Tag Archives: soil organic matter

263-268 E. Ilumäe, E. Akk, A. Hansson and V. Kastanje
Changes the content of organic matter in soil during the whole cycle of crop rotation
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Changes the content of organic matter in soil during the whole cycle of crop rotation

E. Ilumäe*, E. Akk, A. Hansson and V. Kastanje

Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, 13 Teaduse St. 75501 Saku, Estonia;
*Corresponding author; e-mail: ene.ilumäe@eria.ee

Abstract:

The ecological crop rotation in the present trial has been established as a 10-field rotation. The crop sequence was based on calculation of how much of the nutrients does one or another crop take from the soil and how much will be left in the soil after yield harvesting. The crop sequence in ecological crop rotation was: spring wheat, barley with undersown clover, clover, clover, potato, oat, pea, barley with undersown clover, spring turnip rape. The field experiments were carried out in northem Estonia during 2003–2008.After having analyzed the soil organic matter content throughout all the fields of croprotation it became evident that the alterations of organic matter content in soil were dissimilar. The alterations of organic matter content in all fields were in linear correlation (r 95 higher than 0.549, number of pairs 10). Although more than a half rotation has already passed after the beginning of the trial the results are still probably affected by the number of times the clover has been grown on any particular field.

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517-521 L. Talgre, E. Lauringson, H. Roostalu, A. Astover and A. Makke
Phytomass formation and carbon amount returned to soil depending on green manure crop
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Phytomass formation and carbon amount returned to soil depending on green manure crop

L. Talgre¹, E. Lauringson¹, H. Roostalu², A. Astover² and A. Makke¹

¹ Department of Field Crops and Grasslands, Institute of Agricultural and EnvironmentalSciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: liina.talgre@emu.ee
² Department of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Institute of Agricultural and EnvironmentalSciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia

Abstract:

The trials were carried out during the 2004–2006 growing seasons at the Department of Field Crop and Grassland Husbandry of the Estonian University of Life Sciences. Various green manures and ensuing cereals were studied in respect of phytomass formation and quantity of C returned to soil. The highest amount of organic matter was applied by red clover (8.91 Mg ha–1) and lucerne (8.41 Mg ha–1), and the lowest by unfertilized barley. The total phytomass of pure sowings of barley ranged, depending on the nitrogen fertilizer norm, from 6.55 to 11.54 Mg of dry matter per hectare, of which the grain yield constituted 37.3–43.2%. Sowings of lucerne and red clover added 3.44–3.82 Mg C ha–1 to soil, while sowing of bird’s-foot trefoil supplemented 1.99 Mg C ha–1. Preceding crop determined the phytomass of ensuing crops and the amount of C returned to soil. The amount of C of the oats grown after clover was 5.32 Mg C ha–1, whereas 3.28 Mg C ha–1 was returned to soil. Lucerne pure sowing resulted in 3.17 Mg C ha–1 returned to soil. When oats were preceded by barley (without manure), 2.53 Mg C ha–1 was returned to soil.

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499-508 B. Gajic, G. Dugalic and N. Djurovic
Comparison of soil organic matter content, aggregate composition and water stability of gleyic fluvisol from adjacent forest and cultivated areas
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Comparison of soil organic matter content, aggregate composition and water stability of gleyic fluvisol from adjacent forest and cultivated areas

B. Gajic¹, G. Dugalic² and N. Djurovic¹

¹Institute of Land Management, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, Nemanjina 6,11080 Belgrade, Serbia; e-mail: bonna@agrifaculty.bg.ac.yu
²The Faculty of Agronomy, Cacak, Serbia

Abstract:

The paper includes the results of comparative investigation of soil organic matter (SOM) content, aggregate size distribution (ASD) and water-stability of structural aggregates (WSA) of humus horizon (0–30 cm) of non-carbonate silty clay gleyic fluvisol in the Kolubara river valley (West Serbia) under natural deciduous forest vegetation and the same gleyic fluvisol used for more than 100 years as arable soil.Long-term cultivation significantly (P < 0.01) decreased the SOM content in the ploughhorizon (0–20 cm). Due to long-term anthropogenization, the ASD and WSA in plough and sub-plough (20–30 cm) horizons of cultivated gleyic fluvisol are significantly degraded. In plough and sub-plough horizons, the content of the agronomically most valuable fraction (0.25–10 mm) is decreased about twice (from 67.7–74.0% to 37.1–39.2%), while the content of very coarse aggregates (> 10 mm) is increased to the same degree (from 22.8–31.2 % to 48.3–62.1%).The conversion of forest semigley to continuous cropping using conventional cultivationsignificantly (P < 0.05) decreased the water stability of soil aggregates in the plough horizon. The lowest water-stability is found in structure aggregates > 3 mm. Their content is 2–3 times lower in the plough horizon (12.6–15.6%) than in the same depth zone of forest gleyic fluvisol (31.9–42.3%). Due to anthropogenization, water-stability of micro-aggregates (< 0.25 mm) is decreased in the plough horizon. The content of these aggregates is about twice as high in this horizon (29.9–34.0%), as in the same depth zone of the forest gleyic fluvisol (16.7–17.2%).

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