspondence: mikko.ahokas@oulu.fi

Abstract:

Potato industry side-streams consist of a significant amount of the original biomass. However, tightened demands of EU legislation together with the costs of side stream processing have forced potato industry towards more efficient use of the raw material. For this purpose, we have examined the possibility to recover main fractions from potato side streams, such as proteins, fibers and starch, and utilize them in a manner of biorefinery concept. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the potential for a potato biorefinery based on biomasses available at area of Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland. Study shows, that there is enough side-streams available to build a concept, which produces more value added products, like fibers and proteins. In this report, the main conclusions of the research are presented together with state-of-art on potato waste water processing technologies and current applications of their products.

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705-710 I. Skrabule, D. Grauda, A. Mikelsone and A. Vasariete
Adaptation of glycoalkaloids detection method for evaluation of Latvian potato genetic resources
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Adaptation of glycoalkaloids detection method for evaluation of Latvian potato genetic resources

I. Skrabule¹, D. Grauda², A. Mikelsone² and A. Vasariete²

¹State Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute, Zinatnes 1A, Priekuli, LV-4126, Latvia; e-mail: skrabuleilze@navigator.lv
²Institute of Biology, University of Latvia, Miera 3, Salaspils, LV-2169, Latvia; e-mail: dace@email.lubi.edu.lv

Abstract:

The glycoalkaloid content in potato tubers can be influenced by several factors: variety, weather, storage environment, maturity, damage, temperature and exposure to light. Potato varieties vary with regard to their inherited total glycoalkaloid (TGA) content. The problem in the practical use of most TGA detection methods is that they are money and time consuming. The aims of the investigation were adaptation of a rapid and rather cheap method and evaluation of TGA content of varieties included in Latvia potato genetic resources. The used method was based on three earlier elaborated protocols of different authors. 31 varieties of Latvian potato genetic resources were examined for TGA content for two years, 10 of them for three years. TGA content depending on the variety ranged from 2 till 27 mg 100 g-1 fresh weight, the variance between genotypes was high. Th e significant genotype influence on TGA content was established. The influence of growing conditions on TGA content was not significant.

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361-366 E. Nugis, T. Võsa, K.Vennik, H. Meripõld, J. Kuht, M. Müüripeal
Results of observations of damages to field and landscape
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Results of observations of damages to field and landscape

E. Nugis¹, T. Võsa¹, K.Vennik², H. Meripõld¹, J. Kuht³, M. Müüripeal¹

¹Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, Saku 75501, Estonia; e-mail:edvin.nugis@eria.ee, taavi.vosa@eria.ee.
²Tartu University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Vanemuise 46, Tartu 50090; e-mail: kersti.vennik@ksk.edu.ee
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, Tartu 51014; e-mail:jaan.kuht@emu.ee

Abstract:

It is a fact that crop growth conditions vary greatly within the same field. Provisionally actual growth conditions are made up of many components, i.e. variation of natural conditions (climate & soil), results of effects of machinery on soil (soil compaction) and unfavourable conditions for plant growing. In Estonia rather widely used ATV’s are causing remarkable damage to landscapes.All collected data were geo-referenced by means of a GPS-receiver and post-processed forposition correction. For All Terrain Vehicle (ATV) damage assessment the trajectory was recorded. Both the area and forms of damages were assessed for damaged sites, (e.g.) damage to potato by Colorado beetles. The collected data were compared to the digital soil map.Economic loss on the average, due to unfavourable conditions for plant growth, in thecase of winter rye "Portal" was 131 euros per ha, for medicago 18.5 euros per ha, for spring barley "Anni" 1000 euros per ha and for potato “Ando” 27.1 euros per ha.

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