Tag Archives: protein

1725–1732 M. Olle
The yield, height and content of protein of field peas (Pisum sativum L.) in Estonian agro-climatic conditions
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The yield, height and content of protein of field peas (Pisum sativum L.) in Estonian agro-climatic conditions

M. Olle

Estonian Crop Research Institute, Department of Plant Breeding, J. Aamissepa 1, EE48309 Jogeva alevik, Estonia
Correspondence: margit.olle@etki.ee

Abstract:

Pisum sativum L. is important protein crop in the world. The purpose of this investigation was to see whether pea varieties differ in their yield, height and content of protein. Another aim was to select the best varieties suitable for production. Field experiments with different varieties of peas (‘Bruno’, ‘Capella’, ‘Clara’ and ‘Vitra’) were carried out at the Estonian Crop Research Institute in 2014 and in 2015. Yields (t ha-1) in 2014 and 2015 did not differ much, while yield from variety ‘Bruno’ was very different between years 2014 and 2015 and was much higher in 2015. The most suitable height of field peas is in a range of 60…100 cm, because the plants with such a height are most effectively suppressing weeds. It can be concluded that varieties with suitable height in our investigation were: ‘Bruno’, ‘Capella’ and ‘Clara’. Variety ‘Vitra’ was too high, is lodging easily and is therefore hard to harvest. Crude protein content (% in dry matter) was lowest in ‘Clara’; all other varieties had a higher content of protein, within much the same range. Based on the results of present investigation it can be concluded that out of those four varieties the most suitable varieties for production are ‘Bruno’ and ‘Capella’. Choice of the right variety for pea cultivation is very important, but depends on the local agro-climatic conditions. As in Baltic – Nordic countries and in north of America the agro-climatic conditions are more or less similar the results are useful for those countries.

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1396–1406 T. Michlová, H. Dragounová, R. Seydlová and A. Hejtmánková
The hygienic and nutritional quality of milk from Saanen goats bred in the Moravian-Silesian region
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The hygienic and nutritional quality of milk from Saanen goats bred in the Moravian-Silesian region

T. Michlová¹*, H. Dragounová², R. Seydlová² and A. Hejtmánková¹

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Chemistry, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21, Prague, Czech Republic
²Dairy Research Institute Ltd, Ke dvoru 791/12A, CZ160 00, Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: michlova@af.czu.cz

Abstract:

 The aim of the study was to monitor milk yield and the hygienic and nutritional quality of milk of Saanen goats in the Moravian-Silesian region in Czech Republic. Milk samples were collected once a month during the lactation period. The average milk yield in the standardized lactation was 1,100 liters. The somatic cell count in pool samples ranged from 470 x 103 to 696 x 103. The total microorganism count ranged from 3.6 x 103 to 1.4 x 105. The pathogen Staphylococcus aureus was proven no more than in 6.3%. The highest values of all main components of milk were achieved within a relatively short time after kidding (April 2015). The average content of fat was 3.64  0.52 g 100 ml-1, 3.17  0.16 g 100 ml-1 of protein, 2.60  0.06 g 100 ml-1 of casein, 4.56  0.24 g 100 ml-1 of lactose, and 12.02  0.80 g 100 ml-1 of solids. Average content of vitamin A was 0.27  0.14 mg kg-1 and average content of vitamin E was 0.60  0.34 mg kg-1. Content of vitamin E increased almost continuously during the lactation, and the content of vitamin A was significantly higher at the end of lactation. In lyophilized milk powder the average trace metal contents were 7.76  0.92 g kg-1 Ca, 1.62  0.26 g kg-1 Mg, 15.3  1.43 g kg-1 K, 789  111 mg kg-1 Na, 23.2  2.73 mg kg-1 Zn, and 0.85  0.55 mg kg-1 Cu. Contents of minerals varied during the lactation period, but no significant trends were observed.

