Tag Archives: seed yield

033–043 A. Bender
Impact of the seeding and nitrogen fertilizer rates of spring wheat that is used as a cover crop on the yielding ability of tetraploid red clover stand established at different seeding rates
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Impact of the seeding and nitrogen fertilizer rates of spring wheat that is used as a cover crop on the yielding ability of tetraploid red clover stand established at different seeding rates

A. Bender

Estonian Crop Research Institute, Aamisepa 1, EE 48 309 Jõgeva, Estonia
e-mail: ants.bender@etki.ee

Abstract:

In the years 2013–2014, a field trial was conducted at the Estonian Crop Research Institute in order to investigate a possibility of using spring wheat as a cover crop in the establishment of red clover seed field. In the trial the cover crop had four different seeding and fertilization rates. Two tetraploid red clover cultivars, ‘Varte’ (early) and ‘Ilte’ (late), were seeded at rates 2, 4, 6 and 8 kg PLS per hectare in four replications. In the year of sowing the height and density of generative tillers of spring wheat, the grain yield and its quality, the number of red clover plants per m², and the seed yield of red clover and its quality in the 1st year of harvest were determined. Economic feasibility was calculated based on the prices valid at the time of trial conduction. The trial confirmed that while establishing a red clover seed field, it is possible to replace the earlier recommended six-rowed early barley cultivars with early spring wheat cultivars. It is expedient to reduce the seeding rate and nitrogen fertilizer rate of cover crop by one third. The optimum seeding rate of tetraploid red clover cultivars was 4–6 kg PLS ha-1.

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589-602 S. Rancane, K. Makovskis, D. Lazdina, M. Daugaviete, I. Gutmane and P. Berzinš
Analysis of economical, social and environmental aspects of agroforestry systems of trees and perennial herbaceous plants
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Analysis of economical, social and environmental aspects of agroforestry systems of trees and perennial herbaceous plants

S. Rancane¹*, K. Makovskis², D. Lazdina², M. Daugaviete², I. Gutmane¹ and P. Berzinš¹

¹LLU Research Institute of Agriculture, Zemkop bas instituts 7, Skr veri, Latvia
2Latvia State Forest Research Institute Silava, Rigas 11, Salaspils, Latvia; *Correspondence: 1sarmite.rancane@inbox.lv

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the economic, social and environmental aspects, that promote choosing an agroforestry system and continuing agricultural production instead of simple afforestation of agricultural land. Material for the study was collected in an experimental demo field located in the central part of Latvia (56°41 N and 25°08 E) established in the spring of 2011, nearby Skr veri. Two legumes – fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam.) ‘Gale’, poor-alkoloid lupine (Lupinus polyphyllus L.) ‘Valfrids’ and two perennial grass cultivars – reed canary grass (RCG) (Phalaris arundinacea L.) ‘Bamse’ and festulolium (x Festulolium pabulare) ‘Felina’ were sown between the tree rows and in monoculture on drained mineral soil. Four different fertilisation treatments for herbaceous plants – control (without fertiliser), mineral fertilisers, wastewater sludge and wood ash were used. Biomass, seed yield, agricultural management cost have been investigated since the establishment of experiment in 2011. Potential benefits from growing herbaceous plants for seed, biomass production and possible future income from tree wood and non-wood goods were calculated. Management cost of agroforestry system, plantation forest and traditional sowing were analyzed. The growth of herbaceous plants for seed production together with hybrid aspen in agroforestry system during a 5 year period has a positive balance with all types of fertilisers. The growth of herbaceous plants in a monoculture for biomass production in a 3 year period had a positive balance for all types of organic fertilisations at both cutting frequencies. Positive balance by applying mineral fertiliser was achieved only at two-cut cutting regime.

