Tag Archives: soil tillage

xxx S. Kovář, J. Mašek and P. Novák
Comparison of tillage systems in terms of water infiltration into the soil during the autumn season
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Comparison of tillage systems in terms of water infiltration into the soil during the autumn season

S. Kovář*, J. Mašek and P. Novák

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamycka 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: kovars@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The soil belongs to the most valuable parts of the planet Earth. It is, endangered by water erosion, which causes huge destruction every year, or damage to farmland. More than half of the agricultural land in the Czech Republic is threatened by water erosion. The measurement was performed in the location Nesperská Lhota. The trial has been established on loamy sand Cambisol. In the field experiment, there were created 6 different variants which wad differed by soil tillage and crop. In the individual variants maize and oats were located. The field trial has been existing for a long time, as it was founded in 2009. Two measuring methods of water infiltration were used for the measurements: a mini disk infiltrometer and a single ring. The measurement was performed in the period of September 2016 before the harvest of maize. The soil aggregates were already stabilized at that time after all tillage operations. The measurement result showed the difference between the methods of soil tillage. The greatest ability of infiltration had a variant of maize with inter-row oats. Surprisingly, it was followed by maize, which was processed by ploughing technology. The lowest infiltration capacity was showed by oats reduced by soil tillage. A variant without vegetation had the second lowest infiltration. Our results obtained at rate of water infiltration into the soil affirm the need to control measures in the late vegetative stages. It is important for most of the rainfall to be quickly infiltrated so that it prevents the formation of massive surface runoff.

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95-100 M. Kroulík, J. Chyba and V. Brant
Measurement of tensile force at the fundamental tillage using tractor’s build-in sensor and external sensor connected between machines and their comparison
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Measurement of tensile force at the fundamental tillage using tractor’s build-in sensor and external sensor connected between machines and their comparison

M. Kroulík*, J. Chyba and V. Brant

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, Prague 6 – Suchdol, 165 21, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: kroulik@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The value of tensile force during soil tillage is crucial for estimating the energy performance of trailed machines. For tensile force measurements, a mouldboard plough with working width of 4 m was used. The ploughing speed was approximately 7 km h-1. Measurements were carried out on two plots with different soil texture. Loam-sandy soil dominated on the first plot, whereas clay soil dominated on the second one. The slopes of the plots are 1.1° and 2.4° respectively. Both plots have been left without stubble modification after harvest. The dynamometer LUKAS type S-38 was used for measuring tensile force. The dynamometer was placed on a hinge, which was positioned between two tractors. As a second method of tensile force measurement, electro-hydraulic hitch sensors were used, from which the values were recorded. The obtained values of tensile force were approximately 30 kN on the first plot and 54.3 kN on the second plot. The interdependence values of tensile forces between internal and external sensors showed a high coefficient of determination R2 = 0.91 in regression data analysis. The comparison of tensile force measurements using a special dynamometer and electro-hydraulic tractor sensor proved that the outputs of serial sensors can be used for the continuous monitoring of tensile forces during operating the machine. The automated storage of data collected from tractor sensors during tillage can greatly simplify this work, while no additional expenses are incurred to obtain data. Thus, the findings can be used to determine the variability of the land.

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186-191 P. Procházka, P. Novák, J. Chyba and F. Kumhála
Evaluation of measuring frame for soil tillage machines draught force measurement
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Evaluation of measuring frame for soil tillage machines draught force measurement

