The effect of pests on the yield and economical value of cereals
¹ Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences,Kreutzwaldi St. 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; tel. +372-7-313522, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
² Research Centre EVIKA Tallinn University of Technology,Teaduse 6a, 75501 Saku, Harjumaa, Estonia
Abstract: One of the most serious factors that limit the yield of cereal crops is fungal diseases. In the Estonian University of Life Sciences field trials with various spray programs of fungicides were conducted to determine the efficacy and economical value of different pesticide combinations. The spray programs with full dose rates of fungicides were not always economically justified nor were the multiple application systems. Yield increase up to 35% in spring wheat and up to 33% in barley was achieved when the timing of pesticide application was optimal and the crop stand was good and had high yield potential. The dominating disease in spring wheat on both trial years was Septoria spp. The best control was provided by fungicide Opera (active ingredients pyraclostrobin and epoxiconazole). Barley was infected mostly by Pyrenophora teres. The economical efficiency of disease control depended primarily on the weather conditions, crop stand and the quality of cereals. Application of pesticides was economically more effective in spring wheat. Therefore multiple application programs with more expensive pesticides can be recommended. The dense crop stand and an environment favorable for distribution of diseases increased the efficacy of fungicides on barley.