Tag Archives: soil properties

565–575 P. Šařec and P. Novák
Influence of manure and activators of organic matter biological transformation on selected soil physical properties of Modal Luvisol
Abstract |
Full text PDF (404 kB)

Influence of manure and activators of organic matter biological transformation on selected soil physical properties of Modal Luvisol

P. Šařec¹ and P. Novák²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilization, Kamycka 129, CZ165 00 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamycka 129, CZ165 00 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: psarec@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Agricultural land in the Czech Republic threatened by a combination of water erosion, technogenic compaction and low level of soil carbon. The low levels of carbon in the soil interrelate also with the other threats mentioned. Application of organic matter into soil is one of the ways how to rectify this unfavourable condition. All of its forms can be supplemented by biological transformation’s activators. The aim of this paper was to verify the effect of organic fertilizer with a conditioning activator added, i.e. manure from deep-litter housing of dairy cows with PRP Fix added, and the effect of an activator conditioning soil, i.e. PRP Sol, on the change of soil physical properties, i.e soil bulk density, infiltration ability, cone index. In this respect, field trial was established at locality Lázně Bělohrad. Soil infiltration capabilities were measured using a ring infiltrometer with a diameter of 0.15 meters. Cone index was another measured item provided by the registration penetrometer. Bulk densities of each trial variant were evaluated using Kopecky’s cylinder. Concerning saturated hydraulic conductivity, all the variants treated with manure demonstrated its increase, namely with soil activators applied as well. Favourable effect on soil bulk density values could have been also observed. The change was often below the level of statistical significance. This could have been caused by a short only time of activator’s activity. It can be assumed that the effect is going to be gradual and the verification should be carried out also in following trial years.

Key words:

, , ,




225–238 A. Łachacz, J. Tyburski and K. Romaneckas
The impact of biological agents on properties of heavy-textured soil and productivity of organically grown crops
Abstract |
Full text PDF (376 kB)

The impact of biological agents on properties of heavy-textured soil and productivity of organically grown crops

A. Łachacz¹, J. Tyburski² and K. Romaneckas³*

¹Department of Soil Science and Land Reclamation, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Plac Lodzki 3, PL10 727 Olsztyn, Poland
²Department of Agroecosystems, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Plac Lodzki 3, PL10 719 Olsztyn, Poland
³Institute of Agroecosystems and Soil Sciences, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentų 11, Akademija, LT53 361 Kaunas distr., Lithuania
*Correspondence: kestas.romaneckas@asu.lt

Abstract:

Soils with high content of particles φ ≤ 0.02 mm usually have nonfavourable physical and mechanical properties. In order to determine the impact of biological agents on properties of heavy-textured soils in organic farming systems, in the years of 2007–2009 an on-farm scale field experiment was carried out in Budziszewo, Pomeranian province in Poland. The farm was organically managed for 20 years and was characterized by proper management (an appropriate crop rotation and a high stand of dairy cows). Nevertheless, in spring there were problems with soil drying, which used to delay sowing of spring cereals by ca 2 weeks, which in turn resulted in low yielding. Therefore, the following biological agents, i.e. beneficial microorganisms, were applied in 3 consecutive years 3 times each year. Produced on-farm (biodynamic horn preparation) and the others produced by industry under the trademark of: effective microorganism (EM), Humobak and UGmax. In 2007 silage maize was grown, in 2008 – winter spelt wheat and in 2009 – spring common wheat. The soil samples to study soil properties were collected from 5–15 cm soil layer during the vegetation period. The following soil properties were analysed: granulometric composition, bulk density of dry soil, total porosity, soil humidity and air content during sampling, organic matter content, soil pH, content of macroelements (P, K, Mg), soil aggregation based on dry and wet sieving. Moreover in 2009 additional soil samples were taken from an adjusting neighboring field of the conventional farm with the aim of comparing soil physical properties developed both under organic and conventional management.
The authors concluded that the application of above mentioned biological agents did not affect significantly soil properties. The applied agents did not affect crop productivity, with the exception of Humobak which decreased yield of silage maize and spring common wheat in the range of 41, and 26% respectively. A proper organic management as opposed to application of biological agents has positive effect on soil physical properties.

