Tag Archives: soil

xxx N. Montemurro, G. Cucci, M. A. Mastro, G. Lacolla and A. Lonigro
The nitrogen role in vegetables irrigated with treated municipal wastewater
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The nitrogen role in vegetables irrigated with treated municipal wastewater

N. Montemurro, G. Cucci*, M. A. Mastro, G. Lacolla and A. Lonigro

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences – University of Bari – Via Amendola 165/A, IT70126 Bari, Italy
*Correspondence: giovanna.cucci@uniba.it

Abstract:

The reuse of treated municipal wastewater for irrigation is an established alternative to conventional water, in many countries of the world, particularly where or when water resources are extremely limited. Wastewater reuse could represent a double benefit when used in agriculture, helping overcome any lack of water resources and additionally, enriching the soil with nutrients – especially nitrogen and phosphorus.
In the experimental site of Castellana Grotte (Apulia region, Southern Italy) during the 2012/13 and 2013/14 growing seasons, vegetable crops (fennel and lettuce) in succession were drip-irrigated with three different water sources. Two reclaimed water streams, obtained by applying different treatment schemes to the same municipal wastewater (an effluent from the full-scale treatment plant and an effluent from the Integrated Fixed-film Activated Sludge – Membrane BioReactor pilot plant) and a conventional source, to verify the crops response and nutrient contribution through wastewater supply.
Both lettuce and fennel yields were enhanced by the high content of nutrients in the effluent of one of the treatment plants, which had been operated for partial nitrogen removal. For Fennel 2013/14, wastewater-reuse led to a 54% reduction of nitrogen supply in relation to the other plots normally fertilized. In this way, an estimated saving of about 98.00 € ha-1 was achieved.
Crops irrigated with treated wastewater operated for partial nitrogen removal (IMBR) showed early ripening (8 days for lettuce and 35 days for fennel 2013/14) and better quality than others not similarly-treated. However, the wastewater presented a nitrate content in excess of legal limits (35 mg L-1, D.M. 185/2003). Therefore, the contribution of nutrients increased production (47 vs 32 t ha-1 in IMBR and WELL 2012/13 fennel theses, 53 vs 31 t ha-1 in IMBR and WELL 2013 lettuce theses and 40 vs 31 t ha-1 in IMBR and WELL 2013/14 fennel theses respectively) and improved product quality, while simultaneously saving money for chemical fertilizers not supplied, producing less environmental impact.

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700–706 J. Hart, and V. Hartová
The next generation of multiple temperature sensor
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The next generation of multiple temperature sensor

J. Hart¹,* and V. Hartová²

¹ Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS), Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
² Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS), Faculty of Engineering, Department of Vehicles and Ground Transport, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: janhart77@gmail.com

Abstract:

Long-term and short-term measurements of temperature at different depths in soil have always been very complicated. The solution that was used until now was measuring using soil thermometers. Measurements were done at shallow depths and generally only allowed for measuring of one temperature, and always at the one depth which was determined for the measurement (normally 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 150 and 300 cm). These problems were relatively limiting and impractical. It was therefore necessary to devise an alternative for a simple and effective solution that would eliminate these disadvantages – it was necessary for a probe to allow temperature to be measured at different depths at one measuring point without having to change its position. A requirement simultaneously arose for the need to be able to measure temperatures at greater depths, and a multiple probe was therefore conceived consisting of a rod for dynamic penetration tests.

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971–980 R. Chotěborský,, M. Linda and M. Hromasová
Wear and stress analysis of chisel
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Wear and stress analysis of chisel

R. Chotěborský¹,*, M. Linda² and M. Hromasová²

¹ Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Material Science and Manufacturing, Kamycka 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
² Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Kamycka 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: choteborsky@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The object of research is stress analysis of worn chisel. The interaction between soil particles and chisel leads to change of shape and dimension of a worn chisel or other agriculture tools. The wear rate depends on the velocity of the chisel in the soil, position in the soil and shape of a chisel. These factors change the dimension and shape of chisel during its service life. The modern chisel includes sintered carbides on a tip. Sintered carbides plates are effective protection for wear resistance. But the body of the chisel is not protected and its wear resistance is lower than the tip. The service life of the tip is much higher than the body of the chisel. Stresses of the body of the chisel are stationary during the service life. The aim of this study is determining of optimising process of the strength of steel for chisels.

