Tag Archives: protein

xxx M. Olle
The yield, height and content of protein of field peas (Pisum sativum L.) in Estonian agro-climatic conditions
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The yield, height and content of protein of field peas (Pisum sativum L.) in Estonian agro-climatic conditions

M. Olle

Estonian Crop Research Institute, Department of Plant Breeding, J. Aamissepa 1, EE48309 Jogeva alevik, Estonia
Correspondence: margit.olle@etki.ee

Abstract:

Pisum sativum L. is important protein crop in the world. The purpose of this investigation was to see whether pea varieties differ in their yield, height and content of protein. Another aim was to select the best varieties suitable for production. Field experiments with different varieties of peas (‘Bruno’, ‘Capella’, ‘Clara’ and ‘Vitra’) were carried out at the Estonian Crop Research Institute in 2014 and in 2015. Yields (t ha-1) in 2014 and 2015 did not differ much, while yield from variety ‘Bruno’ was very different between years 2014 and 2015 and was much higher in 2015. The most suitable height of field peas is in a range of 60…100 cm, because the plants with such a height are most effectively suppressing weeds. It can be concluded that varieties with suitable height in our investigation were: ‘Bruno’, ‘Capella’ and ‘Clara’. Variety ‘Vitra’ was too high, is lodging easily and is therefore hard to harvest. Crude protein content (% in dry matter) was lowest in ‘Clara’; all other varieties had a higher content of protein, within much the same range. Based on the results of present investigation it can be concluded that out of those four varieties the most suitable varieties for production are ‘Bruno’ and ‘Capella’. Choice of the right variety for pea cultivation is very important, but depends on the local agro-climatic conditions. As in Baltic – Nordic countries and in north of America the agro-climatic conditions are more or less similar the results are useful for those countries.

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1396–1406 T. Michlová, H. Dragounová, R. Seydlová and A. Hejtmánková
The hygienic and nutritional quality of milk from Saanen goats bred in the Moravian-Silesian region
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The hygienic and nutritional quality of milk from Saanen goats bred in the Moravian-Silesian region

T. Michlová¹*, H. Dragounová², R. Seydlová² and A. Hejtmánková¹

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Chemistry, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21, Prague, Czech Republic
²Dairy Research Institute Ltd, Ke dvoru 791/12A, CZ160 00, Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: michlova@af.czu.cz

Abstract:

 The aim of the study was to monitor milk yield and the hygienic and nutritional quality of milk of Saanen goats in the Moravian-Silesian region in Czech Republic. Milk samples were collected once a month during the lactation period. The average milk yield in the standardized lactation was 1,100 liters. The somatic cell count in pool samples ranged from 470 x 103 to 696 x 103. The total microorganism count ranged from 3.6 x 103 to 1.4 x 105. The pathogen Staphylococcus aureus was proven no more than in 6.3%. The highest values of all main components of milk were achieved within a relatively short time after kidding (April 2015). The average content of fat was 3.64  0.52 g 100 ml-1, 3.17  0.16 g 100 ml-1 of protein, 2.60  0.06 g 100 ml-1 of casein, 4.56  0.24 g 100 ml-1 of lactose, and 12.02  0.80 g 100 ml-1 of solids. Average content of vitamin A was 0.27  0.14 mg kg-1 and average content of vitamin E was 0.60  0.34 mg kg-1. Content of vitamin E increased almost continuously during the lactation, and the content of vitamin A was significantly higher at the end of lactation. In lyophilized milk powder the average trace metal contents were 7.76  0.92 g kg-1 Ca, 1.62  0.26 g kg-1 Mg, 15.3  1.43 g kg-1 K, 789  111 mg kg-1 Na, 23.2  2.73 mg kg-1 Zn, and 0.85  0.55 mg kg-1 Cu. Contents of minerals varied during the lactation period, but no significant trends were observed.