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1112-1119 V. Tatar, H. Mootse, A. Sats, T. Mahla, T. Kaart and V. Poikalainen
Evaluation of size distribution of fat globules and fat and protein content in Estonian Goat milk
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Evaluation of size distribution of fat globules and fat and protein content in Estonian Goat milk

V. Tatar*, H. Mootse, A. Sats, T. Mahla, T. Kaart and V. Poikalainen

Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia, *Correspondence: vilma.tatar@emu.ee

Abstract:

The objectives of this study were to investigate size distribution of fat globules, fat and protein content in Estonian goat milk. The bulk milk samples were collected from three different crossbreed goat herds. These herds consist of 30% of the Saanen breed and 70% did not belong to any certain breed. Lactation of goats was scattered over the year. Goat milk samples were examined weekly during a 10 month period. Fat and protein content in goat milk ranged from 3.09% to 5.04% and from 2.74% to 3.96% respectively. Fat content in cow milk ranged from 3.77% to 4.75% and protein content ranged from 3.14% to 3.75%. The average fat content in goat milk (3.88%) was less than the mean fat content in cow milk (4.0%). The average protein content in goat milk (3.41%) was higher than the mean protein content in cow milk (3.38%). Depending on the season, fat and protein content in goat milk varied by as much as 0.38% and 0.28% accordingly. The diameter of milk fat globules (MFG) was estimated using microscope Nikon SMZ 1000, equipped with the digital camera Nikon DS-U2/L2 USB and the software NIS-Elements D3.1. The average diameter of fat globules was 2.22 μm, ranging from 0.34 to 6.99 μm. The average size distribution of MFG had unimodal and slightly right skewed shape: 5.7% of globules were in range 0.5–1.0 μm, 15.9% in range 1.0–1.5 μm, 22.1% in range 1.5–2.0 μm, 21.0% in range 2.0–2.5, 16.1% in range 2.5–3.0 μm, 10.0% in range 3.0–3.5 μm, 4.3% in range 3.5–4.0 μm, 0.9% in range 4.5–5.0 μm.

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695-704 M. Ahokas,, A.-L. Välimaa, T. Lötjönen, A. Kankaala, S. Taskilaand E. Virtanen
Resource assessment for potato biorefinery: Side stream potential in Northern Ostrobothnia
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Resource assessment for potato biorefinery: Side stream potential in Northern Ostrobothnia

M. Ahokas¹,³⋅*, A.-L. Välimaa¹, T. Lötjönen², A. Kankaala¹, S. Taskila³and E. Virtanen¹

¹MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Biotechnology and Food Research, P.O. Box 413, FI90014 University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland 2MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Plant Production Research, Tutkimusasemantie 15, FI92440 Ruukki, Finland 3University of Oulu, Chemical Process Engineering, P.O. Box 4300, FI90014 University of Oulu, Finland; *Correspondence: mikko.ahokas@oulu.fi

Abstract:

Potato industry side-streams consist of a significant amount of the original biomass. However, tightened demands of EU legislation together with the costs of side stream processing have forced potato industry towards more efficient use of the raw material. For this purpose, we have examined the possibility to recover main fractions from potato side streams, such as proteins, fibers and starch, and utilize them in a manner of biorefinery concept. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the potential for a potato biorefinery based on biomasses available at area of Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland. Study shows, that there is enough side-streams available to build a concept, which produces more value added products, like fibers and proteins. In this report, the main conclusions of the research are presented together with state-of-art on potato waste water processing technologies and current applications of their products.

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705-716 D. Baranenko, V. Kolodyaznaya and Y. Broyko
Effect of cold treatment on the amino acid composition of veal
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Effect of cold treatment on the amino acid composition of veal

D. Baranenko*, V. Kolodyaznaya and Y. Broyko

Institute of refrigeration and biotechnologies, ITMO University, 191002, Lomonosova Street 9, Saint-Petersburg, Russia; *Correspondence: denis.baranenko@gmail.com

Abstract:

Veal is a promising raw material for use in the daily diet, as well as for production of functional and dietary foods. However the effect of cold treatment on the amino acid composition of veal has not been sufficiently studied. The aim of this study was the amino acid composition analysis of veal subjected to various variants of cold treatment. The selected material under research was muscle tissue of hip parts from calves, grown in the Leningrad Region, Russia and aged no more than 3 months. Cooling to 4 ± 1°C and rapid freezing to the temperature of minus 18°C at the cooling air temperatures of minus 24°C and minus 35°C were used as variants of cold treatment. Amino acid composition analyses were carried out using precolumn derivatization with phenylisothiocyanate and reversed-phase gradient HPLC on the Shimadzu 20-AD chromatograph with spectrophotometric detection at 254 nm. The results show the effect of cold treatment on the content of free amino acids and total amino acid composition of veal. In many respects changes in amino acid composition are concerned with moisture losses during the refrigerating treatment. The dependence between the change in amino acid content and the structure of its side chain group type is shown. Amino acid score for essential amino acids was calculated and conclusions about changes in biological value of veal protein were made. The obtained data can be used in biological value calculation of the multi-component products and food rations with veal subjected to refrigerating treatment.

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451-454 L. Narits
Effect of Top-fertilizing of Raw Protein and Glucosinolates Content of Winter Turnip Rape
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Effect of Top-fertilizing of Raw Protein and Glucosinolates Content of Winter Turnip Rape

L. Narits

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, J.Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva, Estonia;
e-mail: Lea.Narits@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

Rapeseed is a major oil–yielding crop, ranking third place after soybeans and oil palm in the world. Rapeseed contains as average 36–38% crude protein and content of anti–nutritional compounds, among which glucosinolates have received the major attention. The object of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the nitrogen rate and different application times to the crude protein and glucosinolate content of winter turnip rape. The trials were carried out at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute in the 2007–08, 2008–09 and 2009–10 growing seasons. Ammonium sulfate (nitrogen content 21%, sulphur 24%) was used as top–fertilizer. Three different nitrogen rates, 120, 140 and 160 kg N ha−1 and three different application times were used: A) once at the beginning of spring growth (oilseed rape growing code 26), B) A + when the main stalk was 10 cm (code 33), C) B + start of flowering (code 60) (a total of nine different variants) in equal portions. The results indicate that the quantity of the fertilizer has not as strong an impact as application time on the glucosinolate content. The lowest glucosinolate content was obtained from the variant of one N application. The highest protein content was obtained from the variant of three times split-N.

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469-472 V. Strazdina, A. Jemeljanovs, V. Sterna and V. Vjazevica
Evaluation of Protein Composition of Game Meat in Latvian Farms and Wildlife
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Evaluation of Protein Composition of Game Meat in Latvian Farms and Wildlife

V. Strazdina, A. Jemeljanovs, V. Sterna and V. Vjazevica

Research institute of Biotechnology and Veterinary medicine ‘Sigra’ of Latvian University of Agriculture, Institute str. 1, Sigulda, LV 2150, Latvia, e-mail: sigra@lis.lv

Abstract:

The meat of wild animals is highly favourable for human health because it has lower SFA content than domestic animals but higher protein content. In recent years consumption and assortment of game meat products has significantly increased. Deer farms are being established. There have been few investigations of the biochemical composition of game meat, therefore, the aim of the investigation was to evaluate protein composition of game meat in Latvian farms and wildlife. The investigations were carried out in different regions of Latvia. The chemical analyses of 76 samples were made, i.e. wild deer (18), farm deer (12), roe deer (16), elk (18), wild boar (12) meat samples were collected after hunting in the Vidzeme and Latgale regions of Latvia. Protein, amino acids and the content of connective tissue (4-hidroxiproline) were determined in the studied samples. Protein protein ranged from 22.21–23.59%. The content of connective tissue ranged from 2.22% in elk meat up to 3.09% in roe deer. The sum of essential amino acids in game meat samples was determined from 27.06–45.70 g 100 g−1. Elk meat had the highest protein content and lowest content of connective tissues among the game meat.