P. Procházka¹, P. Novák², J. Chyba² and F. Kumhála²⋅*

¹BEDNAR FMT s.r.o., Lohenická 607, Prague-9 Vinoř, 190 17 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural machines, Kamýcká 129, 16521 Prague-6 Suchdol, Czech Republic;
*Correspondence: kumhala@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The knowledge of energy demands of the machines for soil tillage is useful factor for machinery design and also farm management. Currently used methods of draught force measurement are based on the use of the measuring rod. Basic part of this measurement apparatus is strain gauge load cell which is protected against damage by steel cage so that the forces were applied only in tension or compression. The main disadvantage of this solution is the necessity of using two tractors for the measurement: pulling one and pulled one equipped with soil tillage machine. To avoid this disadvantage, measuring frame for soil tillage machines draught force measurement was developed. For the evaluation of measuring frame function consequent measurement arrangement was used: crowled tractor John Deere 8320 RT as a pulling device, measuring frame mounted on its three point hitch, measuring rod connecting measuring frame and pulled wheel tractor New Holland T7050 and Köckerling Exact Gruber Vario soil tillage machine with 5 m working width. When comparing draught force results from strain gauge load cell placed into measuring frame with those from measuring rod it was found that there existed no statistically significant difference between the data from measuring frame and measuring rod. Measuring frame can be used for the aim of soil tillage machines draught force measurement and pulled tractor is not necessary in this case.

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115-120 K. Krištof, T. Šima, L. Nozdrovický and P. Findura
The effect of soil tillage intensity on carbon dioxide emissions released from soil into the atmosphere
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The effect of soil tillage intensity on carbon dioxide emissions released from soil into the atmosphere

K. Krištof, T. Šima*, L. Nozdrovický and P. Findura

Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Systems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra, Slovak Republic; *Correspondence: tomasko.sima@gmail.com

Abstract:

Soil tillage is among the factors which affect the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions released from soil into the atmosphere. The objective of the study was to compare three tillage systems which overall represents the most commonly used systems. No-tillage, reduced tillage (shallow disc cultivation) performed by LEMKEN Rubin 9/600 KU disc cultivator and ploughing performed by LEMKEN EuroDiamant 8 mouldboard plough. Experimental area was divided into three replications of each tillage treatment as a randomized block design and the effect of soil tillage intensity on CO2 emissions were observed in field conditions by using ACE device (Automated Soil CO2 Exchange Station, ADC Bio-Scientific Ltd., UK). There were found an effect of soil tillage intensity on CO2 emissions released from soil into the atmosphere. Increasing tillage intensity resulted in increasing rate of CO2 emissions released from soil into the atmosphere where reduced tillage was reflected as 43% and ploughing as114% of this escalation. The results of our study supporting the more ecological effects of reduced tillage and no-tillage systems in comparison with widespread conventional systems by using mouldboard ploughs.

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135-142 P. Novák, J. Chyba, F. Kumhála, and P. Procházka
Measurement of stubble cultivator draught force under different soil conditions
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Measurement of stubble cultivator draught force under different soil conditions

P. Novák¹, J. Chyba¹, F. Kumhála¹,* and P. Procházka²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ; *Correspondence: kumhala@tf.czu.cz 2BEDNAR FMT s.r.o., Lohenická 607, Prague-9 Vinoř, 19017 Prague, Czech Republic

Abstract:

Knowledge of the energy demands of the machines for soil tillage is a useful factor for machinery design as well as farm management. It was decided to measure the draught force necessary for the operation of the stubble cultivator Ecoland 4000 from BEDNAR FMT Co. The measuring set was composed as follows: pull tractor John Deere 8220 pulled by a rod in which the load cell was placed, another tractor John Deere 8345R. A cultivator type Ecoland 4000 (4 m working width) was mounted on the second pulled tractor. Measurements were carried out on two different soil types (light sandy and loamy) at operational speeds 6, 8 and 10 km h-1 and at two different adjusted depths of loosening. The soil physical properties were characterized by cone index measurements which were measured with a penetrometer PN-10 with cone angle 30° and area 100 mm2. The results showed an about 30% increase in the draught force at work in clayey soil in comparison to sandy soil. Different quality of tillage was also observed on different soil types.

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103-110 T. Šima,, L. Nozdrovický, M. Dubeňová, K. Krištof and J. Krupička
Effect of crop residues on nitrous oxide flux in the controlled traffic farming system during the soil tillage by LEMKEN Rubin 9 disc harrow
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Effect of crop residues on nitrous oxide flux in the controlled traffic farming system during the soil tillage by LEMKEN Rubin 9 disc harrow

T. Šima¹,*, L. Nozdrovický², M. Dubeňová³, K. Krištof⁴ and J. Krupička⁵

¹,²,⁴Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering,
Department of Machines and Production Systems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra,
Slovak Republic; *Correspondence: tomasko.sima@gmail.com
³Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department
of Production Engineering, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra, Slovak Republic
⁵Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department
of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká129, 16521 Prague, Czech Republic