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790–800 J. Jobbágy, K. Krištof and P. Findura
Soil compaction caused by irrigation machinery
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Soil compaction caused by irrigation machinery

J. Jobbágy, K. Krištof* and P. Findura

Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Systems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK 94976 Nitra, Slovakia, *Correspondence: koloman.kristof@uniag.sk

Abstract:

 This contribution is focused on the analysis of soil compaction with chassis of a wide-span irrigation machine, Valmont. The sprinkler had 12 two-wheeled chassis (size of tyre 14.9”×24”). During the evaluation of soil compaction, we monitored the values of penetration resistance and soil moisture during the operation of the sprinkler. Considering the performance parameters of the pump, the sprinkler was only half of its length (300 m) in the technological operation. In this area, also field measurements were performed in 19 monitoring points spaced both in tracks and outside the chassis tracks. The analysis showed the impact of compression with sprinkler wheels. The results of average resistance ranged from 1.20 to 3.26 MPa. The values of the maximum resistance ranged from 2.30 to 5.35 MPa. The results indicated a shallow soil compaction; however, it is not devastating.

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1372-1379 J. Kuht, V. Eremeev, L. Talgre, H. Madsen, M. Toom, E. Mäeorg and A. Luik
Soil weed seed bank and factors influencing the number of weeds at the end of conversion period to organic production
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Soil weed seed bank and factors influencing the number of weeds at the end of conversion period to organic production

J. Kuht*, V. Eremeev, L. Talgre, H. Madsen, M. Toom, E. Mäeorg and A. Luik

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia *Correspondence: jaan.kuht@emu.ee

Abstract:

In 2008 an experiment was set up on the field in Eerika experimental station (Estonian University of Life Sciences) as a 5-field crop rotation: red clover, winter wheat, pea, potato and barley undersown with red clover. The objective of the study was to measure the content of weed seeds in the soil and to evaluate the diversity of the species at the end of the period of converting to organic production. In conventional farming systems without fertilizer (Conv I) and conventional farming with mineral fertilizer (Conv II) herbicides were used for weed control. All the crops in Conv II system received P 25 kg ha-1 and K 95 kg ha-1, but the application rates of mineral nitrogen fertilizer differed. In organic systems (Org I – organic farming based on winter cover crop and Org II – organic farming based on winter cover crop and manure), the winter cover crops (ryegrass after winter wheat, winter oilseed rape after pea, winter rye after potato) were sown after the harvest and were ploughed into the soil as green manure in spring. The content of annual weed seeds was the lowest in red clover that had 17.7% less weed seeds in the soil of Org II system compared to control (Conv I). In winter wheat the content of winter annual weed seeds was 50–76% higher compared to other crops. By the end of 2009 the content of organic carbon (Corg %) in the soil had increased significantly in both organic systems which results in higher activity of organisms that decrease the viability of weed seeds.

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89-96 E. Šarauskis,, K. Romaneckas, A. Sakalauskas, E. Vaiciukevičius,K. Vaitauskiene, D. Karayel and R. Petrauskas
Theoretical analysis of interaction of disc coulters and straw residues under no-tillage conditions
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Theoretical analysis of interaction of disc coulters and straw residues under no-tillage conditions

E. Šarauskis¹,*, K. Romaneckas², A. Sakalauskas¹, E. Vaiciukevičius¹,K. Vaitauskiene¹, D. Karayel³ and R. Petrauskas¹

¹Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Safety, Aleksandras StulginskisUniversity, Studentu 15A, LT-53361 Akademija, Kauno distr., Lithuania;
*Correcpondence: egidijus.sarauskis@asu.lt
²Institute of Agroecosystems and Soil Science, Aleksandras StulginskisUniversity, Studentu 11, LT-53361 Akademija, Kauno distr., Lithuania;
³Department of Agricultural Machinery, Faculty of Agriculture, AkdenizUniversity, TR-07058 Antalya, Turkey

