Tag Archives: profitability

407-411 L. Talgre, E. Lauringson, V. Vasar and H. Roostalu
The effect of pests on the yield and economical value of cereals
Abstract |

The effect of pests on the yield and economical value of cereals

L. Talgre¹, E. Lauringson¹, V. Vasar² and H. Roostalu¹

¹ Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences,Kreutzwaldi St. 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; tel. +372-7-313522, e-mail: liina.talgre@emu.ee
² Research Centre EVIKA Tallinn University of Technology,Teaduse 6a, 75501 Saku, Harjumaa, Estonia

Abstract:

Abstract: One of the most serious factors that limit the yield of cereal crops is fungal diseases. In the Estonian University of Life Sciences field trials with various spray programs of fungicides were conducted to determine the efficacy and economical value of different pesticide combinations. The spray programs with full dose rates of fungicides were not always economically justified nor were the multiple application systems. Yield increase up to 35% in spring wheat and up to 33% in barley was achieved when the timing of pesticide application was optimal and the crop stand was good and had high yield potential. The dominating disease in spring wheat on both trial years was Septoria spp. The best control was provided by fungicide Opera (active ingredients pyraclostrobin and epoxiconazole). Barley was infected mostly by Pyrenophora teres. The economical efficiency of disease control depended primarily on the weather conditions, crop stand and the quality of cereals. Application of pesticides was economically more effective in spring wheat. Therefore multiple application programs with more expensive pesticides can be recommended. The dense crop stand and an environment favorable for distribution of diseases increased the efficacy of fungicides on barley.

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99–110 N. Vasiliev, A. Astover, H. Roostalu and E. Matveev
An agro-economic analysis of grain production in Estonia after its transition to market economy
Abstract |
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An agro-economic analysis of grain production in Estonia after its transition to market economy

N. Vasiliev¹, A. Astover¹, H. Roostalu¹ and E. Matveev²

¹Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: nivas@emu.ee
²Rural Economy Research Centre, Jäneda, Lääne-Virumaa, 73602, Estonia

Abstract:

For analysing agronomic efficiency and economic criteria, the results of variety comparison tests of cereals, performed in Estonia during twenty years, national statistics and the data of the survey of the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) for 2000–2003 were summarised. Farms whose grain production contributed more than 75% to total output were selected for analysis. At present only ~40–50% of the real yield potential of cereals is realised. In case of oilseed rape the utilisation of the yield potential is 60–65%. Among the cereals, the largest share is accounted for by barley with 25–43% and wheat with 15–29%. During four years (2000–2003), total inputs increased 21%. Total inputs were the highest in large farms. As an average for 2000–2003 FADN grain producers were profitable in all size groups but consideration of total labour costs indicates that small grain farms were unprofitable. Average farm family income was 1,376 EEK ha-1. There is a non-linear relationship between farm size and economic indicators. Farm family income increases up to ~400 ha. The increase is most significant in the size range 40–200 ha where the increase in farm size by one hectare increases profit by 7.6 EEK ha-1. Further increase will decelerate profit and the most efficient use of labour occurs in this size range as well. Cost benefit is the highest for farm size ranging from ~150 to 400 ha. Profit decreases with the increase in one annual work unit by 508 EEK ha-1 and production becomes unprofitable in case a grain farm employs more than 2.6 workers per 100 ha.

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