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1112-1119 V. Tatar, H. Mootse, A. Sats, T. Mahla, T. Kaart and V. Poikalainen
Evaluation of size distribution of fat globules and fat and protein content in Estonian Goat milk
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Evaluation of size distribution of fat globules and fat and protein content in Estonian Goat milk

V. Tatar*, H. Mootse, A. Sats, T. Mahla, T. Kaart and V. Poikalainen

Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia, *Correspondence: vilma.tatar@emu.ee

Abstract:

The objectives of this study were to investigate size distribution of fat globules, fat and protein content in Estonian goat milk. The bulk milk samples were collected from three different crossbreed goat herds. These herds consist of 30% of the Saanen breed and 70% did not belong to any certain breed. Lactation of goats was scattered over the year. Goat milk samples were examined weekly during a 10 month period. Fat and protein content in goat milk ranged from 3.09% to 5.04% and from 2.74% to 3.96% respectively. Fat content in cow milk ranged from 3.77% to 4.75% and protein content ranged from 3.14% to 3.75%. The average fat content in goat milk (3.88%) was less than the mean fat content in cow milk (4.0%). The average protein content in goat milk (3.41%) was higher than the mean protein content in cow milk (3.38%). Depending on the season, fat and protein content in goat milk varied by as much as 0.38% and 0.28% accordingly. The diameter of milk fat globules (MFG) was estimated using microscope Nikon SMZ 1000, equipped with the digital camera Nikon DS-U2/L2 USB and the software NIS-Elements D3.1. The average diameter of fat globules was 2.22 μm, ranging from 0.34 to 6.99 μm. The average size distribution of MFG had unimodal and slightly right skewed shape: 5.7% of globules were in range 0.5–1.0 μm, 15.9% in range 1.0–1.5 μm, 22.1% in range 1.5–2.0 μm, 21.0% in range 2.0–2.5, 16.1% in range 2.5–3.0 μm, 10.0% in range 3.0–3.5 μm, 4.3% in range 3.5–4.0 μm, 0.9% in range 4.5–5.0 μm.

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695-704 M. Ahokas,, A.-L. Välimaa, T. Lötjönen, A. Kankaala, S. Taskilaand E. Virtanen
Resource assessment for potato biorefinery: Side stream potential in Northern Ostrobothnia
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Resource assessment for potato biorefinery: Side stream potential in Northern Ostrobothnia

M. Ahokas¹,³⋅*, A.-L. Välimaa¹, T. Lötjönen², A. Kankaala¹, S. Taskila³and E. Virtanen¹

¹MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Biotechnology and Food Research, P.O. Box 413, FI90014 University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland 2MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Plant Production Research, Tutkimusasemantie 15, FI92440 Ruukki, Finland 3University of Oulu, Chemical Process Engineering, P.O. Box 4300, FI90014 University of Oulu, Finland; *Correspondence: mikko.ahokas@oulu.fi

Abstract:

Potato industry side-streams consist of a significant amount of the original biomass. However, tightened demands of EU legislation together with the costs of side stream processing have forced potato industry towards more efficient use of the raw material. For this purpose, we have examined the possibility to recover main fractions from potato side streams, such as proteins, fibers and starch, and utilize them in a manner of biorefinery concept. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the potential for a potato biorefinery based on biomasses available at area of Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland. Study shows, that there is enough side-streams available to build a concept, which produces more value added products, like fibers and proteins. In this report, the main conclusions of the research are presented together with state-of-art on potato waste water processing technologies and current applications of their products.