Abstract:

The article presents the theoretical aspects of disc coulters working process under no-tillage conditions. Under no-tillage conditions, effective operation of disc coulters is impededby plant residues. In the interaction of a disc coulter, plant residues and soil surface, the disccoulter may cut the plant residues, roll over them or press them into the furrow being formed inthe soil. The objective of the research is to theoretically study the process of straw cutting bydisc coulters under no-tillage conditions and to substantiate the main parameters acting upon thecutting force. Theoretical studies established the dependency according to each the extent of thestraw cutting force depends on the disc coulter blade sharpening angle, blade thickness and disccoulter blade length, straw normal stresses, friction coefficient, elastic modulus, straw diameter,its compression path, and other parameters. On the basis of calculations, it was found that if thedisc coulter blade sharpening angle is increased by one degree, the cutting force sufficient to cutwheat straw can be reduced by 6.5 N, and reducing the disc coulter blade thickness by onemillimetre would allow reducing the cutting force by 12.5 N.

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175-180 E. Nugis and J. Kuht
Outline of results concerning assessment of soil compaction in Estonia
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Outline of results concerning assessment of soil compaction in Estonia

E. Nugis¹ ² and J. Kuht³

¹Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56, Tartu,
Estonia, EE51014; e-mail: edvin.nugis@emu.ee
²Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, Saku, Estonia,
EE75501;e-mail: edvin.nugis@eria.ee 3
³Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life
Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56, Tartu, Estonia, EE51014; e-mail: jaan.kuht@emu.ee

Abstract:

In Estonia the effect of compaction on soil/subsoil is studied in two leading organizations: Estonian University of Life Sciences (EMÜ) and Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture (ERIA). An attempt has been made to methodologically harmonize them with methodological instructions given in the ISTRO (International Soil Tillage Research Organization). A novel methodology for complex assessment of the effect and influence of mobile technical means (MTM) on soil has been offered. The soil has been examined as a polydisperse body where certain changes occur in compactibility, vulnerability, achieving physical mellowness and in textural composition. The relevant assessment criteria were worked out and approved in three separately carried out tests. As it appears from the results, such an approach allows us to do the necessary generalizations in assessment of the effect of MTM on soil, to adequately value the respective factors (extent, character, sign systems), i.e. issue from soil physical properties and pedosemiotics characteristics at the same time, while also not excluding the energy consumption.

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781-795 P. Felix-Henningsen, T. Urushadze, D. Steffens, B. Kalandadze, E. Narimanidze
Uptake of heavy metals by food crops from highly-polluted Chernozem-like soils in an irrigation district south of Tbilisi, eastern Georgia
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Uptake of heavy metals by food crops from highly-polluted Chernozem-like soils in an irrigation district south of Tbilisi, eastern Georgia

P. Felix-Henningsen¹, T. Urushadze², D. Steffens³, B. Kalandadze², E. Narimanidze⁴

¹Institute of Soil Science and Soil Conservation, Justus Liebig University Giessen,
Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, D-35392 Giessen, e-mail: Peter.Felix-H@umwelt.unigiessen.de
²Tbilisi State University, Ilia Chavchavadze Ave.3, 0128, Tbilisi, Georgia, e-mail:
t_urushadze@yahoo.com; kalandabeso@gmx.net
³Institute of Plant Nutrition, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26,
35392 Giessen, Germany, e-mail: Diedrich.Steffens@ernaehrung.uni-giessen.de
⁴Centre for International Development and Environmental Research, Justus Liebig
University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, 35392 Giessen, Germany e-mail:
nareli@gmx.net

Abstract:

In the middle and lower reaches of the Mashavera valley in SE Georgia, most of the
irrigated soils under different agricultural land use display a strong enrichment of heavy metals
(HM) that can be traced back to irrigation with water polluted by mining wastes contributed
over a period of several decades. The concentrations of total amounts of Cu, Zn and Cd increase
with intensity of land use and amount of irrigation in the following sequence: arable fields < occasionally submerged meadows < vegetable gardens < wine gardens and orchards with mixed cropping of vegetables. A high proportion of HM belongs to the supply fraction, which displays the (un-)specifically adsorbed HM, dissolvable in ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA). The narrow correlation of this fraction with the mobile and plant-available fraction of HM indicates a high long-term risk potential for the food chain. Due to the recent high adsorption capacity of the soils for HM, only a small amount of HM in the mobile fraction was found with proportions less than 1 % of the total amounts for Cu and Zn, and a maximum of 1.5 % for Cd. On the other hand, initial investigations of cereals and vegetable species indicate a high uptake of Cu, Zn and Cd, which for Cu and Cd causes concentrations in plants exceeding the tolerance thresholds for plants, animals and human beings. A field experiment established the strong uptake of heavy metals by spinach, which was unexpected due to the weakly alkaline pH as well as the high contents of clay and organic matter of the soils. This result indicates the high risk of soil pollution by heavy metals for the food chain and consumers.

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361-366 E. Nugis, T. Võsa, K.Vennik, H. Meripõld, J. Kuht, M. Müüripeal
Results of observations of damages to field and landscape
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Results of observations of damages to field and landscape

E. Nugis¹, T. Võsa¹, K.Vennik², H. Meripõld¹, J. Kuht³, M. Müüripeal¹

¹Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, Saku 75501, Estonia; e-mail:edvin.nugis@eria.ee, taavi.vosa@eria.ee.
²Tartu University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Vanemuise 46, Tartu 50090; e-mail: kersti.vennik@ksk.edu.ee
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, Tartu 51014; e-mail:jaan.kuht@emu.ee

Abstract:

It is a fact that crop growth conditions vary greatly within the same field. Provisionally actual growth conditions are made up of many components, i.e. variation of natural conditions (climate & soil), results of effects of machinery on soil (soil compaction) and unfavourable conditions for plant growing. In Estonia rather widely used ATV’s are causing remarkable damage to landscapes.All collected data were geo-referenced by means of a GPS-receiver and post-processed forposition correction. For All Terrain Vehicle (ATV) damage assessment the trajectory was recorded. Both the area and forms of damages were assessed for damaged sites, (e.g.) damage to potato by Colorado beetles. The collected data were compared to the digital soil map.Economic loss on the average, due to unfavourable conditions for plant growth, in thecase of winter rye "Portal" was 131 euros per ha, for medicago 18.5 euros per ha, for spring barley "Anni" 1000 euros per ha and for potato “Ando” 27.1 euros per ha.

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175-182 E. Baksiene
The influence of lake sediments on the fertility of Cambisol
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The influence of lake sediments on the fertility of Cambisol

E. Baksiene

Voke Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Žalioji aikštė 2, Trakų Vokė,LT-02232 Vilnius; e- mail: eugenija.baksiene@voke.lzi.lt

Abstract:

Lake sediments as a potential fertilizer were studied at the Voke Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during 1994–2004. The aim of the research was to establish the influence of lake sediments and their mixtures with other organic matter (manure, sewage) on the crop yield and soil agrochemical and physical properties; to compare the effect of sediments with that of a sediment-manure mixture.Experimental evidence suggests that lake sediments had no effect on soil acidity. Thehigher rate of sediments (100 t ha-1) increased the content of total nitrogen in the soil by 0.002–0.021 and humus by 0.53 percentage units. Application of lake sediments had a positive impact on the quality of physical properties of sandy loam Cambisol. Various rates of sediments increased the soil moisture content and porosity, and declined soil bulk density. The rate of lake sediments 50,100 t ha-1 increased the productivity of crop rotation by 8–30%, manure – by 21–25%. Fertilization with lake sediments at a rate of 100 t ha-1 and pure manure produced 25–30% of the yield of energy units per year.

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