Key words:

, , , ,




948–958 P. Šařec and N. Žemličková
Soil physical characteristics and soil-tillage implement draft assessment for different variants of soil amendments
Abstract |
Full text PDF (462 kB)

Soil physical characteristics and soil-tillage implement draft assessment for different variants of soil amendments

P. Šařec* and N. Žemličková

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilization, Kamycka 129, CZ 165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: psarec@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

 The article discusses the results of measurement of soil physical properties and implement draft that has been done within field trial established at Sloveč in the year 2014. Different variants of treatment with substances for soil (PRP Sol) and manure (PRP Fix) amendment with organic fertilisers of various origins have been examined in terms of their influence on several parameters including energy demand for soil tillage. In the first stage, soil physical properties, i.e. soil bulk density and cone index, were measured. The results indicate that at soil upper layer, cone index of all the trial variants dropped relative to control regardless of the manure origin, manure treatment with PRP Fix, or the application of PRP Sol. Concerning soil bulk density, observed drop in values can be discerned with the application of cattle manure, and with majority of variants using pig manure where there are high dosage rates, but the drop was found also with PRP Sol alone. Subsequently, draft of chosen tillage implements was measured in order to assess potential decrease in energy demand of treated variants. There was almost 3% drop in aggregate unit draft after manure, and soil and manure activators’ application compared to the control. The decrease was attained in all variants except three. Two of them were the variants of untreated manure (cattle and poultry origin) application and the third was the variant of poultry manure treated with PRP Fix with additional application of PRP Sol. Here though, the difference was minor only.

Key words:

, , ,




495–512 Z. Libiete, A. Bardule and A. Lupikis
Long-term effect of spruce bark ash fertilization on soil properties and tree biomass increment in a mixed scots pine-Norway spruce stand on drained organic soil
Abstract |
Full text PDF (667 kB)

Long-term effect of spruce bark ash fertilization on soil properties and tree biomass increment in a mixed scots pine-Norway spruce stand on drained organic soil

Z. Libiete, A. Bardule and A. Lupikis*

Latvian State Forest Research Institute Silava, Rigas Str. 111, LV-2169 Salaspils, Latvia
*Correspondence: ainars.lupikis@silava.lv

Abstract:

Ash contains all plant nutrients, except N, and is often used to facilitate forest growth and to prevent nutrient depletion potentially caused by harvesting. In this paper, we report effects of a large dose of spruce bark ash on soil properties and tree biomass increment in a mixed Scots pine-Norway spruce stand on drained organic soil in central Latvia, 12 years after ash application. Significant positive growth response after wood ash fertilization was recorded only for overstorey spruce. During the 12 years after fertilization the additional volume increment was 8.3 m3 ha-1 or 0.7 m3 ha-1 annually. The effect of wood ash application is long-term. Also 12 years after treatment fertilized overstorey spruces demonstrated 0.6 m3 ha-1 additional annual volume increment compared to the controls. Additional diameter increment increased during the first 10 years after treatment but started to decrease in 2012. Results demonstrate that ash fertilization did not change N availability in the soil, and additional growth can be explained with improved supply of P, Ca, Mg and other nutrients. Ash application did not significantly influence the chemical composition of the O layer.

Key words:

, , , , ,




186-191 P. Procházka, P. Novák, J. Chyba and F. Kumhála
Evaluation of measuring frame for soil tillage machines draught force measurement
Abstract |
Full text PDF (700 kB)

Evaluation of measuring frame for soil tillage machines draught force measurement

P. Procházka¹, P. Novák², J. Chyba² and F. Kumhála²⋅*

¹BEDNAR FMT s.r.o., Lohenická 607, Prague-9 Vinoř, 190 17 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural machines, Kamýcká 129, 16521 Prague-6 Suchdol, Czech Republic;
*Correspondence: kumhala@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The knowledge of energy demands of the machines for soil tillage is useful factor for machinery design and also farm management. Currently used methods of draught force measurement are based on the use of the measuring rod. Basic part of this measurement apparatus is strain gauge load cell which is protected against damage by steel cage so that the forces were applied only in tension or compression. The main disadvantage of this solution is the necessity of using two tractors for the measurement: pulling one and pulled one equipped with soil tillage machine. To avoid this disadvantage, measuring frame for soil tillage machines draught force measurement was developed. For the evaluation of measuring frame function consequent measurement arrangement was used: crowled tractor John Deere 8320 RT as a pulling device, measuring frame mounted on its three point hitch, measuring rod connecting measuring frame and pulled wheel tractor New Holland T7050 and Köckerling Exact Gruber Vario soil tillage machine with 5 m working width. When comparing draught force results from strain gauge load cell placed into measuring frame with those from measuring rod it was found that there existed no statistically significant difference between the data from measuring frame and measuring rod. Measuring frame can be used for the aim of soil tillage machines draught force measurement and pulled tractor is not necessary in this case.

