Tag Archives: soil bulk density

1896-1904 K. Tamm, I. Bender, E. Nugis, L. Edesi and T. Võsa
The impact of the termination technology of agro-ecological service crops on soil properties in open field vegetable production
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The impact of the termination technology of agro-ecological service crops on soil properties in open field vegetable production

K. Tamm*, I. Bender, E. Nugis, L. Edesi and T. Võsa

Estonian Crop Research Institute, J.Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva, Jõgeva Vald, Estonia
*Correspondence: kalvi.tamm@etki.ee

Abstract:

The agro-ecological service crops (ASC) are introduced in the agro-ecosystems to provide or enhance ecological services, thus promoting the whole soil-plant system equilibrium. To avoid competition with the subsequent cash crops, the growth of the interposed ASC is terminated in advance of the cash crop planting. The traditional, most widespread technique to terminate the ASC is incorporation as green manure into the soil by tillage (GM). However, since tillage includes energy and labour consuming and soil disturbing operations, the use of no/reduced tillage techniques (as the roller crimping technology-RC) has received increasing interest.
An international research consortium (SOILVEG) including Estonian Crop Research Institute, was established in 2015 with the aim to study among others the impact of ASC termination on soil dry bulk density (BD), water content, soil structure and microbiological activity. Data are collected from Estonian trials in 2016 and 2017 at Jõgeva.
The physical properties of 0–40 cm soil layers were determined. Higher BD in soil layers (0–20 cm) of plots with ASC and RC was determined comparing to the GM and control plots. Bigger water content in same layer of plots with ASC and the RC was determined comparing to the GM plots. The use of the ASC-s helped to arise ratio of agronomically preferred soil particles.
Microbial activity was estimated by assessing of enzyme dehydrogenase activity in 0–20 cm soil layer. There were no statistically relevant differences in soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) between the RC and GM treatments.

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139–144 J. Kuht, E. Reintam, H. Loogus and E. Nugis
Changes of nitrogen assimilation and intracellular fluid pH in plants of barley depending on bulk density of compacted soils
Abstract |

Changes of nitrogen assimilation and intracellular fluid pH in plants of barley depending on bulk density of compacted soils

J. Kuht¹, E. Reintam², H. Loogus³ and E. Nugis³

¹Institute of Field Crop Husbandry, Estonian Agricultural University
²Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Estonian Agricultural University
³Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture

Abstract:

The penetration resistance of different arable soils is quite different depending on the Estonian area. We are briefly introducing the results of our research on soil compaction, penetration resistance of different soils in Estonia, uptake of nutrients and changes of intracellular fluid pH of barley depending on soil bulk densities. These data were mainly collected in a research field (58º23´N, 26º44´E) of the Estonian Agricultural University, with different levels of soil compaction (10 levels) on sandy loam Fragi-Stagnic Albeluvisol (WRB) soil in 2001 and 2002. The investigated cultural plant was spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). In Estonia H. Loogus has studied changes of cellular fluid pH, depending on seedbed, by using  microelectrodes directly on plants by quick method. The effect of soil bulk density on cellular fluid pH of barley leaves generally depends of number of passes. The experiment showed also that a higher decrease in nitrogen content started at the same soil bulk density value as the cellular fluid pH quickly increased. If the soil bulk density was increasing up to level 1.52–1.54 Mg m-3, the cellular fluid pH suddenly increased very quickly. Nitrogen assimilation change in plants of barley decreased at the same bulk density values as a remarkable increase of intracellular pH was observed.

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