Tag Archives: quality

xxx A. Adamovics, S. Ivanovs and V. Bulgakov
Investigations about the impact of the sowing time and rate of the biomass yield and quality of industrial hemp
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Investigations about the impact of the sowing time and rate of the biomass yield and quality of industrial hemp

A. Adamovics¹, S. Ivanovs¹* and V. Bulgakov²

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, 2, Liela str., Jelgava LV-3001, Latvia
²National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15, Heroyiv Obrony str., Kyiv UK 03041, Ukraine
*Correspondence: semjons@apollo.lv

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to find the optimum sowing rate of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and to clarify the impact of the sowing rate on the production of biofuel from hemp biomass in Latvia. Field trials were carried out at the Research and Study Farm ‘Pēterlauki’ of the Latvia University of Agriculture in 2012–2014. The industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) ‘Futura 75’ was sown in a Luvic Endogleyic Stagnosol soil: pHKCl 6.7; P – 52 mg kg-1; K – 128 mg kg-1; the organic matter content – 21–25 g kg-1. Hemp was sown in 10-m2 plots, triplicate, on May 8 and 17. The total sowing rate was 20 (100), 30 (150), 40 (200), 50 (250), 60 (300), 70 (350), 80 (400), 90 (450), and 100 (500) kg ha-1 (germinating seeds per 1 m2). The plots were fertilised as follows: N – 120 kg ha-1; P2O5 – 80 kg ha-1; and K2O – 112 kg ha-1. Hemp was harvested when the first matured seeds appeared. The biometrical indices (height and stem diameter), harvesting time, the amount of fresh and dry biomass, and the fibre content were evaluated. Depending on the sowing rate, the yield of dry matter was on average 9.2–12.1 t ha-1 when hemp was sown at the beginning of May, and 7.9–10.0 t ha-1 when hemp was sown in the middle of May.

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1276–1286 N. Dubrovskaya, O. Savkina, L. Kuznetsova and O. Parakhina
Development of gluten-free bread with unconventional raw ingredients of high nutritional value and antimicrobial activity
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Development of gluten-free bread with unconventional raw ingredients of high nutritional value and antimicrobial activity

N. Dubrovskaya¹*, O. Savkina², L. Kuznetsova² and O. Parakhina³

¹Peter the Great St.Petersburg Polytechnic University, Polytechnicheskaya, 29,
195251, St.Petersburg, Russia, Russian Federation,
²Institute of Refrigeration and Biotechnologies, ITMO University, Lomonosova street,
9, 191002, St.Petersburg, Russia, Russian Federation
³St.Petersburg branch State Research Institute of Baking Industry, Podbelskogo
highway 7, 196608, St.Petersburg, Pushkin, Russia, Russian Federation
*Correspondence: dubrovskaja_nata@mail.ru

Abstract:

Two types of rowan powder (botanical species Sorbus aucuparia) as unconventional
raw ingredients of high nutritional and biological value as well as three types of dietary fiber
and pectin were used in development of gluten-free bread. These raw ingredients have high
water-holding capacity and a rich biochemical composition that makes it possible to use them
not only as thickeners and structure forming agents, but also as enriching additives. It was
experimentally found that the citrus fiber and pectin improved the bread specific volume and
the crumb compressibility if compared to the control sample. The content of vitamins A, E, PP,
C, B complex, minerals – iron, magnesium, calcium, potassium, selenium, organic acids,
including preservatives rendering action (citric, lactic, sorbic, benzoic) were found in rowan
powder. It was found that rowan powder and citrus fiber had a significant effect on the increase
in the content of dietary fiber in 2.5–5.4 fold and iron in 2–3.5 fold. The content of dietary fiber
in bread with 4% of rowan fruit powder is 3.6 g 100g-1 while in bread with 8% rowan pomace it
is 4.3 g 100g-1, which corresponds to the dietary fiber daily needs satisfaction respectively by
10.0% and 21.5%. It was found that bread with rowanberry powder had 66.7% more watersoluble
antioxidants. The contamination of the main gluten-free raw material (soy protein, rice
flour and corn starch extrusion and corn, rowan powder) and its influence on ropy disease of
gluten free bread were established. Four spore forming bacteria strains were isolated from
gluten-free raw materials and its ability to cause ropy disease of gluten free bread was proved. It
was also found that using of rowan powder slow down ropy disease and mold spoilage due to
the organic acids in its composition and the bread acidity increase.

