Tag Archives: productivity

556-563 K.P. Oliveira, C.F.S. Ferreira, I.F.F. Tinoco, R.R. Andrade, M. Barbari, V.M.F. Cruz, F.J.F. Baptista, M.F.A. Vieira, L. Conti and G. Rossi
Productive performance of broilers at the final stage of breeding submitted to different levels of metabolizable energy in different thermal environments
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Productive performance of broilers at the final stage of breeding submitted to different levels of metabolizable energy in different thermal environments

K.P. Oliveira¹, C.F.S. Ferreira¹, I.F.F. Tinoco¹, R.R. Andrade¹, M. Barbari²*, V.M.F. Cruz³, F.J.F. Baptista³, M.F.A. Vieira⁴, L. Conti² and G. Rossi²

¹University of Viçosa, Department of Agricultural Engineering of Federal, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n Campus University of Viçosa, CEP: BR36570-900, Viçosa, Brazil
²University of Firenze, Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Systems, Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
³University of Évora, Department of Rural Engineering, Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrânicas, Núcleo da Mitra, Évora, Portugal
⁴Federal Rural University of Amazonia – UFRAPA-256, s/n – Nova Conquista, Paragominas – PA, 68627-451
*Correspondence: matteo.barbari@unifi.it; kelle.oliveira@ufv.br

Abstract:

The Brazilian poultry industry is an activity in constant development due to the high indices of productive efficiency. The accelerated evolution of poultry production has allowed to obtain early and very efficient broilers able to convert different foods into animal protein. However, due to this intensive breeding system, a series of metabolic and management problems appeared, with emphasis on thermal stress. The objective of this work was to evaluate the physiological responses of broiler chickens in the final stage of breeding (21 to 42 days of life), submitted to two thermal conditions, one representative of the thermoneutrality situation (T1) and one giving a situation of cyclic stress by heat (T2). For each experimental thermal condition, the birds were submitted to different levels of metabolizable energy of 3,050, 3,125, 3,200, 3,275 kcal kg-1. At 28, 35 and 42 days, the birds and the feed leftovers were weighed to measure the performance variables: CR (feed intake), GP (weight gain) and CA (feed conversion), viability of the rearing (Vb), productive efficiency index (PEI).
As conclusions, the GP was 13.6% higher for the birds maintained at the thermoneutrality situation T1. The PEI was 32.5% higher for the birds maintained in T1 condition, when compared to those kept in T2. However, both in thermoneutral and in heat stress conditions, the increase in the level of metabolizable energy in the diet did not influence the performance and the productive efficiency index of broiler chickens aged between 21 and 42 days of age.

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64-82 G. Cekstere, A. Osvalde, V. Nollendorfs, A. Karlsons, J. Pormale, P. Zalitis, G. Snepsts, S. Minova, L. Jankevica and M. Laivins
Effects of fertilization on Picea abies stands situated on drained peat soils
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Effects of fertilization on Picea abies stands situated on drained peat soils

G. Cekstere¹*, A. Osvalde¹, V. Nollendorfs¹, A. Karlsons¹, J. Pormale¹, P. Zalitis², G. Snepsts², S. Minova³, L. Jankevica³ and M. Laivins²

¹University of Latvia, Institute of Biology, Laboratory of Plant Mineral Nutrition, Miera street 3, LV-2169, Salaspils, Latvia
²Latvian State Forest Research Institute ‘Silava’, Riga street 111, LV-2169, Salaspils, Latvia
³University of Latvia, Institute of Biology, Laboratory of Experimental Entomology and Microbiology, Miera street 3, LV-2169, Salaspils, Latvia
*Correspondence: gunta.cekstere@lu.lv

Abstract:

Norway spruce used for afforestation of drained peat soils frequently has low productivity and decay in a long-term, which could be related to soil chemical composition and nutrient status. The research aim was to elucidate the effect of PSM on new Norway spruce plantings (1st experiment) and 20-year-old spruce stands (2nd experiment) on drained peat soils by evaluating: (1) nutrient accumulation in soil-plant system, (2) soil microbiological activity, (3) health status of spruce individuals, (4) growth intensity and productivity of spruce, (5) changes in composition of vascular plant and moss species. The study was conducted at two forest (Myrtillosa turf.mel.) sites in Latvia, each consisting of two plots: control and treated with PMS (100 g m-2 in September 2007, 50 g m-2 in April 2008). During 2008–2016, regular analysis of soil, spruce needles, soil microbiology, assessment of tree crown vitality, stand productivity, inventory of vascular plant and moss species were done. The results showed that the fertilization with PMS resulted in a significantly improved K, Ca, Zn, and N status of trees, crown vitality and up to three times increased tree growth parameters at both experiments during the study period. The average count of bacteria and fungi in soil of fertilized plots, accompanied by a remarkable variability in the study years, was significantly higher only for the 1st experiment. Fungi: bacteria ratio for the fertilized and control plots differed significantly only for the 1st experiment. Significant increase of cover with nitrophilic plant (Urtica dioica, Antriscus sylvestris, Rubus idaeus) and moss (Plagiomnium cuspidatum, P. ellipticum) species at both fertilized sites were stated.

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2026–2038 B. Osmane, I.H. Konosonoka, A. Trupa and L. Proskina
Peas and beans as a protein feed for dairy cows
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Peas and beans as a protein feed for dairy cows

B. Osmane*, I.H. Konosonoka, A. Trupa and L. Proskina

Latvia University of Agriculture, Svetes street 18, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: baiba.osmane@arei.lv

Abstract:

The need for alternative protein sources to soybean meal, partially or fully substituted in the diets of dairy cows, is an urgent problem in farming nowadays. Soybean meal is the most common protein source included in feed concentrate for dairy cows in Latvia and in other European countries as well. Among possible alternatives, grain legumes seem interesting for dairy cow diets because of their rapid degradation in the rumen and readily available energy. Peas and beans will be an important source of proteins in feed. Biochemical tests were done on eight samples of domestically grown dried peas of average size, 11 samples of dried beans of average size and some samples of soybean meal to examine the chemical composition of the peas and beans. Peas and beans were included in the feed ration during a feeding trial on dairy cows. Milk yields and milk quality parameters were examined in the trial. The digestibility of peas of most varieties and breeding lines examined was considerably higher than that of soybean meal, while the digestibility of beans of all the varieties and breeding lines examined and of soybean meal was the same. The peas contained more reducing sugars, starches and had a higher value of NEL than the tested beans, which meant the peas had a higher nutritional value. The diets comprising beans and peas fed to the dairy cows increased the fat and protein contents of milk, compared with the control group and the beginning of the trial. The total amount of amino acids increased in the bulk milk samples of all the trial groups during the feeding trial.

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576–584 I. Šematoviča,, I. Eihvalde and D. Kairiša
Reticulo-ruminal pH and temperature relationship between dairy cow productivity and milk composition
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Reticulo-ruminal pH and temperature relationship between dairy cow productivity and milk composition

I. Šematoviča¹,*, I. Eihvalde² and D. Kairiša²

¹ Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Clinical Institute, Kr. Helmana street 8, LV-3004 Jelgava, Latvia
² Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Agrobiotechnology, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: isem@inbox.lv

Abstract:

The aim of the research was to establish interrelations between reticulo-ruminal pH and temperature, cows’ productivity and milk composition (milk fat, protein, lactose, somatic cell count and electrical conductivity of milk) by using specific SmaXtec reticulo-ruminal boluses. In the research were included four different age dairy cows in early lactation period. The reticuloruminal pH and temperature was measured every 600 sec. over a 79 day period. The milk yield and quality was registered three times per day with automated data recording and management system Afmilk. Results showed that reticulo-ruminal temperature brightly demonstrates cow drinking behaviour and did not influence any of the investigated milk parameters. There was established a weak, statistically significant correlation between reticulo-ruminal pH and energetically corrected milk (r = 0.19; P < 0.01), milk protein level (r = 0.35) and a weak negative correlation between milk fat/protein ratio (r = − 0.22; P < 0.01). No relation between reticuloruminal pH, milk somatic cell count and milk electroconductivity was observed. Reticulo-ruminal pH fluctuations were at individual ranges for each cow without affecting an individual milk fat/protein ratio despite all of them received the same ration. It seems that milk fat/protein ratio is primarily dependent on the feed composition and properties. In the study was included one cow whose reticulo-ruminal pH was decreased below 5.7 for 400 min. in a day, and it had not had any individual effect on milk fat/protein ratio. That fact indicates to an individual cow tolerance to subacute rumen acidosis.

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579–589 A. Zimelis, G. Spalva, G. Saule, M. Daugaviete, and A. Lazdinš
Productivity and cost of biofuel in ditch cleaning operations using tracked excavator based harvester
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Productivity and cost of biofuel in ditch cleaning operations using tracked excavator based harvester

A. Zimelis¹, G. Spalva¹, G. Saule¹, M. Daugaviete¹,² and A. Lazdinš¹*

¹Latvian State forest Research Institute 'Silava', RPgas street 111, LV-2169 Salaspils,
Latvia
²Forest Sector Competence Center, DzRrbenes street 27, LV-1006 RPga, Latvia
*Correspondence: andis.lazdins@silava.lv

Abstract:

Forest ditches is one of the poorly utilized sources of biomass for energy production and timber industry. Increase of productivity and reduction of cost of extraction of biomass from the ditches, retaining at the same time high quality standards, are the key issues of mechanization of harvesting operations in this area. The scope of the study was to evaluate productivity and cost of biomass delivered from forest ditches, when tracked excavator based harvester and different work methods are used. New Holland 215B excavator with Ponsse H7 felling head was used in trials. The machine was operated by experienced operators. The study was implemented in drainage systems managed by Joint stock company „Latvia state forests”. Total extracted area 12 ha, extracted biomass – 734 m3. Duration of the study including harvesting and forwarding – 4 months. Average cost of roundwood production including road transport to 50 km distance in the trials was 27 EUR m-3, average cost of biofuel – 11 EUR m-3 (4.5 EUR LV m-3). The study approved advantages of excavators in ditch cleaning operations; however, several improvements are possible. The machine should be equipped with smaller accumulating felling head, delimbing and bucking should be done in parallel to a ditch direction, number of assortments should be reduced, as well as extraction of trees with diameter below 6 cm should be avoided.

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475–484 A. Lazdinš, U. Prindulis, S. Kaleja, M. Daugaviete, and A. Zimelis
Productivity of Vimek 404 T5 harvester and Vimek 610 forwarder in early thinning
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Productivity of Vimek 404 T5 harvester and Vimek 610 forwarder in early thinning

A. Lazdinš¹*, U. Prindulis¹, S. Kaleja¹, M. Daugaviete¹,² and A. Zimelis¹

¹Latvian State forest Research Institute 'Silava', RPgas street 111, Salaspils, LV-2169,
Latvia
²Forest Sector Competence Center, DzRrbenes street 27, RPga, LV-1006, Latvia
*Correspondence: andis.lazdins@silava.lv

Abstract:

The scope of the study was to evaluate productivity of small size forest machines in early thinning, as well as to identify opportunities to use this technology to Latvia. The study was implemented in Sweden using Vimek 404 T5 harvester and Vimek 610 forwarder. The machines were driven by experienced operators; harvesting and forwarding methods were adopted to the operators’ experience. Time studies were done by team of researchers from Latvian State forest Research Institute ‘Silava’. The study demonstrated that Vimek 404 T5 harvester has considerable advantages in compare to conventional forest machinery to produce limited number of assortments like biofuel or mixture of pulpwood and biofuel in early thinning. Annual capacity of a single harvester working in one shift is 800 ha or 25,000 m3; however, application of the machine is limited – it might not work efficiently in commercial thinning in Latvia due to large number of assortments required by customers, and it has limited possibilities of utilization during seasonal restrictions of forest operations. Productivity of Vimek 610 forwarder is comparable with the conventional middle size forwarders; however it becomes less beneficial with increase of forwarding distance. Prime cost of biomass, including harvesting, forwarding and road transport to a 50 km distance is 14.3 EUR m-3. Hourly cost of Vimek 404 T5 and 610 is similar – 26–28 EUR h-1.

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183-190 E. Bakšienė, A. Ražukas and T.L. Nedzinskienė
Effects of organic farming and crop rotations on crop productivity and nutrient amount in the soil
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Effects of organic farming and crop rotations on crop productivity and nutrient amount in the soil

E. Bakšienė, A. Ražukas and T.L. Nedzinskienė

Voke Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Žalioji aikštė 2, Trakų Vokė,LT-02232 Vilnius Lithuania; e-mail: eugenija.baksiene@voke.lzi.lt

Abstract:

The trials were carried out at the Voke Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during the period 2003–2007 and were designed to investigate the influence of organic (without fertilizers) and sustainable farming systems on plants (the plants were fertilized only with bonemeal as a source of phosphorus and magnesia of potassium as a source of potassium) and to explore their productivity, chemical properties of soil and balance of nutrients in the soil.The experiments were conducted in the trial field with 4 treatments, in various croprotations with the plants grown for green manure for the soil supply with nitrogen (the main nutritional element of sandy loam soil) without mineral fertilizers.The experimental results show that higher productivity was achieved when cultivatingplants after green manure of lupines and white mustard. We established negative nitrogen, phosphorus (except in the sustainable farming system) and potassium balance in the soil. The use of various crop rotations in all farming systems on sandy loam Haplic Luvisol showed that there was no definite effect on soil acidity but an increase in the total nitrogen and organic carbon content in the soil was observed. The amount of phosphorus increased and potassium decreased only in the organic farming system. Phosphorus and potassium amounts in the soil increased in the sustainable farming system.

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210-216 R. Butkutė, N. Daugėlienė and E. Butkuvienė
The effect of soil pH and natural fertilizers on the productivity of different mixtures and nitrogen accumulation in plant biomass
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The effect of soil pH and natural fertilizers on the productivity of different mixtures and nitrogen accumulation in plant biomass

R. Butkutė¹, N. Daugėlienė² and E. Butkuvienė¹

¹Vėţaičiai Branch, Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Gargţdų 29, LT-96216, Vėţaičiai,Klaipėda District, Lithuania;phone no.: +370 46 458233, fax no.: +370 46 458777;e-mail: ruta@vezaiciai.lzi.lt
²Faculty of Forestry and Ecology, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentų 11,LT-53356, Akademija, Kaunas District, Lithuania

Abstract:

Research aimed at comparing the productivity and nitrogen (N) accumulation in plant biomass of different mixtures and permanent meadow grown in soils with different pH was performed. Most of the N was accumulated in permanent meadow grass biomass. Barley/lupine and barley/pea mixtures accumulated considerably less N. In most cases, soil pH had no significant effect on N accumulation. In fact, N accumulation strongly depended on plant productivity. In 2008, there was a more significant decrease in the productivity of barley/lupine mixture, compared to that of 2007. Permanent meadow was a more stable agroecosystem compared with annual mixtures; therefore different agroclimatic conditions had little effect on yield formation (somewhat bigger in 2008, but insignificantly), whereas increase in grass productivity was obtained. Average data for 2007 and 2008 showed that barley/pea mixture was the most productive.

