Effects of processing conditions on physical parameters of triticale flakes
¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Food Technology, Rigas iela 22, LV-3004 Jelgava, Latvia
²Ltd Felici, Rigas gatve 8, LV-2164 Adazi, Adazu novads, Latvia
Consumer interest in breakfast cereal flakes has increased during the last few years. Various technologies, used to produce flakes, significantly influence their quality parameters and shelf-life stability. The main purpose of the present research was to investigate how different processing methods affect the physical parameters of triticale flakes. For obtaining the flakes, cleaned whole triticale grains were treated using the following technologies: dry processing (hot air), steam processing and soaking with subsequent steaming. For preparing the flakes different kilning methods and traditional flaking rolls were used. Traditionally made rolled and dried whole grain triticale flakes were analysed as a control sample. Using standard methods, the flakes’ moisture content, water activity, microstructure, swelling capacity and colour changes were analysed. The gap settings of flake rollers do not influence significantly (P < 0.05) changes of starch during processing. However, the starch granules were fully transformed into sugars in the flake samples with greater thickness. Non-significant (P < 0.05) steaming and hot air drying (toasting) conditions’ effects were observed on the changes of the starch granules during processing. Strong correlation was determined during the analysis of water activity and moisture content. The moisture content of the ready- to-eat flakes varied from 2.54% to 10.66%, and the water activity value was from 0.108 to 0.494. Compared with traditionally processed flakes (control sample) the colour of the flakes prepared using other technologies changed significantly, the ΔE values varied from 9.587 to 18.554. The colour of the soaked-steamed-rolled-hot air dried samples was similar but those significantly differed from the colour of soaked-dried-rolled-hot air dried flake samples. The soaked-dried-rolled-hot air dried flakes were darker compared with other analysed flake samples.