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1247-1256 L.M. Abenavoli, F. Cuzzupoli, V. Chiaravalloti and A.R. Proto
Traceability system of olive oil: a case study based on the performance of a new software cloud
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Traceability system of olive oil: a case study based on the performance of a new software cloud

L.M. Abenavoli¹*, F. Cuzzupoli², V. Chiaravalloti¹ and A.R. Proto¹

¹Department of AGRARIA, Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria, Località Feo di Vito, IT 89126 Reggio Calabria, Italy
²CFadvanced – Mosorrofa, IT 89100 Reggio Calabria, Italy
*Correspondence: laben@unirc.it

Abstract:

For all the European agrifood establishments from the year 2005 it became mandatory the Regulation EC 178/2002 which obliges them to implement an internal system for tracking and tracing (T&T) of the products; the Regulations that has introduced an ‘obligatory route’ that consists of the construction of the ‘certified historic’ of a food or an ingredient along the supply chain. The Regulation concerns all food companies and in particular those in which there are different actors that contribute to obtaining the final product as in the case of the supply chain of olive oil.

Informatics with modern technology allows us to provide the company with a software solution, usable as a web application, everything housed on a system cloud server. The project goal was to implement a WebApplication based on Cloud Platform and centralize all information about to the context of the production of olive oil.
The results showed that the centralization of data provided by the software in question permit the various figures of the supply chain of olive oil to collaborate in an environment where you get all the information in real time. The system implements algorithms that provide notification messages that indicate if there are any delays in production/processing in terms of quality of the olive oil sought.
The operators and final customer will be equipped with an APP free for smartphones, which allow you to detect in a simple and immediate all data (in synchronize with the cloud system) and to get the product TRACEABILITY.

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125-130 L. Vent and A. Rybka
Physical characteristics of picked hops during storage
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Physical characteristics of picked hops during storage

L. Vent* and A. Rybka

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering,Kamýcká 129, Praha 6 – Suchdol, Postcode 16521, Czech Republic;
*Correspondence: lvent@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

To prevent interrupting the process of drying or picking due to lack or surplus ofhops coming out of the picking line, hops, in most cases are placed in a storage container.. In acontainer, however, hops are layered, thus temperature and humidity increase owing to anincreased intensity of hop cones breathing and an insufficient airing, i.e. they mowburn. In theprocess of breathing a cone loses important substances which results in its deteriorated qualityand correspondingly in the poor quality of the final product. Our task was to observe the courseof hop temperature and humidity in a storage container and to compare it with the checkvariant, which was loosely spread hops outside the container. Data of temperature and humiditywere continually recorded by COMET D 3631 measuring equipment with N1ATG8/Cmeasuring probe by the Comet System company. Other analogue sensors to measure humidityand temperature were independently installed for checking. The monitoring was each timecarried out for 24 hours. During storage both the temperature and humidity of the hops in thecontainer increased substantially, with temperature values reaching up to 49 °C and humidityvalues 100%. The progress of temperatures was almost identical with all the measurements, thatis why we present only the average values. The highest temperature inside the container was inthe range of 39 °C to 49 °C with individual measurements. The temperatures of the checksamples were identical with the air temperature in the daytime with all the repeats. Themaximum temperature of the check samples ranged from 21 °C to 27 °C with eachmeasurement. In the same way as with the temperature, during the individual measurements thehumidity showed similar progress and the measurements did not differ from each other in anysubstantial way. The humidity level in the container rose up to the maximum value of 100%already two hours after the measurement had started and stayed like this until the end. Thehumidity of the hop check samples was 2.24% higher than the air humidity, which might beexplained by water vapour emission due to an increased intensity of hop cones breathing. Theconclusion we may draw here says that with an increasing volume and, probably above all,height of the stored hops layer, the influence of the surroundings on the conditions inside thecontainer will decline.

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553-562 A. Ingver, I. Tamm, Ü. Tamm, T. Kangor and R. Koppel
The characteristics of spring cereals in changing weather in Estonia
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The characteristics of spring cereals in changing weather in Estonia

A. Ingver, I. Tamm, Ü. Tamm, T. Kangor and R. Koppel

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 48 309 Jõgeva, Estonia;e-mail: Anne.Ingver@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

The objective of this investigation was finding out the impact of weather on yield, length of growing period, plant height, lodging resistance and protein content of spring cereals over 19 years (1991–2009). Two varieties per each crop were selected for testing. Historical weather and crop yield data from the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute were analyzed by the linear correlation analysis. To estimate the variation of grain yield, the minimum and maximum values, averages and coefficients of variation were calculated.It can be stated that the both stress conditions – drought and excess precipitation causeddecrease of yield and quality of all the crops. The highest yields developed in 180–250 mm precipitation range from sowing to maturity. Oat requires more moisture than wheat and barley. Significant positive correlation between the amount of precipitation and oat yield was found when three years of severe lodging were eliminated. Positive correlation between yield and plant height was found. In the years of severe lodging there was remarkable yield decrease of oat. Yield of oat and barley had negative correlation with sunshine hours in June. The same correlation for wheat was not significant. Extra-low protein content for all the cereals, especially for wheat, formed in a cool year with the lowest sum of sunshine hours during the whole growing period (2009). For oat and barley positive correlation between sunshine hours in June and protein content was found. For formation of higher protein content, warm and dry weather conditions are required. Protein content was inversely associated with yield.

