Tag Archives: soil compaction

xxx M. Barát, V. Rataj, Š. Týr, M. Macák and J. Galambošová
Effect of controlled traffic farming on weed occurrence
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Effect of controlled traffic farming on weed occurrence

M. Barát¹*, V. Rataj¹, Š. Týr², M. Macák¹ and J. Galambošová¹

¹Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Biosystems, Tr. Andreja Hlinku 2, SK94976 Nitra, Slovakia
²Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Department of Sustainable Agriculture and Herbology, Tr. Andreja Hlinku 2, SK94976 Nitra, Slovakia
*Correspondence: xbarat@is.uniag.sk

Abstract:

Soil compaction caused by field traffic is one of the most important yield limiting factors. Moreover, published results report that soil over-compaction inhibits the uptake of plant nutrients and decreases their ability to compete with weeds. Controlled Traffic Farming (CTF) is technology which prevents excessive soil compaction and minimizes compacted area to the least possible area of permanent traffic lines. A long-term experiment was established at University farm in Kolinany (Slovakia) in 2010 with 6 m OutTrack CTF system. Random Traffic Farming (RTF) is simulated by 1 annual machinery pass crossing the permanent traffic lines. Aim of presented study was to assess the effect of CTF on weed infection pressure. To achieve this, weed occurrence at different traffic treatments was determined. Emerged weeds per square meter were counted, identified and recorded at 14 monitoring points. Results showed that higher weed infection was found at the area with one machinery pass compared to the non-compacted area. Following weeds were identified: Bromus secalinus L., Stellaria media (L.) VILL., Veronica persica POIR. in LAMK., Poa annua L., Polygonum aviculare L., Convolvulus arvensis L. Occurrence of these weeds could be used as soil compaction indicator. Based on these results it can be concluded, that CTF technology has potential to decrease weed infestation in comparison to RTF system due to ration of non-compacted to compacted area. Moreover, with exact localization of weeds in traffic lines together with exact identification of weed species, it is possible to target the application of herbicides.

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664–673 J. Chyba,, M. Kroulík, K. Krištof and P.A. Misiewicz
The influence of agricultural traffic on soil infiltration rates
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The influence of agricultural traffic on soil infiltration rates

J. Chyba¹,*, M. Kroulík¹, K. Krištof² and P.A. Misiewicz³

¹ Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
² Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Biosystems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
³ Harper Adams University, Department of Crop and Environment Sciences/Engineering, TF10 8NB Newport – Shropshire, United Kingdom
*Correspondence: chyba@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of agricultural machinery passes on soil infiltration rate. The experiment was conducted in a large covered area (Soil Hall) with the sandy loam soil type. Four compactions levels were applied: control, one, two and three tractor passes.
The infiltration measurements were conducted using two methods: Simplified Falling–Head (SFH) and Mini Disk (MD). The other supporting measurements were disturbed soil samples and cone index measurements.
Based on the SFH method it was observed that as the number of passes increased from 0 to 3 the infiltration rate decreased. The MD results also decreased with the increase in the number of passes. The bulk densities (at 0–0.07 m depth) increased with the number of tractor passes, under the conditions of soil gravimetric moisture content ranging between 14 and 18% vol. The cone index values at the depth of 0–0.05 m increased with the number of passes.
When comparing the results obtained using the MD and SFH, a strong relationship was not found. It could be concluded that the SFH method might be more robust and appropriate for determining the effect of the number of tractor passes on the soil water infiltration in these conditions.

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624–634 K. Vennik,, P. Kukk, K. Krebstein and E. Reintam
The relationship between precompression stress and rut depth of different soil types in Estonia
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The relationship between precompression stress and rut depth of different soil types in Estonia

K. Vennik¹,²*, P. Kukk², K. Krebstein² and E. Reintam¹

¹Dept. of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental
Sciences, Estonian University of Soil Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1a, EE 51014 Tartu, Estonia
²The Estonian National Defence College, Riia 12, EE 51013 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: kersti.vennik@mil.ee

Abstract:

In agriculture as well for other purposes off-road vehicles have to move cross-country. Precompression stress is used to describe the load bearing capacity of different soils. The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between precompression stress and rut depth for different Estonian soil types after 1 and 10 passes of a vehicle. Traffic experiments were conducted at eight experiment sites throughout Estonia using a 7 t truck and a 23 t wheeled vehicle. The experiment sites were selected based on the Estonian soil map. Rut depth was measured after the first pass and ten passes. Undisturbed soil samples were collected from topsoil and from subsoil right next to the track. Soil samples were compressed in an oedometer at stresses of 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 600 kPa. The Casagrande procedure was used to determine the precompression stresses. In topsoil, if the moisture content of a soil is high, then the differences in the precompression stress values of the various soil types disappears while in the subsoil layer the precompression stress is more dependent on the soil properties. The precompression stress cannot by itself be used as a threshold value to determine small and large sinkage. The choice of fitting methods for composing of stress compaction curve is critical and led to the preference of the logistic curve. The values of logistic functions at the points of their maximal curvature and calculation based on the area on stress-compaction graph can be used for prediction of rut depths.

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53-62 J. Čedík and R. Pražan
Comparison of tyres for self-propelled sprayers
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Comparison of tyres for self-propelled sprayers

J. Čedík* and R. Pražan

Research institute of Agriculture Engineering, Drnovská 507, 161 01, Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: cedik@vuzt.cz

Abstract:

This article deals with comparison of two types of tyres (MITAS VF and MITAS AC 85) for self-propelled sprayers in terms of their grip properties and effect on soil. The MITAS VF tyre has a new construction allowing it to work with lower inflation pressure and in higher speed than standard tyre. In order to compare the grip properties there was measured dependence of slippage on tractive force. In order to compare the effect on soil there will be measured footprint area of tyre, specific pressure on base (material), compaction of topsoil by means of wire profilograph and penetration resistance of soil by means of penetrometer. The measurement has been taken place on medium-heavy soil, on stubble after wheat cultivation. The MITAS AC tyres showed lesser tread pattern than the MITAS VF tyres. The VF tyres showed also better grip properties and lesser effect on the topsoil. The soil cone index showed statistically not significant difference in comparison with non-compacted soil and it was approximately the same in case of both variants.

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63-72 D. Gutu, J. Hůla, P. Kovaříček and P. Novák,
The influence of a system with permanent traffic lanes on physical properties of soil, soil tillage quality and surface water runoff
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The influence of a system with permanent traffic lanes on physical properties of soil, soil tillage quality and surface water runoff

D. Gutu¹, J. Hůla¹, P. Kovaříček² and P. Novák¹,*

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: novakpetr@tf.czu.cz
²Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering ,p.r.i. , Drnovska 507, 161 01 Prague 6 – Ruzyne, Czech Republic

Abstract:

The system with permanent driving tracks at the module of machines working width 6 metres, practised in a 10-ha field, allowed to consistently separate the area designed for restricted traffic lanes of farm machines from the production area of the field. The aim of the study is to assess the selected indicators of the condition of topsoil, which is characterized by soil porosity, indicators of soil workability, soil ability to absorb water from rainfall and soil loss by wash after four years of controlled traffic system application in a field trial. Indicators of soil condition were evaluated in four variants with different wheel impacts of tractors and other machines on the soil. A field trial was established in the spring 2010; the measured values in the study are from 2013 and 2014. The results show an advantage, which represents concentration of passages into permanent tracks aimed at protection of most part of a plot from soil compaction. Hardness of clods after tillage in autumn 2013 was five times higher in places with random traffic (356.7 kPa) than outside traffic lanes in the system of controlled traffic (70 kPa). An important result is that the system with permanent traffic lanes made it possible to increase the soil capacity of taking up water under intensive rainfall – in comparison to a part of the land with random passes. The results of measurements with a rainfall simulator in April 2014 showed that cumulative surface runoff after sixty minutes was 7.6 l m-2 on the land with random passes while 3.9 l m-2 outside the traffic lanes (32% of the area of the field). The soil loss by wash during water surface runoff was also lower with controlled traffic compared to the variant with random passes. Therefore it is to assume that suitable application of the controlled traffic farming system may be a contribution to soil protection from water erosion.