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705-716 D. Baranenko, V. Kolodyaznaya and Y. Broyko
Effect of cold treatment on the amino acid composition of veal
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Effect of cold treatment on the amino acid composition of veal

D. Baranenko*, V. Kolodyaznaya and Y. Broyko

Institute of refrigeration and biotechnologies, ITMO University, 191002, Lomonosova Street 9, Saint-Petersburg, Russia; *Correspondence: denis.baranenko@gmail.com

Abstract:

Veal is a promising raw material for use in the daily diet, as well as for production of functional and dietary foods. However the effect of cold treatment on the amino acid composition of veal has not been sufficiently studied. The aim of this study was the amino acid composition analysis of veal subjected to various variants of cold treatment. The selected material under research was muscle tissue of hip parts from calves, grown in the Leningrad Region, Russia and aged no more than 3 months. Cooling to 4 ± 1°C and rapid freezing to the temperature of minus 18°C at the cooling air temperatures of minus 24°C and minus 35°C were used as variants of cold treatment. Amino acid composition analyses were carried out using precolumn derivatization with phenylisothiocyanate and reversed-phase gradient HPLC on the Shimadzu 20-AD chromatograph with spectrophotometric detection at 254 nm. The results show the effect of cold treatment on the content of free amino acids and total amino acid composition of veal. In many respects changes in amino acid composition are concerned with moisture losses during the refrigerating treatment. The dependence between the change in amino acid content and the structure of its side chain group type is shown. Amino acid score for essential amino acids was calculated and conclusions about changes in biological value of veal protein were made. The obtained data can be used in biological value calculation of the multi-component products and food rations with veal subjected to refrigerating treatment.

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487-492 L. Talgre, E. Lauringson, A, Makke
Amounts of nitrogen and carbon returned to soil depending on green manure and the effect on winter wheat yield
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Amounts of nitrogen and carbon returned to soil depending on green manure and the effect on winter wheat yield

L. Talgre, E. Lauringson, A, Makke

Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of LifeSciences, Kreutzwaldi St. 1, Tartu, Estonia, e-mail: liina.talgre@emu.ee

Abstract:

The trials were carried out during the 2006–08 growing seasons at the Department of Field Crop Husbandry in the Estonian University of Life Sciences. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of green manure treatments on the yield and yield quality of winter wheat. The total phytomass of leguminous green manures ploughed into soil in 2007 varied from 10.3 Mg ha–1 with the bird’s foot trefoil to 13.9 Mg ha–1 with the white sweet clover. The root mass of legumes comprised 37–54% of the total biomass. The amount of carbon applied into the soil with the green material and roots of legumes varied from 4.43 Mg ha-1 to 5.98 Mg ha–1. The amounts of nitrogen were up to 274 kg of N ha–1. The highest wheat yields were attained in treatments with lucerne and red clover as preceding crops. Compared to the N0 treatment, the extra yield reached 3.26 Mg ha–1 with green manures. Both green manures and mineral fertilizers enhanced the quality of the winter wheat yield, but the results did not vary among different green manures.

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606-611 Z. Kadziuliene, L. Sarunaite, I. Deveikyte, S. Maiksteniene, A. Arlauskiene, L.Masilionyte, Cesnuleviciene R. and Zekaite V.
Qualitative effects of pea and spring cereals intercrop in the organic farming systems
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Qualitative effects of pea and spring cereals intercrop in the organic farming systems

Z. Kadziuliene, L. Sarunaite, I. Deveikyte, S. Maiksteniene, A. Arlauskiene, L.Masilionyte, Cesnuleviciene R. and Zekaite V.

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto al. 1, Akademija, Kedainiai LT-58344, Lithuania;e-mail: zkadziul@lzi.lt

Abstract:

The experiment aimed to ascertain the influence of pea and spring cereal intercrops on the yield and quality of spring crops was carried out in 2007 and 2008 at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in different experimental sites, soil and cultivation conditions. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), triticale (x Triticosecale Wittm.) were sown as intercrops 50:50 or as sole crop. The results obtained during the two experimental years showed that the productivity and quality of spring cereal sole crops or intercrops depended on the species of cereals and varied between different experimental sites. The cultivation conditions were different in 2007 and 2008, therefore the results varied in the same experimental sites in the first and second experimental years. The experimental evidence is still inconclusive to firmly suggest which of the intercrops could be more stable, however it indicates the benefits of legumes for spring crops grown together.