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681-686 L. Narits
Effect of nitrogen rate and application time to yield and quality of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. var. oleifera subvar. biennis)
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Effect of nitrogen rate and application time to yield and quality of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. var. oleifera subvar. biennis)

L. Narits

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute; Aamisepa 1, 48309 Jõgeva, Estonia;e-mail: Lea.Narits@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

Oilseed rape is one of the most important sources of vegetable oil in the world. Nitrogen is one of important components of oilseed rape and has strong effect on seed yield and quality. The objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of nitrogen rate and application time to yield and quality of winter oilseed rape. Field trials were carried out at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute in 2007/2008 and 2008/2009. Ammonium nitrate (nitrogen content 34.4%) was used as top-fertilizer. Three different nitrogen rates: 120, 140 and 160 kg ha-1 (in active ingredient) and three different application timings were used: A) once at the beginning of spring vegetation, B) A + when the main stem was 10 cm, C) B + start of flowering in equal portions. By the results can be concluded that the amount of fertilizer had not as strong impact to seed yield and quality as fertilizer application time. The highest yields of seed and raw oil were obtained from the variant of split-N treatment (40+40+40) of 120 kg ha-1.

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143-148 A. Adamavičienė, K. Romaneckas, E. Šarauskis and V. Pilipavičius
Non-chemical weed control in sugar beet crop under an intensive and conservation soil tillage pattern: II. Crop productivity
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Non-chemical weed control in sugar beet crop under an intensive and conservation soil tillage pattern: II. Crop productivity

A. Adamavičienė¹, K. Romaneckas¹, E. Šarauskis² and V. Pilipavičius¹

¹Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Dept. of Soil Management, Studentu 11, LT-53067Akademija, Kaunas r., Lithuania; Tel.: +370 37 75 22 33, Fax: +370 37 75 22 93;e-mail: kestas.romaneckas@lzuu.lt, romanr@one.lt, vytautas.pilipavicius@lzuu.lt
²Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Dept. of Agricultural Machinery, Studentu 11, LT-53067Akademija, Kaunas r., Lithuania; Tel.: +370 37 75 23 57; e-mail: egidijus.sarauskis@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

The experiment was conducted with a silty loam (Hipogleyic Luvisol (Calcaric)) at the Experimental Station of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture during 2004-2005. The soil was of neutral pH, medium rich in humus, phosphorus and with a low content of potassium. The aim of the experiment was to establish the influence of soil tillage intensity, living and straw mulch on sugar beet yield and quality: root ramification, sucrose, sodium, potassium and alpha amino nitrogen contents. The soil of the trial was tilled (factor A) intensively (loosening, ploughing) (IT) and minimally (conservation tillage – loosening) (CT). Non-chemical weed control (factor B) was applied: hand weeding, twice (control variant) (HW); spring barley (SBM), annual ryegrass (ARM), white mustard (WMM), spring oilseed rape (SRM) living mulches and winter wheat straw mulch (WSM).According to the results of the experiment, at lower temperature and average precipitationvegetation conditions (2004), a significantly higher yield of sugar beet roots was found in intensively tilled soils. In conditions of higher temperatures and uneven rainfall distribution (2005) we observed converse results. Different soil tillage had no significant influence on the quality of the roots; however, sugar beet roots were more ramified in the intensively tilled soil. The allopathic and choking properties of annual ryegrass decreased sugar beet crop yield, sucrose content and increased the amount of sodium in the roots. The highest sugar beet crop productivity was observed in the following conditions: hand weeded, covered by straw or in the plots with oil seed rape living mulch.

