Tag Archives: separation

xxx V. Bulgakov, S. Nikolaenko, M. Arak, I. Holovach, Z. Ruzhуlo and J. Olt
Mathematical model of cleaning potatoes on surface of spiral separator
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Mathematical model of cleaning potatoes on surface of spiral separator

V. Bulgakov¹, S. Nikolaenko¹, M. Arak², I. Holovach¹, Z. Ruzhуlo¹ and J. Olt²*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Heroyiv Oborony street 15, UA03041Kyiv, Ukraine
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

Cleaning potato tubers from soil impurities and plant debris after digging them out of soil is a topical problem in the work process of potato production. Therefore, the engineering of new designs of potato heap separators necessitates the further studying of them and the optimisation of their kinematic and design parameters, which must not only ensure the high quality of cleaning, but also rule out the possibility of damaging the tubers. The aim of this study is to determine the design and kinematic parameters of the improved design of the spiral potato separator, which will ensure the high quality of cleaning and rule out the possibility of damaging the tubers, on the basis of the development of the new theory of potato tuber’s motion on the surface of the separator. An analytical study has been carried out resulting in the construction of the equivalent schematic model of the interaction between the potato tuber and separator, the tuber being approximated by a material point on the surface formed by the two cantilevered spirals, which are the separator’s tools. The separator’s spirals are driven to rotate and at the same time they can perform oscillations in the vertical and axial plane under the action of the varying load generated by the continuous feeding of the potato heap for separation. In the model, the forces acting on the potato tuber’s body are applied to it, the coordinate axes that have been selected and appropriately oriented are shown. A system of equations has been set up for the constructed equivalent schematic model, comprising three differential equations of the potato tuber body’s motion on the surface of the trough formed by the two cantilevered spirals. The determined kinematic and design parameters will allow to raise the quality of cleaning potato tubers from soil impurities and plant debris.

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1099–1106 J. Sander and T. Jehlička
Use of spiral conveyor in the processing of granular waste materials
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Use of spiral conveyor in the processing of granular waste materials

J. Sander¹* and T. Jehlička²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ 165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ 165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: sander@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The work presents a construction solution, verification of operation function and evaluation of the efficiency of a spiral separator in processing of agricultural, food industry and other granular waste. The common method of processing waste is based on crushing and subsequent sorting by various physical and mechanical properties. Crushing waste results in a heterogeneous mix of particles with a substantial size and weight difference and major share of dangerous powder particles. Thus, specific requirements are put on the conveying and manipulation of the mixture. The solution is using pneumatic conveying and closed sub-pressure separators. Under laboratory pilot conditions a sub-pressure spiral separator was designed and tested. The separator is designed as an immobile drum sieve in which a rotating axis-free helix is inserted. The inside space of the drum sieve is linked axially to the sub-pressure pipe of the combined conveyor. A light aspiration proportion (dust particles) are carried by the air flow while the granular particles with big specific weight and specified size make the sieve fraction. The particles larger than the separation apertures of the sieve are carried mechanically by the helix. The separating efficiency was observed on a mix of granular materials at same operation conditions. The contents of the mix of granular materials varied in size, specific weight and in the proportion of dust particles. Evaluation of the separating possibilities of the spiral separator verified the operation applicability of the system for separation and conveying of various agricultural, food and other granular materials. 

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