Tag Archives: silage

298–306 F. Tan, I.S. Dalmıs and F. Koc
Effects of compaction pressure on silage fermentation in bunker silo
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Effects of compaction pressure on silage fermentation in bunker silo

F. Tan¹*, I.S. Dalmıs² and F. Koc³

¹University of Namık Kemal, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Biosystem Engineering, Campus street, Number:1, TR59030 Tekırdag, Turkey
²University of Namık Kemal, Faculty of Corlu Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University 1, Sokak No:13, TR59860 Corlu/Tekirdag, Turkey
³University of Namık Kemal, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, Campus street, Number:1, 59030 Tekirdag, Turkey.
*Correspondence: ftan@nku.edu.tr

Abstract:

The aim of this research was to determine the effects of compaction pressure on maize silage fermentation under field conditions. The CAT 955 L type work machine was used for the compaction of the material. In this research, a pressure measurement system was developed to measure the compaction pressure in bunker silos. In bunker silos, 24 points for pressure and temperature measurement were identified. Chemical and microbiological analyzes were made by taking samples from each measurement point. The lowest temperature is measured in the back wall of the silo. There is a significant relationship between pressure and temperature. Pressure had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on silage fermentation. There was a significant correlation between regions in bunker silo and pressure (R2 = 0.914, P < 0.01).

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331-342 M. Luna-del Risco, A. Normak and K. Orupõld
Biochemical methane potential of different organic wastes and energy crops from Estonia
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Biochemical methane potential of different organic wastes and energy crops from Estonia

M. Luna-del Risco¹, A. Normak¹ and K. Orupõld¹²

¹Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences. Kreutzwaldi 5, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
²Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences
e-mail: 1 mario.luna@emu.ee, 1 argo.normak@emu.ee, 1,2 kaja.orupold@emu.ee

Abstract:

 The biochemical methane potential (BMP) of different Estonian substrates as alternative sources for biogas production was studied. For this purpose, the BMP test was carried out in batch mode at mesophilic temperature (36°C). Substrates were divided into 2 groups: agricultural substrates (silage, hay, cattle and pig slurry) and food industry residues (milk, brewery and cereal industry residues). Methane yields obtained were between 286–319 L kgVS-1 for silage and hay, 238–317 L kgVS-1 for animal slurry and 272–714 L kgVS-1 for agro-industrial wastes. The highest methane yield was obtained from sour cream (714    L kgVS-1), the lowest (238 L kgVS-1) from cattle slurry. In overall, our results suggest that all tested substrates can be treated anaerobically and are potential sources for the production of methane.

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793-800 H. Kaldmäe, O. Kärt, A. Olt, A. Selge. I. Keres
Inoculant effects on red clover silage fermentation products and nutritive value
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Inoculant effects on red clover silage fermentation products and nutritive value

H. Kaldmäe¹, O. Kärt¹, A. Olt, A¹. Selge². I. Keres²

¹Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences,
²Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences,
Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: helgi.kaldmae@emu.ee

Abstract:

The study investigated effects of five different microbial inoculants on silage fermentation and nutritive value. Silage was prepared from red clover-rich material with dry matter content after 24 hours of wilting of 170 g kgí1 for the first cut and 430 g kgí1 for the second cut. Tests with five different commercial inoculants were based on different strains of Lactobacillus plantarum which were used alone or in combinations with other lactic acid bacteria (1/BO, 2/BI, 3/SI, 4/EC, 5/BM), and chemical additive (CHEM) were used. Six commercial additives were compared with the untreated control. The additives were applied to fresh forage at the levels recommended by the manufacturers. Chemical compositions of the first and second cut of red clover were significantly different í crude protein 176 g kgí1 and 143 g kgí1 ; NDF 366 g kgí1 and 503 g kgí1 DM respectively. In the first trial, silages treated with 2/BI had lower levels of acetic acid 25.5 g kgí1 and ethanol 8.0 g kgí1 compared to the control values of 35.6 g kgí1 and 11.6 g kgí1 (P<0.05). Otherwise, the pH, and contents of ammonia nitrogen, ethanol and organic acids were no different from the control silage. In the second trial, silage treated with 1/BO and 4/EC showed the highest contents of lactic acid. Compared to the untreated control silage, the acetic acid content was lower in silages treated with 2/BI, 3/SI and 5/BM (P<0.05). The lactic acid:acetic acid ratio was higher in inoculated silages: for 1/BO, 2/BI; 3/SI, 4/EC and 5/BM it was 2.73; 2.17; 1.98; 2.03 and 2.87, respectively. The same ratio for the control silage was 1.83. All commercial inoculants improved the fermentation quality of red clover silage under the conditions stated. No differences were found between dry matter in vitro digestibility of the inoculated and the control silage for both the first and second cut. Digestibility of the red clover silage treated with CHEM was higher than that of the control silage by 4.6% for the first cut and by 7.3% for the second cut (P<0.001).

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483-492 L. Baležentienė and S. Mikulionienė
Chemical composition of galega mixtures silages
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Chemical composition of galega mixtures silages

L. Baležentienė and S. Mikulionienė

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentų 11, LT-4324, Akademija, Kaunas distr.,Lithuania; e-mail: ligita.balezentiene@ lzuu.lt

Abstract:

A b s t r a c t . According to the near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy data, the chemical composition of fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam.) is more valuable forage than traditional fodder plants such as the red clover and timothy at budding-early flowering stage. Due to the high concentration of total protein (231 g kg-1) and some amino acids (asp, glu, phenylala), galega fresh mass could be used as a substitute for the soybean cake for 1.4–2.9 kg equivalent amounts. The mean of asp, glu and phenylala content in galega DM constitutes 68.22–56.37 % of their concentration in soybean cake. The high total protein concentration of fodder galega which was determined indicated that this crop could be used for increasing the protein content of livestock rations and successfully replace soybean cake, which is imported and expensive.For supplying livestock with succulent forage during the year and for producing highquality silage, galega mixtures with grasses containing many water-soluble carbohydrates could be ensiled. Possibilities of ensiling mixtures of early flowering stage fodder galega (1:1) with orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), timothy (Phleum pratense L.), wheat grass (Elytrigia repens L.), milk stage maize and sugar beet leaves were studied at Research Station and Training Farm of Lithuanian University of Agriculture. The addition of 0.3% FPC to galega-maize silage had no significant influence on DM (225 and 214 g kg-1), mineral element concentration and pH value (4.7 and 4.4) as compared to galega-maize silage without preservatives. The results of ensiling indicate that the quality of pure galega and galega-wheat grass silage was poor quality due to an unbalanced ratio of protein and water-soluble carbohydrates. Fodder galega appears suitable for ensiling with a grass component (orchardgrass, timothy or maize) which accumulated not less than 30% DM.

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