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305-310 R. Karklelienė, A. Radzevičius, E. Dambrauskienė, L. Duchovskienė,Č. Bobinas and D. Kavaliauskaitė
Reproduction features of organically grown edible carrot cultivars (Daucus sativus Röhl.) in Lithuania
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Reproduction features of organically grown edible carrot cultivars (Daucus sativus Röhl.) in Lithuania

R. Karklelienė, A. Radzevičius, E. Dambrauskienė, L. Duchovskienė,Č. Bobinas and D. Kavaliauskaitė

Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, LT-54333 Babtai, Kaunas distr.,Lithuania; e-mail: r.karkleliene@lsdi.lt

Abstract:

Absract. Investigations were carried out in the organic seed-growing greenhouse at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture. Seed stalks of two edible carrot (Daucus sativus Röhl.) hybrids („Svalia‟ and No 2030) and two carrot cultivars („Garduolės‟, „Šatrija‟) were grown. Plantings of carrots‟ root-crop were stored in a stationary cellar. Investigations showed that cultivar genotype and growing conditions influenced morphological characteristics of the grown carrot seeds. An abundance of the pests and their natural enemies were found in the seed stalks of carrot cultivars, but they didn‟t differ significantly. It was established that cultivar „Garduolės‟ is suitable for organic seed growing on organic farming. Good quality and high viability (viable – 75.0–83.0%) seeds are possible to grow in an organic seed-growing greenhouse.

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522-527 I. Tamm, Ü. Tamm and A. Ingver
Spring cereals performance in organic and conventional cultivation
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Spring cereals performance in organic and conventional cultivation

I. Tamm, Ü. Tamm and A. Ingver

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 1 Aamisepa St., 48309 Jõgeva, Estoniae-mail: ilmar.tamm@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

The field trials were carried out at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute to compare grain yield and quality characteristics of spring wheat, barley and oat in organic and conventional conditions. Thirteen varieties of each cereal crop were tested during the four trial years (2005–2008). By the results turned out that all the spring crops were able to produce comparatively high yields in organic conditions after a suitable precrop. Oat as the most unpretentious crop was the highest yielding in organic trial and had the best weeds suppressing ability among the spring cereals. The most widely spread weeds were (Chenopodium album) and (Viola arvensis). Among the quality traits protein content was the most influenced by the management regime having evident decrease in organic conditions. A yield gap between organic and conventional production depended on crop, precrop and growing conditions.

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11-20 L. Kmitiene, A. Zebrauskiene and A. Kmitas
Comparison of biological characteristics and productivity of introduced cultivars of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.)
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Comparison of biological characteristics and productivity of introduced cultivars of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.)

L. Kmitiene, A. Zebrauskiene and A. Kmitas

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentu 11, Kaunas-Akademija LT-53067, Lithuania
e-mail: ns@lzuu.lt, kmitiene@one.lt

Abstract:

There is no wide range of cultivars of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) in Lithuania. Only two of them – ‘Mary Washington’ and ‘D’Argenteuili hative’ – have been investigated and are recommended for cultivation, however they do not meet the modern requirements for the cultivars. Therefore these cultivars must be renewed or replaced by the newly developed and more productive cultivars. The investigations of biomorphological characteristics of introduced cultivars of asparagus were carried out in the period from 2003-06 by the Department of Horticulture of the LUA. The biological characteristics of standard cultivars of asparagus ‘Mary Washington’ (control) and introduced cultivars ‘D’Argenteuil Primaticcio’, ‘Schwetzinger Meisterschub’, ‘Eposs’, ‘Schneekopf’, ‘Rambo’, ‘Gartner Saat’ and male cultivars ‘Ravel’, ‘Ramos’, ‘Ramada’, ‘Rally’, ‘Ranger’ were investigated. Harvest period, productivity, and chemical composition were established and the indicators of shoot quality were evaluated. The results of the research showed that vegetation of bushes of the male cultivars start later but their harvest period is longer (lasting 20 – 24 days on average). In 2004, the highest yield of shoots was formed by the bushes of the male cultivars ‘Ramos’ and ‘Ranger’, and in 2005, the highest yield was received from the bushes of standard cultivars such as ‘D’Argenteuil Primaticcio’, ‘Schwetzinger Meisterschub’, and ‘Eposs’. The highest yield of shoots of the cultivars under investigation was received in 2006 (third harvest year), ‘Ramos’ and ‘Ranger’; the bushes of standard cultivars ‘Schwetzinger Meistersschub’, ‘Rambo’ and male cultivars ‘Ravel’, ‘Ramos’ were the most productive. According to the average results of investigations, the most productive cultivars in the group of standard cultivars were ‘Schwetzinger Meisterschub’ and ‘Eposs’, and in the group of male cultivars – ‘Ravel’, ‘Ramos’ and ‘Ranger’. Shoot quality indicators (length, diameter, average mass) were in compliance with the standard quality requirements.

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