Key words:

, ,




135-142 P. Novák, J. Chyba, F. Kumhála, and P. Procházka
Measurement of stubble cultivator draught force under different soil conditions
Abstract |
Full text PDF (460 kB)

Measurement of stubble cultivator draught force under different soil conditions

P. Novák¹, J. Chyba¹, F. Kumhála¹,* and P. Procházka²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ; *Correspondence: kumhala@tf.czu.cz 2BEDNAR FMT s.r.o., Lohenická 607, Prague-9 Vinoř, 19017 Prague, Czech Republic

Abstract:

Knowledge of the energy demands of the machines for soil tillage is a useful factor for machinery design as well as farm management. It was decided to measure the draught force necessary for the operation of the stubble cultivator Ecoland 4000 from BEDNAR FMT Co. The measuring set was composed as follows: pull tractor John Deere 8220 pulled by a rod in which the load cell was placed, another tractor John Deere 8345R. A cultivator type Ecoland 4000 (4 m working width) was mounted on the second pulled tractor. Measurements were carried out on two different soil types (light sandy and loamy) at operational speeds 6, 8 and 10 km h-1 and at two different adjusted depths of loosening. The soil physical properties were characterized by cone index measurements which were measured with a penetrometer PN-10 with cone angle 30° and area 100 mm2. The results showed an about 30% increase in the draught force at work in clayey soil in comparison to sandy soil. Different quality of tillage was also observed on different soil types.

Key words:

, ,




183-190 E. Bakšienė, A. Ražukas and T.L. Nedzinskienė
Effects of organic farming and crop rotations on crop productivity and nutrient amount in the soil
Abstract |
Full text PDF (167 kB)

Effects of organic farming and crop rotations on crop productivity and nutrient amount in the soil

E. Bakšienė, A. Ražukas and T.L. Nedzinskienė

Voke Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Žalioji aikštė 2, Trakų Vokė,LT-02232 Vilnius Lithuania; e-mail: eugenija.baksiene@voke.lzi.lt

Abstract:

The trials were carried out at the Voke Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during the period 2003–2007 and were designed to investigate the influence of organic (without fertilizers) and sustainable farming systems on plants (the plants were fertilized only with bonemeal as a source of phosphorus and magnesia of potassium as a source of potassium) and to explore their productivity, chemical properties of soil and balance of nutrients in the soil.The experiments were conducted in the trial field with 4 treatments, in various croprotations with the plants grown for green manure for the soil supply with nitrogen (the main nutritional element of sandy loam soil) without mineral fertilizers.The experimental results show that higher productivity was achieved when cultivatingplants after green manure of lupines and white mustard. We established negative nitrogen, phosphorus (except in the sustainable farming system) and potassium balance in the soil. The use of various crop rotations in all farming systems on sandy loam Haplic Luvisol showed that there was no definite effect on soil acidity but an increase in the total nitrogen and organic carbon content in the soil was observed. The amount of phosphorus increased and potassium decreased only in the organic farming system. Phosphorus and potassium amounts in the soil increased in the sustainable farming system.

Key words:

, , ,




485-491 A. Sinkevičienė, D. Jodaugienė, R. Pupalienė and M. Urbonienė
The influence of organic mulches on soil properties and crop yield
Abstract |
Full text PDF (176 kB)

The influence of organic mulches on soil properties and crop yield

A. Sinkevičienė, D. Jodaugienė, R. Pupalienė and M. Urbonienė

Lithuanian University of Agriculture,Studentų 11 Akademija, LT-53356 Kaunas distr. Lithuania;e-mail: ausrasinkevicienelzuu@gmail.com

Abstract:

The application of organic mulches as a soil cover is effective in improving the quality of soil and increasing crop yield, especially in organic farming. The field experiment was carried out in the Pomological Garden of Lithuanian University of Agriculture in 2005–2008. The soil type – Calc(ar)i- Endohypogleyic Luvisol. Treatments: 1) without mulching; 2) chopped wheat straw; 3) peat; 4) sawdust; 5) grass.The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of different mulches on soilproperties and crop yield.All examined organic mulches significantly decreased soil temperature. Mulched plotsalso had higher soil moisture content throughout the experimental period. The highest soil moisture content was in plots mulched with peat or sawdust. The tendency of a higher amount of available phosphorus in the soil in mulched plots in 2005–2006 was established. The positive effect of grass mulch on available potassium in the soil was estimated.Mulching decreased weed density. During all years of the experiment significantly highercrop yields were obtained in grass-mulched plots. Peat mulch significantly decreased weed number although it has a significant negative effect on crop yield.

