Tag Archives: quality assessment

xxx S. Akhmedov, T. Ivanova, V. Krepl and A. Muntean
Research on solid biofuels from cotton waste biomass –alternative for Tajikistan’s energy sector development
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Research on solid biofuels from cotton waste biomass –alternative for Tajikistan’s energy sector development

S. Akhmedov, T. Ivanova*, V. Krepl and A. Muntean

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Department of Sustainable Technologies, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: ivanova@ftz.czu.cz

Abstract:

An increasing awareness of the negative environmental cost associated with the combustion of fossil fuels and concerns over the geopolitical instability of the main oil producing regions is driving the development of renewable energy sources and biofuels. Use of solid biofuels made of different types of biomass became perspective alternative to conventional fuels in many countries. Such positive indicators as low cost of the final product that meets the quality of standards, not capital intensive production, possibility of producing briquettes/pellets from almost any agricultural waste or combination of raw materials are undoubted advantages of biomass based fuels. The main challenges for Tajikistan’s energy sector, which is depended on energy imports, are: to increase energy supply through better exploitation of hydropower and other renewable energy sources such as wind, solar and primary biofuels. Within the agricultural sector of Tajikistan, which is highly agrarian country, cotton accounts for 60% of agricultural output. According to the Ministry of Agriculture of Tajikistan 199,400 hectares of lands have been allocated to cotton cultivation in the year of 2014. Plenty of unused cotton residual biomass could be effectively utilized for winter heating in rural areas. The main focus of the research was to investigate and assess physical, chemical and mechanical properties of pellets and briquettes produced form cotton waste biomass.

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863-878 T. Antal
Comparative study of three drying methods: freeze, hot air- assisted freeze and infrared-assisted freeze modes
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Comparative study of three drying methods: freeze, hot air- assisted freeze and infrared-assisted freeze modes

T. Antal

College of Nyíregyháza, Institute of Engineering and Agricultural Sciences, Department of Vehicle and Agricultural Engineering, Kótaji Str. 9–11., H-4400 Nyiregyhaza, Hungary; e-mail: antalt@nyf.hu

Abstract:

The dehydration tests were conducted at three drying methods to evaluate the drying curves and the energy uptake. Apple (Malus domestica L.) cubes were dried under different processing conditions applying freeze drying (FD), freeze drying assisted by hot air and freeze drying assisted by infrared radiation. Control samples were produced using regular freeze drying without the pre-drying. Hot air combined with freeze drying (HAD-FD) at 60 and 80°C air temperatures was investigated. The infrared-freeze drying (IR-FD) is a relatively new processing method. The Idared apple cubes were dried with 5 kW m-2 IR power intensity. It was observed that the infrared power level and hot air temperature affected the drying rate and time of freeze drying. The infrared radiation heating had a higher drying rate than hot air during the pre-dehydration. The water activity, colour, firmness and rehydration ratio (RR) of finished products were measured. The dried material produced with IR-FD had desirable colour, higher rehydration rate and lower firmness than dried by HAD-FD ones. The quality of single-stage FD samples was close to IR-FD materials. It was observed that the IR-FD method drastically decreased the energy consumption, compared to FD and HAD-FD drying treatments. The mathematical models such as Henderson-Pabis and third-degree polynomial are used to describe the drying kinetics of food material. It was found that those mathematical models performed adequately in predicting the changes of moisture ratio.

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