Tag Archives: protein content

1460–1466 I. Skudra and A. Ruza
Winter wheat grain baking quality depending on environmental conditions and fertilizer
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Winter wheat grain baking quality depending on environmental conditions and fertilizer

I. Skudra¹²* and A. Ruza¹

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Agrobiotechnology, St. Liela 2, LV3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvian Rural Advisory and Training centre, St. Rigas 34, LV3018 Ozolnieki region, Ozolnieki parish, Ozolnieki, Latvia
*Correspondence: ilze.skudra@llkc.lv

Abstract:

Yield and quality of wheat grain depends on many factors such as environmental conditions, soil quality, genetic parameters and fertilization, especially nitrogen fertilizer which is one of the most important factor influencing quality parameters of winter wheat. Field experiments were done at the Research and Training Farm Vecauce of the Latvia University of Agriculture during 2013 till 2015. The aim of our study was to determine effect of nitrogen fertilization and environmental conditions on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety ‘Kranich’ grain quality parameters. The investigated factors were six different nitrogen application norms (0 – control, 85, 153, 175+S21, 187 N kg ha-1) and differential nitrogen norm according to chlorophylmeter (Konica Minolta Ltd.) data 180 N kg ha-1 in 2013, 150 N kg ha-1 in 2014 and 205 N kg ha-1 in 2015. One more variant was added – 175 N kg ha-1 in 2015. During the study years the meteorological conditions were significantly different. Our trials results showed that protein content suitable for bread making was obtained in variants N175+S21, 180 and 187 in year 2013, in all N application forms in 2014, but in 2015 – in all applications except N0, N175+S21, N85. The meteorological conditions had factor influence (2) 46% on protein content, but fertilizer application – 35%. Strong significant relationship at the 0.01 probability level between protein content and gluten content (r = 0.99), sedimentation value (r = 0.97) and falling number (r = 0.74) was found.

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929-938 R. Galoburda,, M. Kuka, I. Cakste and D. Klava
The effect of blanching temperature on the quality of microwave-vacuum dried mushroom Cantharellus cibarius
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The effect of blanching temperature on the quality of microwave-vacuum dried mushroom Cantharellus cibarius

R. Galoburda¹,*, M. Kuka², I. Cakste² and D. Klava¹

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Food Technology, Liela iela 2, LV-3001, Jelgava, Latvia 2Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Chemistry, Liela iela 2, LV-3001, Jelgava, Latvia *Correspondence: ruta.galoburda@llu.lv

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of blanching temperature on structure, colour, chemical composition, and rehydration capacity of microwave-vacuum dried chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius). Fruiting bodies of chanterelle were collected from the forests in Jelgava region of Latvia. Prior to drying, fresh mushrooms were blanched in water at various temperatures of 70, 80, 90 and 100ºC for 3 min, then cooled in water (20ºC). After blanching mushrooms were dried in a microwave-vacuum drier according to the specially designed program. The content of dry matter of chanterelle was 9.5 ± 0.5%. The results revealed that weight loss at 70–90ºC was significantly smaller compared to blanching at 100ºC temperature. The results indicated the tendency of smaller changes in microstructure, weight loss and colour for samples blanched at 70–80°C temperature comparing to the samples unblanched or blanched at higher temperatures. Electrical conductivity in water extract of microwave-vacuum dried chanterelle decreased with increased blanching temperature. Titratable acidity of chanterelle significantly reduced after blanching due to leakage of soluble acids into blanching water.

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3–12 M. Alaru, B. Moller and A. Hansen
Triticale yield formation and quality influenced by different N fertilisation regimes
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Triticale yield formation and quality influenced by different N fertilisation regimes

M. Alaru¹, B. Moller² and A. Hansen²

¹Department of Field Crop Husbandry, Estonian Agricultural University, Kreutzwaldi 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia;
²Department of Dairy and Food Science, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Rolighedsvej -30, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C., Denmark

Abstract:

Two different field trials with triticale were carried out in a field of the Department of Field Crop Husbandry of the Estonian Agricultural University, situated near Tartu, in 2000/2001–2002/2003. In the first trial, the winter triticale cultivars ‘Modus’ and ‘Tewo’ were used to investigate the influence of different N fertilisation regimes on triticale yield formation and yield quality. Seven N fertiliser treatments in four replications in the first year and 11 fertiliser treatments in three replications in the second and third year were tested, by varying total nitrogen dosages and time of application. Nitrogen was applied as NH4NO3 at different plant development stages (EC30, EC47). In the second trial, 10 winter triticale cultivars were investigated (‘Modus’, ‘Tewo’, ‘Lasko’, ‘Dagro’, ‘Ulrika’, ‘Lamberto’, ‘Vision’, ‘Fidelio’, ‘Lupus’, and ‘Prego’) to select out cultivars of earlier maturing and higher tolerance to pre-harvest sprouting. Winter triticale parents – the winter rye ‘Vambo’ and the winter wheat ‘Kosack’ were used as the control.
The yield level and quality of winter triticale grains were most of all affected by weather conditions and then by cultivars and N application regimes. Nitrogen fertiliser application at the plant development stage EC47 decreased significantly the height of stems (r = -0.459***), which is the principal prerequisite for preventing lodging, and increased significantly grain protein content (1.69 and 1.8% as the average of three years in ‘Modus’ and ‘Tewo’ grains, respectively). Unlike spikes of wheat, all of these winter triticale cultivars started to germinate before general physiological maturity. The longer was the period from anthesis to general physiological maturity, the higher was the percentage of germination during the period (r = 0.727*). The higher was the moisture content in seeds of triticale 26 days after the EC65 (length of the period wheat reached physiological maturity), the higher was the germination percentage in spikes (r = 0.733*). Triticale cultivars with higher 1,000 kernel weight values reached physiological maturity later. An average germination before harvest time correlated positively with test weight (r = 0.608*).

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3–10 M. Alaru, Ü. Laur and E. Jaama
Influence of nitrogen and weather conditions on the grain quality of winter triticale
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Influence of nitrogen and weather conditions on the grain quality of winter triticale

M. Alaru, Ü. Laur and E. Jaama

Department of Field Crop Husbandry, Estonian Agricultural University, Kreutzwaldi 64, 51008 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: malaru@hot.ee

Abstract:

The protein content and  falling numbers of five winter triticale cultivars were tested in very different weather conditions (1998/1999–2000/2001) on Stagnic Luvisol soils (WRB classification) in the experimental fields of the Department of Field Crop Husbandry of the Estonian Agricultural University near Tartu (58°23´N, 26°44´E). All cultivars were fertilised with nitrogen fertiliser (NH4NO3) in early spring, using a norm of 0–200 kg N ha-1 (increasing the amonts of fertiliser by 20 kg ha-1). Fertilising with nitrogen after hibernation at the tillering stage in early spring increased the protein content of  seeds averaged over years and cultivars by up to 1.57% in dry matter. Protein levels depended most on the cultivar, less on the weather conditions of the growth year and least  on the nitrogen fertiliser (the determination indices of a dispersion analysis were 0.35, 0.32 and 0.14, respectively). The yield and protein content were in negative correlation (r = 0,92*). Due to very different weather conditions during the growth period, the figures of the falling number were very different in different years.

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