Tag Archives: resistance

653-662 Ž. Liatukas, V. Ruzgas and K. Razbadauskiene
Take-all resistance of Lithuanian winter wheat breeding lines
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Take-all resistance of Lithuanian winter wheat breeding lines

Ž. Liatukas, V. Ruzgas and K. Razbadauskiene

Institute of Agriculture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, 1Instituto al., Akademija, Kėdainiai distr., LT-58344, Lithuania; e-mail: liatukas@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Take-all, caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, is one of the most important root diseases of wheat around the world. Previous research has suggested that winter wheat varieties pose no effective resistance. The experiment was carried out in the winter wheat mono-crop nursery during 2006–2009. In total, 324 accessions, including standard cultivars, were tested during 3 vegetation seasons. The accessions were grown in 2.0 m2 plots. The disease severity was assessed as ear discoloration symptoms from early to late milk stages in scores, using the scale 1 to 9 points, where 1 is the lowest value. Disease severities were high during all three seasons and ear symptoms developed from just visible to full discoloration during 3 to 5 weeks depending on the accessions’ resistance and year. Take-all severity on the accessions tested was estimated from 4.75 to 9.0, 5.38 to 8.95, and 4.00 to 8.53 points in 2007–2009, respectively. Varieties ‘Flair’ and ‘Dream’ were the most frequent in the pedigree of the most resistant lines, occurring in 23.3% pedigrees of the lines. The thousand kernels and hectolitre weight showed no or low correlation with disease severities. Lines resistance showed weak correlation with yield when all plot data were used for calculation. However, correlation coefficients considerably increased when ten percent of each minimal, mean and maximal yields values were used. A mean yield of resistant and susceptible lines differed about 1 t ha-1 in 2007 and 2008, whereas a lower difference (0.54 t ha-1) was found in 2009. Some susceptible lines had higher or similar yield as well as the resistant ones in all years.

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663-672 A. Liatukienė, Ž. Liatukas and V. Ruzgas
Resistance of European lucerne accessions to aluminium
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Resistance of European lucerne accessions to aluminium

A. Liatukienė, Ž. Liatukas and V. Ruzgas

Institute of Agriculture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and ForestryInstituto al. 1, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr., LT-58344, Lithuania;e-mail: aurelija@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Aluminium toxicity is one of those factors limiting lucerne production on acid soils. Efficient method for selection of Al resistant plants should accelerate breeding of new cultivars. Reaction to Al of the 25 European lucerne cultivars was evaluated using Petri dish with filter paper moistened with AlCl3 concentrations 0, 2, 4, 8, 16 mM. The tested lucerne cultivars did not differ considerably by resistance to Al in regard to the origin. It was clear that aluminium inhibited lucerne seed germination, seedling root and hypocotyl elongation depending on cultivar resistance. Germination rates at AlCl3 concentrations 0, 2, 4 were similar for most cultivars, whereas AlCl3 concentrations 8 and 16 mM highly inhibited germination of susceptible cultivars. Germination test was suitable for elimination of the most susceptible accessions. The seedlings hypocotyl elongation reaction to different AlCl3 concentrations characterized cultivars better than root elongation rates. This method was suitable for selection of the most resistant accessions as only cultivars Magda, Vertus, Luna, Marova out of the 25 ones formed hypocotyls at AlCl3 concentrations 16 mM.

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511-516 M. Starast, N. Galynskaya, K. Jõgar, T. Tasa, K. Karp and U. Moor
Blueberry diseases survey in Estonia
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Blueberry diseases survey in Estonia

M. Starast¹, N. Galynskaya², K. Jõgar¹, T. Tasa³, K. Karp¹ and U. Moor¹

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences,Department of Horticulture, Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
²The Central Botanic Garden, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 2B Surganava St.,Minsk BY-220012, Republic of Belarus
³Plant Production Inspectorate, Teaduse 2, Saku, Harjumaa 75501, Estonia;e-mail: marge.starast@emu.ee

Abstract:

In Estonian University of Life Sciences at the Department of Horticulture a blueberry-cultivation project was started in 1997. Nowadays blueberry cultivation is developing into a promising activity for small farms and efforts have been made to maintain blueberries in the different regions of the country. Surveys were conducted to determine the occurence of diseases in commercial blueberry fields at three farms of South Estonia. One plantation was located on peat (abandoned peat pits) soil and two plantations on mineral soil. Pesticides were not used in the blueberry plantations. Diseases were observed at the end of harvesting time (late August) in 2006. Several lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.), highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L.) and half-highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum x V. angustifolium.) cultivars were represented. In all plantations several plant diseases were found whereby Pucciniastrum vaccinii Wint. occured often. Lowbush blueberry plants were more disease-resistant than highbush and half-highbush blueberries. In the plantation located on peat soil the infection of diseases was lower.

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231-236 I. Kokina and I. Rashal
Monitoring the population of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei in the South-Eastern part of Latvia
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Monitoring the population of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei in the South-Eastern part of Latvia

I. Kokina¹ and I. Rashal²

¹Department of Biology, University of Daugavpils, Vienības Str. 13, LV-5401, Latvia;e-mail: inese.kokina@navigator.lv;
²Institute of Biology, University of Latvia, Miera Str. 3, Salaspils, LV-2169, Latvia;e-mail: izaks@email.lubi.edu.lv

Abstract:

The population of Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei in the South-Eastern part of Latvia (Latgale region) has been monitored since 1995. In 2005, samples of the pathogen were collected both as conidia and cleistothecia from commercial barley fields. Frequencies of virulence genes, pathotypes and their complexity were calculated. Genes Va1, Va3 and Va13 were presented with medium-high frequencies and frequencies of Va6, Va7, Va9, Va12, Vk and VLa ranged from medium-high to high. A large number of pathotypes was detected, which reflects wide genetic diversity in the pathogen population.