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711-720 J. Slepetys
Influence of cutting and management regimes on fodder galega for forage and seed production
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Influence of cutting and management regimes on fodder galega for forage and seed production

J. Slepetys

Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Institute of Agriculture,Instituto al. 1, Akademija, Kedainiai, LT-58344, Lithuania;e-mail: jonas.slepetys@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Field trials were designed to identify the most suitable time for the last cut and to ascertain whether it is possible to alleviate the consequences of improper timing of the cut by using the young and old sward under mixed management for forage and seed. Due to the autumn cut of the aftermath, a significant reduction in herbage dry matter yield and metabolizable energy was obtained in the first and second cuts in the following year. When autumn aftermath had been taken annually for four years, the productivity of the sward significantly declined when the cuts had been taken during the August 15 – October 15 period. The most unsuitable cutting time, when the greatest yield reduction occurred and the adverse effect of autumn aftermath cutting persisted longest, was found to be mid August – beginning of September. When the sward had been cut during the period middle August – beginning of September, a sharp, significant reduction occurred in the content of total and protein nitrogen, water-soluble carbohydrates and starch in roots. The greatest reduction in root mass in the 20 cm soil layer occurred in galega sward when it had been used for forage for four years. In the case of mixed management for forage and seed galega root mass was higher. When old sward of galega was used under mixed management for forage and seed, the negative effects of autumn aftermath cutting were alleviated or eliminated more rapidly.

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499-509 D. Kumar, R. Seth, S. Natarajan, G.K. Dwivedi and Y.S. Shivay
Seed yield response of marvel grass (Dichanthium annulatum) to cutting management and nitrogen fertilisation in central India
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Seed yield response of marvel grass (Dichanthium annulatum) to cutting management and nitrogen fertilisation in central India

D. Kumar¹*, R. Seth¹, S. Natarajan¹, G.K. Dwivedi¹ and Y.S. Shivay²

¹Division of Seed Technology, Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi (UP-284003), India; e-mail: dineshctt@yahoo.com
*2Present Address: Division of Agronomy, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, NewDelhi-110 012, India

Abstract:

A three-year field trial (1997–2000) was conducted to determine the most suitable cutting management practice and nitrogen level for enhanced seed production in Dichanthium annulatum grass under central Indian conditions. The trial was arranged in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications, comprising all combinations of 3 cutting management practices (clipping, one cut and uncut) and 4 nitrogen levels (0, 20, 40 and 60 kg N ha-1). In general, cutting and clipping did not favour seed production in marvel grass in this experiment. The uncut treatment produced significantly more seed (mean 68.6 kg ha-1) than clipping (mean 58.9 kg ha-1) and one-cut (mean 52.4 kg ha-1) treatments at all the seed harvests, except during April 1999 and April 2000. During Nov. 1997, Nov. 1998, and Nov. 1999 seed harvests, N levels 20, 40 and 60 kg ha-1 did not differ significantly with respect to seed yield. However, in April 1999 and April 2000 seed harvests, the seed yield increased significantly up to 40 kg N ha-1. The average seed yields obtained during April 1999 and 2000 at 0, 20, 40 and 60 kg N ha-1 were 70.7, 75.6, 84.2 and 84.9 kg ha-1, respectively.

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385-388 P. Sooväli and A. Bender
The occurrence of powdery mildew on crested hairgrass in different growing conditions
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The occurrence of powdery mildew on crested hairgrass in different growing conditions

P. Sooväli and A. Bender

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 48309 Jõgeva, Estonia; e-mail: pille.soovali@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

Crested hairgrass (Koeleria gracilis Pers., syn. K. macrantha (Ledeb.) is classed as a good turfgrass. A first cultivar ‘Ilo’, released by the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute was entered into the Estonian Variety List in 1997. Seed production agrotechnics of crested hairgrass cultivar ‘Ilo’ was studied in field experiments at the Jõgeva PBI in 2001–2005. It has been recognized that the incidence and severity of disease level and seed yield losses are influenced by pathogens and weather. For four seasons the severity of the occurrence of powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis DC.) was investigated in these field trials. Disease infection was scored by visual assessment of full plants at shooting, flowering and seed ripening stages and at post–harvest re-growth on a 5–point scale. Infection was more intensive in the flowering stage: 2.6 points (2002), 3.0 (2003) and 3.7 (2004). Infection at post–harvest re-growth was assessed at 3.1 points in 2002.

