Tag Archives: relative humidity

245-252 J. Papez and P. Kic
Heating and ventilation in milking parlours
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Heating and ventilation in milking parlours

J. Papez* and P. Kic

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamycka 129, 16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: papez@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to show the results of the measurement of main microclimatic parameters (temperature and relative humidity) in milking parlours and compare the obtained results with values recommended in relevant standards. Temperature and relative humidity can affect animal welfare as well as the well-being of workers. These parameters were measured in three rotary milking parlours with herringbone type of stalls, each for 24 dairy cows. Two of these milking parlours were built in 2001 and one was built in 2009. Measurements were taken during the winter and summer periods, under extremely cold or high temperature conditions. Measurements were taken during the milking process for about two hours using suitable sensors for measurement of indoor temperature and relative humidity. The data of outside temperature and relative humidity were also obtained and compared with indoor data. The final results of the research were generalized. It is obvious from the results of measurements of selected milking parlours that heating and ventilation of milking parlours is insufficient. To set up adequate heating power, the heat balance of milking parlours was calculated. For adequate ventilation, the necessary flow of fresh air was calculated for both winter and summer periods. Also the methods of how to achieve these air flows are presented.

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211-218 O. Sada, E. Mikson and B. Reppo
Ammonia emission in cowsheds and pigsties during the summer periood
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Ammonia emission in cowsheds and pigsties during the summer periood

O. Sada, E. Mikson and B. Reppo

Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56,
EE51014 Tartu, Estonia

Abstract:

As is known, cows in uninsulated cowsheds can tolerate lower temperatures much better than higher temperatures, so we can say that these buildings are well suited for animals, although there are problems with workers and the working environment in uninsulated cowsheds in extreme cases, during very low and high outside temperatures. The goal of this study was to identify the outdoor climate impact on the indoor climate in cowsheds with 420, 500 and 500 cow places during winter and summertime. For that, indoor and outdoor temperature, relative humidity and indoor ammonia content were measured simultaneously. The processed results are well applicable when designing new cattle housing or improving the indoor climate of already existing uninsulated cowsheds. Building of large pigsties with deep litter and without litter which use liquid manure removal systems has become a wide practice nowadays. Indoor climate parameters of the working environment have an impact on the human capacity for work and the productivity of animals. Enlargement of pigsties is accompanied with problems regarding the achievement of the required indoor climate for the working environment. For the purpose of studying the pigsties with different animal-keeping technologies and the simultaneous effect of temperature and relative humidity on the emission ammonia content in the air of a pigsty were measured in summer above a pig-pen at the height of 1.5 meters from the floor and were measured daily. Data logger equipment, relevant sensors and content of ammonia in the air was measured for the study by using Gas Monitor Pac III equipment. Measurement results were statistically processed by using the computer programmes AMR Win Control, Pac III Software3.nn, SAS and MS Excel.

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67-78 O. Sada and B. Reppo
Indoor climate of pigsty with deep litter and liquid manure system in summer
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Indoor climate of pigsty with deep litter and liquid manure system in summer

O. Sada and B. Reppo

Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences,Kreutzwaldi St. 56, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: boris.reppo@emu.ee

Abstract:

Construction of big deep-litter pigsties and pigsties without litter (using liquid manure systems) is becoming more extensive. Due to lack of knowledge concerning animal-keeping in big pigsties, it has become necessary to study the work environment in pigsties and, in particular, their indoor climate. In order to determine the impact of the outdoor climate, different methods for animal-keeping and tending activities on indoor climate during summertime, the air temperature, relative humidity, air velocity and contents of oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia were measured on a daily basis at the height of 1.5 m from the floor above the pigsty in the centre of deep-litter (800 fattening pigs) and liquid manure system (600 young pigs) pigsties. Simultaneously outdoor air temperature and relative humidity were measured. Data Logger equipment with relevant sensors and Gas Monitor Pac III were used for studying the indoor climate. Hydrolog equipment was used for measuring the parameters of outdoor climate. Measurement results were processed by using computer programmes AMR Win Control, HW3 and MS Excel.It turned out that during summertime the indoor climate of pigsties was most affected byoutdoor climate and tending works. The daily average indoor temperature (17.04 and 17.60°C respectively; outdoor temperature, 18.15 and 8.75°C) and relative humidity (68.11 and 78.59% respectively; outdoor relative humidity, 71.88 and 84.19%) remained within recommended limits for animals in the deep-litter pigsty and in the pigsty without litter. However, partial floor heating had to be used in the morning in order to ensure optimum indoor temperature and relative humidity in the pigsty for young pigs. Due to good ventilation in the pigsties the daily average contents of carbon dioxide (0.06 and 0.07%) and ammonia (20.9 and 8.7 ppm) remained within standard limits. Ammonia content in pigsties was higher during tending works, reaching 43 and 27 ppm. As a result of the study, the graphical and empirical relationship was determined between ammonia concentration and indoor air both in terms of air temperature and combined effect of temperature and relative humidity.

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147-150 V. Bulovienė and E. Survilienė
Effect of environmental conditions and inocolum concentration on sporulation of Peronospora destructor
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Effect of environmental conditions and inocolum concentration on sporulation of Peronospora destructor

V. Bulovienė and E. Survilienė

Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Kauno str. 30, LT - 54333 Babtai, Kaunas distr.,Lithuania; e-mail: v.bandzeviciute@lsdi.lt

Abstract:

The effect of inoculum concentration, incubation time, relative humidity (RH) and temperature on sporulation of Peronospora destructor on onion leaves was analyzed under controlled environmental conditions in a greenhouse. The shortest period for spore germination and sporulation was on onion leaves inoculated with 106 spores/ml distilled water suspension. The intensity of infection and the sporulation of infected plants were affected greatly by the time and temperature of incubation. Exposure of inoculated plants at 15°C for 8 days and then at 22°C for 5 days resulted in the percentage of infection and the most abundant sporulation. Results of this experiment indicated that the period of P. destructor sporulation on one plant lasted 4–8 days.

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45–54 O. Sada and B. Reppo
Impact of tending work on pigsty inner climate in winter
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Impact of tending work on pigsty inner climate in winter

O. Sada and B. Reppo

Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi St. 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: boris.reppo@emu.ee

Abstract:

Inner climate at pigsty is in strong correlation with outdoor climate and tending work. Up to now, main research has been conducted to investigate air temperature and relative humidity, in order to be able to offer solutions to pigsty ventilation. At the same time, little data can be found about pigsty air gas content depending on pigs’ function work. With the aim of investigating the impact of outdoor climate and tending work on the inner climate at a pigsty of fatlings and youngs, the research was conducted to measure the air temperature, relative humidity and the content of oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia at these pigsties in winter time diurnally at the height of 1.5 meters. To measure the inner climate, Data Logger, appropriate sensors and the computer program PC AMR Win Control were used. At the same time, the winter outdoor air temperature and relative humidity were measured using Rotronic logger. The results of the research presented in the article concern the air temperature and velocity, relative humidity and the content of oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia of the working environment, measured in different places and heights of the room during daytime and diurnally above the pigpen. It became evident that the pigsty’s inner air temperature was within the extent recommended, but the air relative humidity increased partly very high. The carbon dioxide content partly exceeded the established limits. The average measured ammonia also exceeded the limits in some cases but always increased during the tending work.

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