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121-128 Z. Kviz, M. Kroulik and J. Chyba
Soil damage reduction and more environmental friendly agriculture by using advanced machinery traffic
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Soil damage reduction and more environmental friendly agriculture by using advanced machinery traffic

Z. Kviz, M. Kroulik and J. Chyba

Department of Agricultural Machines, Technical Faculty, Czech University of Agriculture in Prague,Kamycka 129, 16521 Prague, CzechRepublic;
*Correspondence: kviz@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Nowadays, the agriculture technologies using guidance systems during field operations are more and more common all around the world. Machines without satellite navigation in fields have a tendency to pass-to-pass errors, especially unwanted overlaps, resulting in waste of fuel and pesticides, longer working times and also environmental damage. Finally, such errors can be taken as useless additional costs of farming. When utilising satellite guidance for field operations, the pass-to-pass accuracy can be significantly improved and thus it is possible to make the agriculture production more efficient. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate advantages and real possibilities of using advanced machinery guidance systems with regard to energy consumption and efficiency and also more environmental friendly agricultural operations. Real pass-to-pass errors (omissions and overlaps) in a field were measured on different tractor-implement units with and without guidance system utilization. The outcomes from our measurements revealed that there is a statistically significant difference between the total area treated by machinery without any guidance system and machinery using precise guidance systems. It means, better accuracy of machinery passes in fields with guidance systems could help with energy and material savings. Namely the fuel, seeding material or chemicals can be saved up to 6% from a single field operation.

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187-196 F. Varga, Z. Tkáč, T. Šima, Ľ. Hujo, J. Kosiba and D. Uhrinová
Measurement of soil resistance by using a horizontal penetrometer working with the two-argument comparative method
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Measurement of soil resistance by using a horizontal penetrometer working with the two-argument comparative method

F. Varga¹, Z. Tkáč¹, T. Šima²⋅*, Ľ. Hujo¹, J. Kosiba¹ and D. Uhrinová¹

¹Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Transport and Handling, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic 2Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Systems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra, Slovak Republic; *Correspondent author: tomasko.sima@gmail.com

Abstract:

Currently, the interest in land is high and is increased by in relation to the increasing need for livelihood of the population. Therefore, the need for land use to increase its potential production while ensuring a sustained recovery of agricultural systems still exists. The aim of this publication is to test the measurement of the soil resistance impact at different levels of humidity using a newly designed type of a measuring device – a horizontal penetrometer. The measurements were carried out under field conditions by average soil moisture of 8.47% and 14.24%, on the basis of the two parameters comparative method by using a horizontal penetrometer. The proposed measuring device measured the soil resistance in the tire track and outside of the track after five passages of the tractor. Measuring and recording devices to capture the measured values were also designed. From the results, we can indicate that the soil resistance after each passage increases and we also observed that after the first passage, the soil resistance increased by about 48.1% compared to the initial soil resistance. The average soil bulk density corresponds proportionally with the soil resistance increases in both the absolute and relative terms, depending on the number of tractor passages. It is possible to conclude that the newly designed measuring device is working properly and can be used for all types of tractors equipped with a three-point hitch with the tire tread width of 1,000–2,000 mm. The measurement results will be utilized in mapping of the actual conditions of soil environment.

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25-30 J. Chyba, M. Kroulík, J. Lev and F. Kumhála
Influence of soil cultivation and farm machinery passes on water preferential flow using brilliant blue dye tracer
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Influence of soil cultivation and farm machinery passes on water preferential flow using brilliant blue dye tracer