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305-310 R. Karklelienė, A. Radzevičius, E. Dambrauskienė, L. Duchovskienė,Č. Bobinas and D. Kavaliauskaitė
Reproduction features of organically grown edible carrot cultivars (Daucus sativus Röhl.) in Lithuania
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Reproduction features of organically grown edible carrot cultivars (Daucus sativus Röhl.) in Lithuania

R. Karklelienė, A. Radzevičius, E. Dambrauskienė, L. Duchovskienė,Č. Bobinas and D. Kavaliauskaitė

Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, LT-54333 Babtai, Kaunas distr.,Lithuania; e-mail: r.karkleliene@lsdi.lt

Abstract:

Absract. Investigations were carried out in the organic seed-growing greenhouse at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture. Seed stalks of two edible carrot (Daucus sativus Röhl.) hybrids („Svalia‟ and No 2030) and two carrot cultivars („Garduolės‟, „Šatrija‟) were grown. Plantings of carrots‟ root-crop were stored in a stationary cellar. Investigations showed that cultivar genotype and growing conditions influenced morphological characteristics of the grown carrot seeds. An abundance of the pests and their natural enemies were found in the seed stalks of carrot cultivars, but they didn‟t differ significantly. It was established that cultivar „Garduolės‟ is suitable for organic seed growing on organic farming. Good quality and high viability (viable – 75.0–83.0%) seeds are possible to grow in an organic seed-growing greenhouse.

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421-425 N. Uselis, A. Valiuškaitė and L. Raudonis
Incidence of fungal leaf diseases and phytophagous mites in different strawberry cultivars
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Incidence of fungal leaf diseases and phytophagous mites in different strawberry cultivars

N. Uselis, A. Valiuškaitė and L. Raudonis

Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Babtai, Kaunas distr., LT-54333,Lithuania; e-mail: n.uselis@lsdi.lt

Abstract:

The incidence of fungal leaf diseases, phytophagous mites and productivity of strawberry cultivars ‘Saulenė’, ‘Honeoye’, ‘Kent’, ‘Elkat’, ‘Polka’, ‘Dangė’, ‘Senga Sengana’, ‘Pegasus’, ‘Bogota’ and ‘Pandora’ was investigated in 2004–2005 under field conditions at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture.The lowest incidence by common leaf spot (Mycosphaerella fragariae (Tul.) Sacc) wasrecorded on Dangė’, ‘Elkat’ and ‘Pegasus’. Disease prevalence ranged on average from 43–46 % and disease intensity from 14–15.7%. The most common white leaf spot was on ‘Honeyoe’ and ‘Senga Sengana’. ‘Elkat’ and ‘Polka’ were the most damaged (disease prevalence was 68–69% and intensity 36–46%) by leaf scorch (Marssonina potentilae Desm. Magn.), while the lowest incidence of leaf scorch was recorded on ‘Bogota’. The incidence of diseases varied depending on meteorological conditions during 2004–2005.The lowest infestation by strawberry mite (Tarsonemus pallidus Banks.) was recorded on‘Bogota’ and ‘Kent’. Moderately infested were ‘Honeoye’, ‘Saulenė’,‘Pandora’, ‘Senga Sengana’ and highly infested, ‘Pegasus’. Low infestation by two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae Koch) were ‘Bogota’, ‘Pandora’ and ‘Saulenė’, moderately – ‘Kent’ and ‘Honeoye’; the most common two-spotted spider mites were found on ‘Pegasus’.The study showed that ‘Saulenė’, ‘Pandora’, ‘Senga Sengana’, ‘Honeoye’, ‘Polka’,‘Elkat’ and ‘Dangė’ were highly productive, ranging from 11 to 17 t ha-1. The productivity of ‘Pegasus’ was 9 t ha-1. Cultivars ‘Bogota’ and ‘Kent’ were averagely productive (6 – 7 t ha-1) .

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