Abstract:

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is one of the most important greenhouse gases. Agriculture, especially soil tillage and the use of fertilisers, significantly contributes to N2O emissions from soil into the atmosphere. The aim of the paper was the comparison of the amount of nitrous oxide emissions released from the soil into the atmosphere depending on crop residues in conditions of a controlled traffic farming (CTF) system. Monitoring points were selected in parts of a field with/ without crop residues and in trafficked and non-trafficked areas. There were realised three variants of the experiment: before soil tillage, right after soil tillage and seven days after soil tillage. Soil tillage was carried out by a LEMKEN Rubin 9 disc harrow with a JOHN DEERE 8230 tractor on the loamy soil after the harvest of winter wheat. The used laboratory method of measuring N2O emissions released from the soil into the atmosphere consists of collecting soil samples from the field and their subsequent analysis in the laboratory. There were used INNOVA devices which consist of a photo-acoustic field gas monitor INNOVA 1412 based on the infrared photo-acoustic detection method, a multipoint sampler INNOVA 1309 used for gas sampling transport to the gas analyser INNOVA 1412, and a notebook with operation software used for the control and setup of the analysis. There was discovered an effect of crop residues and soil compaction on the nitrous oxide flux.

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409-414 D. Janušauskaitė and A.Velykis
The influence of the expansion of winter crop proportion in the rotation structure on soil biological activity
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The influence of the expansion of winter crop proportion in the rotation structure on soil biological activity

D. Janušauskaitė¹ and A.Velykis²

¹Plant Pathology and Protection Department, Lithuanian Research Centre forAgriculture and Forestry Akademija, Dotnuva, Kedainiai District, Lithuania, LT-58344; e-mail: daliaj@lzi.lt
²Joniskelis Experimental Station, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry,Joniskelis, Pasvalys District, Lithuania, LT-39301; e-mail: velykisalex@gmail.com

Abstract:

The effect of the expansion of the winter crop proportion in the crop rotation structure under conditions of conventional (ploughing) and sustainable (reduced) soil tillage on soil biological properties was investigated on a clay loam Gleyic Cambisol at the Joniskelis Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry over the period 2004–06. The effect of a different proportion of winter crop in the rotation on microbial populations in soil was influenced primarily by the weather conditions during the growing seasons. In different years, the number of ammonificators ranged from 5.68 to 28.37 mln g-1, the number of mineralizators ranged from 8.23 to 37.01mln g-1, fungi from 28.55 to 101.46 thousand g-1 of soil. The soil microbial amount was higher under wetter conditions. The numbers of microbes differed between soil tillage systems and had diverse impact. The number of ammonificators did not differ markedly between the soil tillage treatments; however, the number of microbes in the conventionally tilled plots exceeded that in the sustainable tillage system by 5.57%. The sustainable tillage system was positive for N assimilators and fungi. Increasing the winter crop in the rotation did not exert any strong positive effect on all microbes. Increasing the winter crop proportion was favourable for micromycetes. More bacteria were found in the rotation with 25% of winter crop, more mineral N assimilators were found in the rotation with 25% and 50% of winter crop, and fungi max under 50%, 75% and 100% of winter crop in the rotation.

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471-476 V. Seibutis, I. Deveikytė and V. Feiza
Effects of short crop rotation and soil tillage on winter wheat development in central Lithuania
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Effects of short crop rotation and soil tillage on winter wheat development in central Lithuania

V. Seibutis, I. Deveikytė and V. Feiza

Lithuanian Institute of AgricultureInstituto aleja 1, Akademija, Kedainiai distr., LT-58344, Lithuania;e-mail: vytautas@lzi.lt

Abstract:

A three year (2005–2008) field experiment was conducted in Central Lithuania to study the effects of different crop rotations (spring oil-seed rape-spring barley-winter wheat; winter wheat-spring rape; winter wheat monocrop) in conventional (ploughing to a 20–22 cm depth) and reduced (stubble cultivation to a 10–12 cm depth) soil tillage systems on winter wheat yield and its components. Winter wheat grain yield increased in the three-course crop rotation in the conventional (ploughing) cultivation system. However, wheat grain yield decreased by only 1.4 % in reduced tillage (stubble cultivation) compared to conventional tillage. Shortening of crop rotations, or different soil tillage systems used, did not exert any adverse effect on the variation of the number of grains per ear and the length of straw. The results of the study indicate that the different crop rotations in two soil tillage systems in Central Lithuania did not significantly affect wheat grain yield components.