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349-352 A. Sasnauskas, D. Gelvonauskienė, B. Gelvonauskis,V. Bendokas and D. Baniulis
Resistance to fungal diseases of apple cultivars and hybrids in Lithuania
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Resistance to fungal diseases of apple cultivars and hybrids in Lithuania

A. Sasnauskas*, D. Gelvonauskienė, B. Gelvonauskis,V. Bendokas and D. Baniulis

Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, LT-54334, Babtai, Kaunas district, Lithuania
* Corresponding author; e-mail: A.Sasnauskas@lsdi.lt

Abstract:

Thirty apple (Malus domestica Mill.) cultivars and hybrids were evaluated for resistance to scab (Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint.), apple blotch (Phyllosticta mali Pr.at Del.) and canker (Nectria galligena Bres.). Resistance to scab and apple blotch were studied in 2003–2005 and to canker in 2005. Injuries caused by fungal diseases were evaluated according to a 6 point scale: 0 – no disease symptoms detected on leaves or branches, 5 – injured more than 75% of leaf area or, in the case of canker, the branch is girdled by distorted area. Meteorological conditions were favourable or moderately favourable for the development of pathogens. It was ascertained that apple hybrids No 20429 and No 20016 are characterized as complex-resistant to scab, apple blotch and canker. Cultivar ‘Kurnakovskoe’ and hybrids No 19399, No 19707, No 19646, No 19942, No 20235, No 20239, No 20978 and No 24-40-52 are characterized as complex-resistant to scab and apple blotch. Cultivars ‘Delikates’, ‘Anteĭ’, hybrids No 25-50-126 and No 25-50-132 were the most sensitive to scab; ‘Pamyať Syubarovoĭ’ and No 25-51-122, to apple blotch, and ‘Katja’, ‘Yubilyar’, ‘Pamyať Syubarovoĭ’, ‘Bolotovskoe’ and No 19942, to canker.

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549-562 Y. Tomason and P.T. Gibson
Fungal characteristics and varietal reactions of powdery mildew species on cucurbits in the steppes of Ukraine
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Fungal characteristics and varietal reactions of powdery mildew species on cucurbits in the steppes of Ukraine

Y. Tomason¹ and P.T. Gibson²

¹Department of Selection and Seed Production, Dnepropetrovsk State Agrarian University,Voroshilov 25, 49600 Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine; e-mail: yantomason75@mail.ru
² Department of Plant, Soil and Agriculture Systems, Southern Illinois University, 62901,Carbondale, IL, USA; e-mail: pgibson@siu.edu

Abstract:

Powdery mildew caused by fungal species Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlect ex. Fr.) Poll. [syn. Podosphaera xanthii (sect. Sphaerotheca) xanthii (Castag.) U. Braun & N. Shish. Comb. nov.] and Erysiphe cichoracearum D.C. [syn. Golovinomyces cichoracearum (D.C.) Huleta] is the most frequent cucurbit (Cucurbitaceae) crop disease in the northern steppes of Ukraine. Species commonly cultivated in Ukraine (melon, watermelon, squash) were colonized by both species. Ash gourd (Benincasa hispida Cogn.) and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) were colonized only by E. cichoracearum. Sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica M.J. Roem) and fig-leaved gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia L.) were not colonized by either of these fungi. Varieties within species varied from resistant to highly susceptible. Four melon varieties were agronomically elite and had resistance to both species. Those two species were consistently differentiated by the location on the conidia where germination occurred, and by the ratio of conidial length to width. Indicator host species and varieties can provide a tentative identification of which powdery mildew species are present in the field.Varietal differentials suggested that races 1 & 2 of S. fuliginea were present onwatermelon, and that race 1 and at least one other race were present on melon.

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55–62 R. Sestras, E. Tamas and A. Sestras
Morphological and genetic peculiarities of fruits in several winter apple varieties which confer resistance to damage
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Morphological and genetic peculiarities of fruits in several winter apple varieties which confer resistance to damage

R. Sestras¹, E. Tamas¹ and A. Sestras²

¹University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, No. 3-5 Manastur St., 3400 Cluj-Napoca, Romania; e-mail: rsestras@email.ro
²Horticultural Research Station, 3-5 Horticultorilor St., Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Abstract:

Among 15 winter apple varieties studied for their resistance to the damage of fruits, Golden Delicious was susceptible to fruit injury, while the Florina, Idared and Granny Smith can be considered resistant to pricking, cutting and hitting of the fruits. The variability of the morphological characteristics of the fruits was relatively low, the fruit volume being averagely variable and the fruit resistance to injury being the character with the highest variability (s% = 26.4). The resistance of the fruits to injury was not correlated with their height, diameter, weight, shape and volume. The characteristics of the fruits have a strong genetic determinism, but the additive effects of the genes do not play the most important role in all cases. For the fruit resistance to injury the big differences between heritability coefficients values in a broad and narrow sense signify the fact that the resistance to injury of apples is influenced not only by additive effects but also by the dominance and epistasis effects of the genes.

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