J. Chyba*, M. Kroulík, J. Lev and F. Kumhála

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamýcká129, Prague 6 – Suchdol, 16521, *Correspondence: chyba@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Objective of this study was the investigation of water preferential flow into the soilby brilliant blue dye tracer, under different soil tillage treatment and different soil compactioncaused by farm machinery passes. Brilliant blue dye tracer measurement was supported by coneindex measurement. Measurement was carried out on land divided into several options:a) controlled traffic farming (CTF) with loosening, b) CTF with deep loosening before plotestablishment, c) ploughing, d) ploughing with deep loosening before plot establishment. Forthe mentioned measurement options the measurements were performed inside and outside of thetrack lines of agricultural machinery. Representation of the brilliant blue dye tracer inside of thetrack lines significantly decreases at a depth of 5–10 cm for all variants. This trend is stabilisedbetween depths of 0.10 m to 0.4 m with colour coverage ranging between 10 and 20%. Aninteresting fact was that the colour coverage outside of the tracks without deep loosening beforeplot establishment was higher than measurement with deep loosening. The largest statisticallysignificant differences occurred at a depth of 0.3 m, while the most homogeneous groups (froma total of four groups) were found at depths of 0.05 to 0.1 m and 0.25 to 0.3 m. Cone indexmeasurement confirmed almost 100% increase in penetration resistance inside of traffic lines(2. MPa) in comparison with measurements outside of the traffic lines (1. MPa) in the range ofdepth from 0–0.16 m.

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103-110 T. Šima,, L. Nozdrovický, M. Dubeňová, K. Krištof and J. Krupička
Effect of crop residues on nitrous oxide flux in the controlled traffic farming system during the soil tillage by LEMKEN Rubin 9 disc harrow
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Effect of crop residues on nitrous oxide flux in the controlled traffic farming system during the soil tillage by LEMKEN Rubin 9 disc harrow

T. Šima¹,*, L. Nozdrovický², M. Dubeňová³, K. Krištof⁴ and J. Krupička⁵

¹,²,⁴Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering,
Department of Machines and Production Systems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra,
Slovak Republic; *Correspondence: tomasko.sima@gmail.com
³Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department
of Production Engineering, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra, Slovak Republic
⁵Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department
of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká129, 16521 Prague, Czech Republic

Abstract:

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is one of the most important greenhouse gases. Agriculture, especially soil tillage and the use of fertilisers, significantly contributes to N2O emissions from soil into the atmosphere. The aim of the paper was the comparison of the amount of nitrous oxide emissions released from the soil into the atmosphere depending on crop residues in conditions of a controlled traffic farming (CTF) system. Monitoring points were selected in parts of a field with/ without crop residues and in trafficked and non-trafficked areas. There were realised three variants of the experiment: before soil tillage, right after soil tillage and seven days after soil tillage. Soil tillage was carried out by a LEMKEN Rubin 9 disc harrow with a JOHN DEERE 8230 tractor on the loamy soil after the harvest of winter wheat. The used laboratory method of measuring N2O emissions released from the soil into the atmosphere consists of collecting soil samples from the field and their subsequent analysis in the laboratory. There were used INNOVA devices which consist of a photo-acoustic field gas monitor INNOVA 1412 based on the infrared photo-acoustic detection method, a multipoint sampler INNOVA 1309 used for gas sampling transport to the gas analyser INNOVA 1412, and a notebook with operation software used for the control and setup of the analysis. There was discovered an effect of crop residues and soil compaction on the nitrous oxide flux.

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847-854 E. Nugis, J. Kuht, A. Etana & I. Håkansson
Effects of seedbed characteristics and surface layer hardeningon crop emergence and early plant growth
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Effects of seedbed characteristics and surface layer hardeningon crop emergence and early plant growth

E. Nugis¹, J. Kuht², A. Etana³ & I. Håkansson³

¹Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, 75501 Saku, Estonia
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
³Department of Soil Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box
7014, S-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden

Abstract:

The emergence and early growth of barley were studied in seedbeds of various properties arranged in plastic boxes. The main objective was to check whether results similar to those obtained in Sweden (Håkansson et al., 2001) could be obtained under somewhat different conditions. In an experiment in Tartu, Estonia, the effects of sowing depth in a sandy loam and a silt loam were studied. Under suitable moisture conditions, sowing at 5 or 10 cm led to lower and later emergence than sowing at 2 cm in both soils. In the silt loam, the effects of surface layer hardening caused by irrigation immediately after sowing was also studied. Since the surface layer started hardening before crop emergence, the number of plants that emerged was considerably reduced. Early loosening of the hardening layer eliminated a large part of the detrimental effect. In an experiment in Saku, Estonia, the effects of moderate compaction of the layer under the seed was studied in a clayey silt and a silty sand. Compaction of this layer improved the early growth of the crop.

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