Impact of sowing speed on the introduction of winter wheat seeds in differently-tilled soils
¹Department of Agricultural Machinery, Lithuanian University of Agriculture,Studentu St. 15A, LT-53361 Kauno r., Lithuania; e-mail: email@example.com
²Department of Soil Management, Lithuanian University of Agriculture,Studentu St. 11, LT-53361 Kauno r., Lithuania
³Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, 75501 Saku, Harjumaa, Estonia
Research tests in Europe disclosed that minimized soil tillage changes the soil qualities, the distribution of harvested crop residues (especially straw) in the soil, and the conditions of seed introduction into the soil, etc. In addition, completely different requirements are needed for design and technological parameters of the seeders in minimal soil tillage or no-tillage soils if compared with traditional seeders used in tilled soils.The paper describes the tests of winter wheat sowing in differently-tilled soils. Theimpact of the sowing speed of the winter wheat seeds on the even introduction and the distribution of the various size soil lumps in the seed bed layers was investigated. Furthermore, the change of the soil hardness and moisture content in various soil depths in differently-tilled soils was tested.Research suggested that the soil hardness in the winter wheat seed introduction zone inminimal soil tillage or no-tillage soils was approximately 250 kPa, and was significantly lower in tilled soil, i.e., 100 kPa. When winter wheat seeds were sown into no-tillage soil the sowing speed had greater impact on the composition of the soil lumps in the seed bed if compared with other more intensive soil tillage technologies. The tests disclosed that when the speed of the drill was increased from 8 to 12 km h-1, the number of small soil lumps (<2 mm) in all the layers of seed bed minimized and the amount of larger than 5 mm soil lumps maximized. The even introduction of seeds was negligible in minimal tillage soils.