Key words:

, , ,




73-86 K. Romaneckas, R. Romaneckiene, E. Šarauskis, V. Pilipavicius and A. Sakalauskas
The effect of conservation primary and zero tillage on soil bulk density, water content, sugar beet growth and weed infestation
Abstract |
Full text PDF (323 kB)

The effect of conservation primary and zero tillage on soil bulk density, water content, sugar beet growth and weed infestation

K. Romaneckas¹, R. Romaneckiene¹, E. Šarauskis, V. Pilipavicius¹ and A. Sakalauskas

¹Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Dept. of Soil Management, Studentu 11, LT-53067
Akademija, Kaunas r., Lithuania; e-mail:
kestas.romaneckas@lzuu.lt, romanr@one.lt, vytautas.pilipavicius@lzuu.lt
²Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Dept. of Agricultural Machinery, Studentu 11, LT-53067
Akademija, Kaunas r., Lithuania; e-mail: egidijus.sarauskis@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

The effect of different conservation primary soil tillage on sugar beet was investigated at the Experimental Station of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture in a silty loam Luvisol during the period of 2001 – 2006. The aim of the trial was to establish the influence of reduced soil tillage intensity on some soil physical properties, sugar beet yield and quality, and weed infestation. Treatments of the trial: 1. conventional (22–25 cm) ploughing with a mouldboard plough (CP); 2. shallow (12–15 cm) ploughing with a mouldboard plough (SP); 3.deep (25–30 cm) cultivation with a chisel cultivator (DC); 4. shallow (10–12 cm) loosening with a disc harrow (SL); 5. zero tillage (ZT). Reduction of primary soil tillage intensity increased the amount of moisture and level of soil bulk density in the soil upper layer (0-10 cm). According to the average data of 2001-2006, the highest amounts of moisture and soil bulk density were observed in no tilled soil (ZT) before pre-sowing soil tillage (25.8% and 1.40 Mg m-3) and after sowing until sugar beet germination (23.6% and 1.40 Mg m-3). Soil tillage intensity had no significant influence on soil moisture content and bulk density in a deeper (10-20 cm) layer. Sugar beet seed germination in shallow loosened soil (SL) was higher in comparison with control treatment (CP) fourfold per 6 years; this influence was significant in two experimental years. Average data showed that germination of directly sowed seeds was less by 37% in comparison with conventional ploughing (CP). Reducing of soil tillage intensity to zero tillage had no significant influence on sugar beet yield, ramification and sucrose content of root-crop. The reduction of soil tillage intensity and refusal to use full-scale herbicides had negative, but not significant influence on weed infestation in the sugar beet crop, except in the no-tillage pattern. The data of the beginning of the second rotation showed a significantly higher number of annual (32%) and all (29%) weeds in no-tilled (ZT) soil in comparison with conventional ploughing (CP). Generally, the number of weed species increased from 22 to 26. The number of Chenopodium album increased from 11.3 to 22.1, Poa annua – from 5.6 to 14.2, Taraxacum officinalis – from 0.66 to 6.1 plants per m2 . Elytrigia repens became a widespread weed.

Key words:

, , , , ,




187–194 E. J. Kuht and E. Reintam
Soil compaction effect on soil physical properties and the content of nutrients in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Abstract |

Soil compaction effect on soil physical properties and the content of nutrients in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

E. J. Kuht¹ and E. Reintam²

¹Institute of Field Crop Husbandry, Estonian Agricultural University,
Eerika, 504012 Tartu, Estonia
²Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Estonian Agricultural University,
Eerika, 504012 Tartu, Estonia

Abstract:

The long-term use of heavy-weight agricultural machinery has caused extensive and lasting phenomena of degradation, especially in the basic layer of soil. The influence of soil compaction by heavy tractor on spring wheat and barley has been investigated. The field trials were completed on a Stagnic Luvisol (WRB), quite characteristic of Estonia but sensitive to compaction. The results of soil measurements demonstrated a strongly negative effect of wet soil compaction on soil physical characteristics and were in good connection with the number of compactions carried out. In order to find out the nutrient assimilation ability of plants on these soils, the amount of elements (N; P; K; Ca; Mg) in the dry matter of spring wheat and spring barley was determined. It appeared that the nitrogen uptake ability of spring wheat plants decreased almost by 30% and that of barley by 40% in the case of heavy soil compaction (4 and 6 times). As a result of compaction, the content of potassium and calcium in barley and spring wheat was decreased as compared with the non-compacted area.

Key words:

, , , ,