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459-469 M. Järvan, L. Edesi, A. Adamson, L. Lukme and A. Akk
The effect of sulphur fertilization on yield, quality of protein and baking properties of winter wheat
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The effect of sulphur fertilization on yield, quality of protein and baking properties of winter wheat

M. Järvan¹, L. Edesi¹, A. Adamson¹, L. Lukme² and A. Akk²

¹Department of Plant Sciences, Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse St. 13,EE75501 Saku, Estonia; e-mail: malle.jarvan@eria.ee
²Agricultural Research Centre, Teaduse St. 4/6, EE75501 Saku, Estonia

Abstract:

The present paper is based on the data of field and production trials conducted in the years 2004–2007. The trials were carried out in North-Estonia (59° 18’ N, 24° 39’ E) on break-stony soil and in South-Estonia (58° 27’ N, 25° 36’ E) on pseudopodzolic soil. The aim was to identify the effect of sulphur fertilization on the yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on some of the quality indices of yield and protein quality, including the content of non-replaceable amino acids, and on the baking properties of flour. In the field trials the effect of N and NS fertilization was compared on the nitrogen background of N60 + N40 kg ha-1. Due tosulphur (in two top dressings in total S10 kg ha-1) the yield of winter wheat ‘Lars’ increased,depending on the weather and soil conditions, in field trials 0.47–1.48 t ha-1, i.e. 7.7–43.0% and in production trials 1.35–2.44 t ha-1, i.e. 39.8–45.5%. The effect of sulphur on the protein and wet gluten contents of wheat grain was not always one-directional, but in all trials the gluten index increased and the quality of protein improved under the influence of sulphur. Sulphur fertilization increased the content of amino acids in the protein of winter wheat in field trials on the average as following: cysteine – 24.5%, methionine – 35.3%, threonine – 14.4% and lysine – 7.7%. In production conditions the fertilization with sulphur increased both the contents of protein and wet gluten and that of major amino acids. Due to sulphur fertilization all major parameters of winter wheat’s baking quality improved: stability and quality number of dough, loaf volume and specific volume and round loaf’s height to diameter ratio.

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371-378 A. Sliesaravičius, J. Pekarskas, V. Rutkovienė and K. Baranauskis
Grain yield and disease resistance of winter cereal varieties and application of biological agent in organic agriculture
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Grain yield and disease resistance of winter cereal varieties and application of biological agent in organic agriculture

A. Sliesaravičius, J. Pekarskas, V. Rutkovienė and K. Baranauskis*

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentų 11, Lt-53361, Akademija,Kaunas distr., Lithuania
*Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Babtai, LT-54333 Kaunas distr., Lithuania;e-mail: algis.Sliesaravicius@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

Field trials with different varieties of winter wheat, rye barley and triticale were carried out at the Agroecology Center of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture from 2003-2005. The biological agent biojodis was tested. The winter wheat varieties ‘Baltimor’ and ‘Residence’ were found to be the most resistant to Septoria tritici (leaf blotch. The biological agent biojodis increased wheat grain yield for separate varieties by 0.38 – 0.97 t ha-1. No significant differences in disease resistance were found among the triticale and rye varieties tested. Research on the biological agent biojodis revealed that this agent reduced the incidence of fungi in the grain of the winter wheat variety ‘Širvinta 1’, thus it could diminish the number of mycromicetes species and the fungal infection level.The grain untreated wtith biojodis was found to be infected with 4 fungi species(Aspergillus oryzae, Fusarium nivale, Fusarium poae, Mycelia sterilia), where the infection level reached 9.0×103 cfu (colony forming unit), whereas the grain treated with the agent at a rate of 2 l t-1 was found to be infected with 2 species of fungi (Fusarium poae, Fusarium sporotrichiodes) at 5.5×103 cfu (colony forming unit) infection level.

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