Translocation of soil particles during primary soil tillage
Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamycka 129,
CZ 165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
The loss of soil particles due to water erosion is a crucial problem of current farming on the soil. However, soil tillage may also contribute to the undesirable transport of soil particles. It is to note that the effects of particular working elements used on implements for soil tillage have not been described in a sufficient way. To determine the translocation of soil particles, measurements were done in the Central Bohemian region. Three basic machines for soil tillage were used for measurements: disc tiller, tine cultivator and five-share plough. Measurements were performed on sandy-loamy Cambisol after harvest of a spring cereal crop. White limestone grit was used for the indication of soil particle translocation. Great translocation of soil particles was observed after soil tillage with tine cultivator and mouldboard plough – the average translocation rates ranged between 0 and 0.9 m. Disc tiller displaced the soil particles into smaller distance (into 0.3–0.45 m). The dependence of tracer weight on a distance from the original location could be described for disc tiller and tine cultivator by an exponential function. The type of soil particle translocation by a mouldboard plough was completely different from the translocation by a disc tiller and tine cultivator. Topsoil turning over by a plough showed the lengthwise and crosswise movement of tracers with a typical dependence of their weight on a distance from the original location. The dependence of tracer weight on a distance from the original location could be described for mouldboard ploug by an quadratic function. Individual machines for primary tillage have a different character of translocation of soil particles.