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315-327 E. Šarauskis, E. Vaiciukevičius, A. Sakalauskas,K. Romaneckas, A. Jasinskas and R. Lillak
Impact of sowing speed on the introduction of winter wheat seeds in differently-tilled soils
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Impact of sowing speed on the introduction of winter wheat seeds in differently-tilled soils

E. Šarauskis¹, E. Vaiciukevičius¹, A. Sakalauskas¹,K. Romaneckas², A. Jasinskas¹ and R. Lillak³

¹Department of Agricultural Machinery, Lithuanian University of Agriculture,Studentu St. 15A, LT-53361 Kauno r., Lithuania; e-mail: egidijus.sarauskis@lzuu.lt
²Department of Soil Management, Lithuanian University of Agriculture,Studentu St. 11, LT-53361 Kauno r., Lithuania
³Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, 75501 Saku, Harjumaa, Estonia

Abstract:

Research tests in Europe disclosed that minimized soil tillage changes the soil qualities, the distribution of harvested crop residues (especially straw) in the soil, and the conditions of seed introduction into the soil, etc. In addition, completely different requirements are needed for design and technological parameters of the seeders in minimal soil tillage or no-tillage soils if compared with traditional seeders used in tilled soils.The paper describes the tests of winter wheat sowing in differently-tilled soils. Theimpact of the sowing speed of the winter wheat seeds on the even introduction and the distribution of the various size soil lumps in the seed bed layers was investigated. Furthermore, the change of the soil hardness and moisture content in various soil depths in differently-tilled soils was tested.Research suggested that the soil hardness in the winter wheat seed introduction zone inminimal soil tillage or no-tillage soils was approximately 250 kPa, and was significantly lower in tilled soil, i.e., 100 kPa. When winter wheat seeds were sown into no-tillage soil the sowing speed had greater impact on the composition of the soil lumps in the seed bed if compared with other more intensive soil tillage technologies. The tests disclosed that when the speed of the drill was increased from 8 to 12 km h-1, the number of small soil lumps (<2 mm) in all the layers of seed bed minimized and the amount of larger than 5 mm soil lumps maximized. The even introduction of seeds was negligible in minimal tillage soils.

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349-357 D. Šimanskaitė
The impact of soil tillage minimization on sandy light loam soil
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The impact of soil tillage minimization on sandy light loam soil

D. Šimanskaitė

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto al. 1, Akademija, Kėdainiai district, Lithuania;e-mail: dana@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Experiments conducted during the period 2001–2005 at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, were designed to evaluate the effects of plough and ploughless soil tillage and methods of sowing on an Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol and to estimate their effects on soil physical properties and cereal yield. The experiment was set up in 2001 after pea harvesting. Our experimental evidence suggests that different soil tillage and sowing methods had a significant effect on soil structure, soil bulk density, soil penetration resistance, total and air-filled porosity, soil moisture and yield. In cereal crop rotation when winter wheat had been direct drilled after peas into minimally tilled soil the yield increased by 9.7%, when it had been direct drilled the yield tended to increase, compared with conventional soil tillage; the spring barley yield was 14.7% and 7.9% lower compared with conventional tillage; when it had been direct drilled the yield tended to increase compared with conventional tillage. When oats were direct drilled a non-significant yield reduction trend was observed, and when sown into minimally tilled soil the yield was similar (5.77 t ha-1) to that produced in the conventional soil tillage treatment (5.84 t ha-1). When peas were grown, both these simplified tillage methods significantly declined the yield, when peas were direct drilled, the yield declined by 44.0% and by 21.7% when drilled into minimally tilled soil by a direct drill.

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