Tag Archives: Seedbed preparation

xxx M. Buřič, P. Novák, and J. Hůla
Effect of PTO- driven tillage machines on soil particles transfer
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Effect of PTO- driven tillage machines on soil particles transfer

M. Buřič, P. Novák*, and J. Hůla

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: novakpetr@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Displacement of soil particles by erosion can be seen as a major threat to the quality of agricultural land in the conditions of Czech Republic. While the effects of water and wind erosion have long been investigated and reported, the effect of soil tillage technology on soil particles translocation are relatively new area of agriculture research. Soil tillage may contribute to the undesirable translocation of soil particles towards lower-lying parts of fields especially on slopes. The effect of soil tillage implements on soil particle translocation has not been sufficiently explained yet. The object of this research was to assess the influence of PTO (power takeoff)-driven tillage machines on soil particle translocation during secondary tillage (soil preparation). Measurements to determine the displacement of soil particles were performed in location Nesperská Lhota in the Central Bohemia Region. Measurements were performed on a sandy loam cambisol after harvest winter cereals (winter wheat). To indicate displacement of soil particles was used grit of white limestone (size 10–16 mm). Limestone was put down into the trench with known position orthogonal to the direction of working operations. Subsequently were performed working operations in the specified sequence. Limestone particles were counted and weighed in each section. It was detected by measuring the different nature of displacement for each machine. Statistical significance of differences in the weight of translocated particles was evaluated for different type of machines.

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799–805 P. Novák and J. Hůla
The influence of sloping land on soil particle translocation during secondary tillage
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The influence of sloping land on soil particle translocation during secondary tillage

P. Novák* and J. Hůla

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: novakpetr@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Tillage erosion causes the undesirable changes in the soil, mainly decreased of fertility and other functions of soil. The field experiment was aimed at measuring the influence of sloping field on the translocation of soil particles during seedbed preparation by Lemken Kompaktor seedbed combination. Sandy-loam Cambisol is on this field. Depth of soil tillage was 0.10 m, operating speed was 4.5 km h-1. To indicate the soil particles displacement limestone grit with the fraction size of 10–16 mm was used. The measurement results document that differences between movement of seedbed combination on the flat ground and upslope movement (angle of the slope 8.1°) are minimal in terms of displacement of soil particles. But the variant of downslope movement (angle of the slope 9.8°) showed statistically significantly higher values of translocation distances. The dependence of the translocation is in all cases described by an exponential function. The upslope movement of the machine for soil tillage cannot be understood as a full-value corrective measure to the incorrectly chosen direction of downslope movement.

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847-854 E. Nugis, J. Kuht, A. Etana & I. Håkansson
Effects of seedbed characteristics and surface layer hardeningon crop emergence and early plant growth
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Effects of seedbed characteristics and surface layer hardeningon crop emergence and early plant growth

E. Nugis¹, J. Kuht², A. Etana³ & I. Håkansson³

¹Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, 75501 Saku, Estonia
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
³Department of Soil Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box
7014, S-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden

Abstract:

The emergence and early growth of barley were studied in seedbeds of various properties arranged in plastic boxes. The main objective was to check whether results similar to those obtained in Sweden (Håkansson et al., 2001) could be obtained under somewhat different conditions. In an experiment in Tartu, Estonia, the effects of sowing depth in a sandy loam and a silt loam were studied. Under suitable moisture conditions, sowing at 5 or 10 cm led to lower and later emergence than sowing at 2 cm in both soils. In the silt loam, the effects of surface layer hardening caused by irrigation immediately after sowing was also studied. Since the surface layer started hardening before crop emergence, the number of plants that emerged was considerably reduced. Early loosening of the hardening layer eliminated a large part of the detrimental effect. In an experiment in Saku, Estonia, the effects of moderate compaction of the layer under the seed was studied in a clayey silt and a silty sand. Compaction of this layer improved the early growth of the crop.

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