Tag Archives: spring wheat

553-562 A. Ingver, I. Tamm, Ü. Tamm, T. Kangor and R. Koppel
The characteristics of spring cereals in changing weather in Estonia
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The characteristics of spring cereals in changing weather in Estonia

A. Ingver, I. Tamm, Ü. Tamm, T. Kangor and R. Koppel

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 48 309 Jõgeva, Estonia;e-mail: Anne.Ingver@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

The objective of this investigation was finding out the impact of weather on yield, length of growing period, plant height, lodging resistance and protein content of spring cereals over 19 years (1991–2009). Two varieties per each crop were selected for testing. Historical weather and crop yield data from the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute were analyzed by the linear correlation analysis. To estimate the variation of grain yield, the minimum and maximum values, averages and coefficients of variation were calculated.It can be stated that the both stress conditions – drought and excess precipitation causeddecrease of yield and quality of all the crops. The highest yields developed in 180–250 mm precipitation range from sowing to maturity. Oat requires more moisture than wheat and barley. Significant positive correlation between the amount of precipitation and oat yield was found when three years of severe lodging were eliminated. Positive correlation between yield and plant height was found. In the years of severe lodging there was remarkable yield decrease of oat. Yield of oat and barley had negative correlation with sunshine hours in June. The same correlation for wheat was not significant. Extra-low protein content for all the cereals, especially for wheat, formed in a cool year with the lowest sum of sunshine hours during the whole growing period (2009). For oat and barley positive correlation between sunshine hours in June and protein content was found. For formation of higher protein content, warm and dry weather conditions are required. Protein content was inversely associated with yield.

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595-602 T. Kangor, A. Ingver, Ü. Tamm and I. Tamm
Effect of fertilization and conditions of year on some characteristics of spring wheat and barley
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Effect of fertilization and conditions of year on some characteristics of spring wheat and barley

T. Kangor, A. Ingver, Ü. Tamm and I. Tamm

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 1 J. Aamisepa St., 48309, Jõgeva alevik, Estonia;e-mail: Tiia.Kangor@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

Spring wheat and barley are the most cultivated spring cereals in Estonian farming. Six-year (2003–2008) field trial was conducted at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute to estimate the effect of fertilization and weather conditions of the tested years on characteristics of spring wheat and barley. Four levels of fertilization (N0 – untreated control N0P0K0 kg ha-1; N1 – N60P13K23; N2 – N100P22K39; N3 – N140P31K54) were applied using the complex fertilizer Kemira Power (N18P4K7). The weather data during the tested years were variable. Year as factor influenced the length of growing period of both cereals the most (wheat 98.0%; barley 98.5%). Wheat had longer growing period than barley (difference 11 days). Spring wheat was more sensitive to environmental conditions; its yield was more affected by year (32.3%) than barley (3.3%). Moreover, from variation of yield of barley 82.0% was explained by fertilization and the same for wheat was 52.9%. The lodging resistance of both crops was influenced by fertilization, year conditions and their interaction (Y x F). The year conditions and Y x F interaction influenced 1000 kernel weight of both cereals, but fertilization had only a marginal effect on this parameter. The protein content of both crops depended on the fertilization and year as factor. Wheat showed higher level of this characteristic in all the years and fertilizer doses.

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444-450 V. Pilipavičius, P. Lazauskas and S. Jasinskaitė
Weed control by two layer ploughing and post-emergence crop tillage in spring wheat and buckwheat
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Weed control by two layer ploughing and post-emergence crop tillage in spring wheat and buckwheat

V. Pilipavičius, P. Lazauskas and S. Jasinskaitė

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Dept. of Soil Management, Studentu 11, LT-53361Akademija, Kaunas r., Lithuania; tel.: +370 37 75 22 11, fax: +370 37 75 22 93;e-mail: vytautas.pilipavicius@lzuu.lt, petras.lazauskas@lzuu.lt; sonata.jasinskaite@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

Experiments were carried out at the Kazliškiai organic farm of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture in the period of 2002–2003. The aim of the work was to investigate elements of non-chemical weed control methods as main soil tillage, pre-sowing and post-sowing tillage. According to theoretical preconditions and data of the experiment, it is proved that total turnover of the layer in organic agriculture is a very important means of weed control decreasing weediness of the crop and increasing harvest. Two types of plough in combination with different pre-sowing and post-sowing soil tillage implements and technologies in crops of spring wheat and buckwheat were investigated. Spring wheat crops were grown comprising two varieties differing in plant height for additional investigations of their crop smothering power for weeds. It was proven that, for weed control, two-layer ploughing technology was favourable to conventional ‘cultural’ ploughing technology and that taller varieties had greater smothering power for weeds than shorter ones.

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522-527 I. Tamm, Ü. Tamm and A. Ingver
Spring cereals performance in organic and conventional cultivation
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Spring cereals performance in organic and conventional cultivation

I. Tamm, Ü. Tamm and A. Ingver

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 1 Aamisepa St., 48309 Jõgeva, Estoniae-mail: ilmar.tamm@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

The field trials were carried out at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute to compare grain yield and quality characteristics of spring wheat, barley and oat in organic and conventional conditions. Thirteen varieties of each cereal crop were tested during the four trial years (2005–2008). By the results turned out that all the spring crops were able to produce comparatively high yields in organic conditions after a suitable precrop. Oat as the most unpretentious crop was the highest yielding in organic trial and had the best weeds suppressing ability among the spring cereals. The most widely spread weeds were (Chenopodium album) and (Viola arvensis). Among the quality traits protein content was the most influenced by the management regime having evident decrease in organic conditions. A yield gap between organic and conventional production depended on crop, precrop and growing conditions.

