Tag Archives: precipitation

553-562 A. Ingver, I. Tamm, Ü. Tamm, T. Kangor and R. Koppel
The characteristics of spring cereals in changing weather in Estonia
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The characteristics of spring cereals in changing weather in Estonia

A. Ingver, I. Tamm, Ü. Tamm, T. Kangor and R. Koppel

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 48 309 Jõgeva, Estonia;e-mail: Anne.Ingver@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

The objective of this investigation was finding out the impact of weather on yield, length of growing period, plant height, lodging resistance and protein content of spring cereals over 19 years (1991–2009). Two varieties per each crop were selected for testing. Historical weather and crop yield data from the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute were analyzed by the linear correlation analysis. To estimate the variation of grain yield, the minimum and maximum values, averages and coefficients of variation were calculated.It can be stated that the both stress conditions – drought and excess precipitation causeddecrease of yield and quality of all the crops. The highest yields developed in 180–250 mm precipitation range from sowing to maturity. Oat requires more moisture than wheat and barley. Significant positive correlation between the amount of precipitation and oat yield was found when three years of severe lodging were eliminated. Positive correlation between yield and plant height was found. In the years of severe lodging there was remarkable yield decrease of oat. Yield of oat and barley had negative correlation with sunshine hours in June. The same correlation for wheat was not significant. Extra-low protein content for all the cereals, especially for wheat, formed in a cool year with the lowest sum of sunshine hours during the whole growing period (2009). For oat and barley positive correlation between sunshine hours in June and protein content was found. For formation of higher protein content, warm and dry weather conditions are required. Protein content was inversely associated with yield.

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749-759 S. Zute, Z. Vīcupe and M. Gruntiņa
Factors influencing oat grain yield and quality under growing conditions of West Latvia
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Factors influencing oat grain yield and quality under growing conditions of West Latvia

S. Zute, Z. Vīcupe and M. Gruntiņa

State Stende Cereals Breeding Institute, Dižstende, Talsi region, Latvia, LV-3258;e-mail: sanita.zute@stendeselekcija.lv

Abstract:

Ecological comparison of oat varieties are set up every year at the State Stende Cereals Breeding Institute, but five out of the test varieties were estimated in a longer period of time – from 1993 till 2009. For these varieties, productivity and quality indices were measured: grain yield, volume weight, 1000 grain weight, husk content, crude protein content. Meteorological conditions were characterized by two basic indices – the mean temperature and amount of precipitation in the vegetation period. Observations show that in the reporting period precipitation of the vegetation period (coefficient of variation for index variability between years was from 43.1% in June up to 55.3% in April) and mean temperature in April (coefficient of variation was 26.4%) varied most significantly. The average productivity of trial oats varied from 3.56 to 6.62 t ha-1. The most stable yields of grain in the reporting period were provided by the oat varieties Stmara and Laima (the average yields respectively 5.35 ± 0.89 and 5.83 ± 1.07 t ha-1, coefficient of variation respectively 14.9 and 17.0%). Significant, close to medium correlation was established between oat grain volume weight and mean daily temperature in May, July and August (respectively r = –0.468, 0.464 and 0.549 > r0.005 = 0.460). Relationships analyzed between oat grain yield, its quality characterizing indices and parameters characterizing meteorological conditions showed that grain yield and quality of oats in the Northwest region of Latvia were influenced mainly by rainfall in particular months of the vegetation period.

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229–243 G. Sidlauskas and S. Bernotas
Some factors affecting seed yield of spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)
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Some factors affecting seed yield of spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

G. Sidlauskas¹ and S. Bernotas²

¹Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Akademija 5051, Dotnuva parish, Kedainiai distr., Lithuania, e-mail: gvidas@lzi.lt
²Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture Vezaiciai branch, Vezaiciai, LT-5845 Klaipeda distr., Lithuania, e-mail: filialas@vezaiciai.lzi.lt

Abstract:

The effect of nitrogen rates, time of nitrogen application, concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in aboveground plant dry matter, stand population density, mean daily temperature, precipitation rate, growing degree days accumulated by plants at different growing stages and the duration of vegetative growth period on seed yield of Star, a cultivar of Brassica napus L., were studied in the field experiment. The seed yield was significantly affected by nitrogen rates of up to 120  kg ha-1. Further increase in nitrogen fertilisation had only a little effect on the seed yield of spring oilseed rape. There was a possibility to prolong the nitrogen application time until the start of flowering. However, in poorest soils, especially under unfavourable growing and development conditions, late nitrogen application could be much less effective. Nitrogen concentration in plant dry matter at 4–5 leaf stage, at the start and end of flowering and at the seed development stage had a significant effect on seed yield of spring oilseed rape. Phosphorus concentration was not important in the second part of vegetative growth. Potassium concentration, on the contrary, in the first part. With an increase of stand population density to up to 170 plant m-2 seed yield of spring oilseed rape was increasing. The increase in the duration of vegetative growth period and precipitation rate resulted in a higher seed yield. Meanwhile, the increase of mean daily temperatures and growing degree days had a negative effect on seed yield of spring oilseed rape. Presented regression equations could be used for a model for prognosis of seed yield of spring oilseed rape, based on agronomic and climatic factors.

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