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501-507 R. Vicente1,2, R. Morcuende1 and J. Babiano2
Differences in Rubisco and Chlorophyll Content among Tissues and Growth Stages in Two tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Varieties
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Differences in Rubisco and Chlorophyll Content among Tissues and Growth Stages in Two tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Varieties

R. Vicente1,2, R. Morcuende1 and J. Babiano2

1Institute of Natural Resources and Agrobiology of Salamanca, IRNASA–CSIC, Apartado 257, 37071 Salamanca, Spain; e-mails: ruben.vicente@irnasa.csic.es; rosa.morcuende@irnasa.csic.es
2University of Salamanca, Department of Plant Physiology, Campus Miguel de Unamuno, 37008 Salamanca, Spain; e-mail: babiano@usal.es

Abstract:

Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco) is a key enzyme in the photosynthetic assimilation of CO2 and the most abundant leaf protein. The amounts ofchlorophyll (chl) and Rubisco have often been considered, respectively, as indices of light harvesting and Calvin cycle capacities of leaves. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in chlorophyll content and the level of Rubisco protein in various plant tissues at different growth stages in two tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) varieties. The results show an increase of the amount of both chlorophyll and Rubisco protein at vegetative growth stages (leaf expansion), which was followed by a gradual decline during anthesis, probably as a consequence of changes in the balance of their synthesis and degradation reported previously –Rubisco could be remobilized and reused in the production of reproductive structures. However, the increase in the amount of Rubisco and chlorophyll at ripening stage (more in Tres Cantos variety) contrasts with the decrease reported in other studies when degradation is becoming predominant during senescence.

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487-492 L. Talgre, E. Lauringson, A, Makke
Amounts of nitrogen and carbon returned to soil depending on green manure and the effect on winter wheat yield
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Amounts of nitrogen and carbon returned to soil depending on green manure and the effect on winter wheat yield

L. Talgre, E. Lauringson, A, Makke

Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of LifeSciences, Kreutzwaldi St. 1, Tartu, Estonia, e-mail: liina.talgre@emu.ee

Abstract:

The trials were carried out during the 2006–08 growing seasons at the Department of Field Crop Husbandry in the Estonian University of Life Sciences. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of green manure treatments on the yield and yield quality of winter wheat. The total phytomass of leguminous green manures ploughed into soil in 2007 varied from 10.3 Mg ha–1 with the bird’s foot trefoil to 13.9 Mg ha–1 with the white sweet clover. The root mass of legumes comprised 37–54% of the total biomass. The amount of carbon applied into the soil with the green material and roots of legumes varied from 4.43 Mg ha-1 to 5.98 Mg ha–1. The amounts of nitrogen were up to 274 kg of N ha–1. The highest wheat yields were attained in treatments with lucerne and red clover as preceding crops. Compared to the N0 treatment, the extra yield reached 3.26 Mg ha–1 with green manures. Both green manures and mineral fertilizers enhanced the quality of the winter wheat yield, but the results did not vary among different green manures.

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606-611 Z. Kadziuliene, L. Sarunaite, I. Deveikyte, S. Maiksteniene, A. Arlauskiene, L.Masilionyte, Cesnuleviciene R. and Zekaite V.
Qualitative effects of pea and spring cereals intercrop in the organic farming systems
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Qualitative effects of pea and spring cereals intercrop in the organic farming systems

Z. Kadziuliene, L. Sarunaite, I. Deveikyte, S. Maiksteniene, A. Arlauskiene, L.Masilionyte, Cesnuleviciene R. and Zekaite V.

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto al. 1, Akademija, Kedainiai LT-58344, Lithuania;e-mail: zkadziul@lzi.lt

Abstract:

The experiment aimed to ascertain the influence of pea and spring cereal intercrops on the yield and quality of spring crops was carried out in 2007 and 2008 at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in different experimental sites, soil and cultivation conditions. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), triticale (x Triticosecale Wittm.) were sown as intercrops 50:50 or as sole crop. The results obtained during the two experimental years showed that the productivity and quality of spring cereal sole crops or intercrops depended on the species of cereals and varied between different experimental sites. The cultivation conditions were different in 2007 and 2008, therefore the results varied in the same experimental sites in the first and second experimental years. The experimental evidence is still inconclusive to firmly suggest which of the intercrops could be more stable, however it indicates the benefits of legumes for spring crops grown together.

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