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121–133 I. Brazauskiene and E. Petraitiene
Effects of fungicide application timing on the incidence and severity of Alternaria blight (Alternaria brassicae) and on the productivity of spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera annua Metzg.)
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Effects of fungicide application timing on the incidence and severity of Alternaria blight (Alternaria brassicae) and on the productivity of spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera annua Metzg.)

I. Brazauskiene and E. Petraitiene

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Department of Plant Pathology and Protection, Instituto al. 1, Akademija, Dotnuva, LT-58344, Kedainiai distr., Lithuania;
e-mail: brazausk@lzi.lt, egle@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Three field experiments were carried out with the spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera annua Metzg.) cv. ‘Star’ to investigate the incidence, severity and harmfulness of Alternaria blight (Alternaria brassicae) and to test the possibility of reducing the disease pressure by fungicidal spray applications of 45% Sportak (a.i. prochloraz) 0.675 kg a.i. ha-1 and 25% Folicur (a.i. tebuconazole) 0.25 kg a.i. ha-1. The fungicides were applied at different times, i.e. after the first spots ofAlternaria blight had appeared on the lower, middle and upper leaves or on siliques and at the end of spring oilseed rape flowering. Alternaria blight was present in crops of the spring oilseed rape cv. ‘Star’ in all the experimental years. The disease severity varied in individual years and was heavily dependent on the weather conditions (amount of precipitation and temperature). Of all the experimental years, the most conductive conditions to the spread and development of Alternaria blight on spring rape siliques occurred in 1998, when disease spots covered 18.65% of the surface area of siliques in the untreated plots. The tested fungicides had little effect on the disease incidence, however, prochloraz and tebuconazole applied on all dates declined the disease severity. The highest efficacy was recorded when the fungicides were applied after the first symptoms of Alternaria blight had been spotted on siliques. Tebuconazole suppressed the disease severity more effectively than prochloraz.
In the year most favourable for Alternaria blight occurrence (1998), the seed yield in the untreated plots was by up to 0.07 t ha-1 lower, and the disease severity on siliques was as much as 3.2 times higher than in the fungicide-sprayed treatment. The highest average spring rape seed yield increase resulting from fungicidal spray applications during the period 1997–1999 amounted to 0.040 t ha-1. Fungicides declined the content of Alternaria blight diseased seeds per silique, increased 1,000-seed weight, however, no significant effect of fungicides was identified on the number of siliques per plant and the number of seeds per siliqua.

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229–243 G. Sidlauskas and S. Bernotas
Some factors affecting seed yield of spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)
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Some factors affecting seed yield of spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

G. Sidlauskas¹ and S. Bernotas²

¹Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Akademija 5051, Dotnuva parish, Kedainiai distr., Lithuania, e-mail: gvidas@lzi.lt
²Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture Vezaiciai branch, Vezaiciai, LT-5845 Klaipeda distr., Lithuania, e-mail: filialas@vezaiciai.lzi.lt

Abstract:

The effect of nitrogen rates, time of nitrogen application, concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in aboveground plant dry matter, stand population density, mean daily temperature, precipitation rate, growing degree days accumulated by plants at different growing stages and the duration of vegetative growth period on seed yield of Star, a cultivar of Brassica napus L., were studied in the field experiment. The seed yield was significantly affected by nitrogen rates of up to 120  kg ha-1. Further increase in nitrogen fertilisation had only a little effect on the seed yield of spring oilseed rape. There was a possibility to prolong the nitrogen application time until the start of flowering. However, in poorest soils, especially under unfavourable growing and development conditions, late nitrogen application could be much less effective. Nitrogen concentration in plant dry matter at 4–5 leaf stage, at the start and end of flowering and at the seed development stage had a significant effect on seed yield of spring oilseed rape. Phosphorus concentration was not important in the second part of vegetative growth. Potassium concentration, on the contrary, in the first part. With an increase of stand population density to up to 170 plant m-2 seed yield of spring oilseed rape was increasing. The increase in the duration of vegetative growth period and precipitation rate resulted in a higher seed yield. Meanwhile, the increase of mean daily temperatures and growing degree days had a negative effect on seed yield of spring oilseed rape. Presented regression equations could be used for a model for prognosis of seed yield of spring oilseed rape, based on agronomic and climatic factors.

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