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125-132 L. Talgre, E. Lauringson, H. Roostalu and A. Astover
The effects of green manures on yields and yield quality of spring wheat
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The effects of green manures on yields and yield quality of spring wheat

L. Talgre¹, E. Lauringson¹, H. Roostalu² and A. Astover²

¹Department of Field Crops and Grasslands, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental
Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia
²Department of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental
Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia
E-mail: liina.talgre@emu.ee

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted in the period of 2004–2006 to investigate the effect of green manure treatments on the yield and yield quality of spring wheat. In the experiment, different green manure crops were compared for amounts of N, C and organic matter applied into soil and their effect on the yield and yield quality of succeeding cereals. The amount of organic matter applied into soil was dependent on the cultivated crop. The highest amount of organic matter was applied with hybrid lucerne, the lowest, with unfertilised oats. With sowings of red clover, lucerne and hybrid lucerne, 4.91–7.70 Mg C ha-1 and 341.9–379.1 kg N ha-1 were added to soil with green material and roots. The yield of spring wheat on unfertilised soil was 2.12 Mg ha-1, but the treatment with hybrid lucerne as a preceding crop gave an extra yield of 1.45 Mg ha-1. Green manure crops did not have a unilateral effect on the quality of spring wheat. Grain yield grew with the increased norm of mineral nitrogen, but there was no significant improvement in quality indicators.

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133-136 A. Auskalnis and A. Kadzys
Effect of timing and dosage in herbicide application on weed biomass in spring wheat
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Effect of timing and dosage in herbicide application on weed biomass in spring wheat

A. Auskalnis and A. Kadzys

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto aleja 1, Akademija,58344- Kedainiai distr.Lithuania; e-mail: albinas@lzi.lt

Abstract:

The biological efficacy of herbicide Mustang (a.i. florasulam +2.4 D ester 6.25+452.5 g l-1) applied at doses 0.6, 0.45, 0.3 and 0.15 l ha-1 as compared to untreated areas was evaluated on the number and biomass of weeds in spring wheat in field trials at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in 2003–2005. Herbicide was applied at the 3- leaf stage, at tilling, and at the beginning of stem elongation of cereals.The best efficacy on weed mass in all years of the experiments was achieved when theherbicide was applied at the 3-leaf stage and during the tilling stage of spring wheat. The weed biomass decreased by 82 to 92% in 2003 and 2004 and by 74–96% in 2005, from 0.3, 0.45 and 0.6 l ha-1 doses. When herbicides were applied using higher doses, 0.45-0.6 l ha-1.,during the spring wheat stem elongation stage (BBCH 31-32), the biomass of weeds decreased by 75–95%. When the lowest dose, 0.15 l ha-1 of the herbicide Mustang was applied at the beginning of the stem elongation stage of spring wheat, the efficacy on the total fresh mass of weeds was insufficient.

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389-392 P. Sooväli, M. Koppel and H. Nurmekivi
Optimization of chemical disease control in spring wheat
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Optimization of chemical disease control in spring wheat

P. Sooväli, M. Koppel and H. Nurmekivi

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 48309 Jõgeva, Estonia; e-mail: pille.soovali@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

Septoria leaf blotch complex (Septoria tritici and Septoria nodorum) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) are common foliar diseases of spring wheat in Estonia. This paper reports results of multi-site field experiments performed on spring wheat varieties Tjalve and Munk during 2003–2004 in Estonia. Fungicides Falcon 460 EC and Opera were used in full and reduced doses of one or split applications. The aim of the current study was to obtain efficient disease control and to identify the impact of fungicide application on yield at the time of fungicide application. The biological efficiency of fungicides was assessed based on disease scorings made until growing stages 75–77. The trial results show that biologically and economically effective control of wheat diseases could be achieved with timely use of lowered fungicide doses. Spraying at growing stages 41–55 will often be enough to achieve good control of serious attacks by Septoria.

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187–194 E. J. Kuht and E. Reintam
Soil compaction effect on soil physical properties and the content of nutrients in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
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Soil compaction effect on soil physical properties and the content of nutrients in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

E. J. Kuht¹ and E. Reintam²

¹Institute of Field Crop Husbandry, Estonian Agricultural University,
Eerika, 504012 Tartu, Estonia
²Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Estonian Agricultural University,
Eerika, 504012 Tartu, Estonia

Abstract:

The long-term use of heavy-weight agricultural machinery has caused extensive and lasting phenomena of degradation, especially in the basic layer of soil. The influence of soil compaction by heavy tractor on spring wheat and barley has been investigated. The field trials were completed on a Stagnic Luvisol (WRB), quite characteristic of Estonia but sensitive to compaction. The results of soil measurements demonstrated a strongly negative effect of wet soil compaction on soil physical characteristics and were in good connection with the number of compactions carried out. In order to find out the nutrient assimilation ability of plants on these soils, the amount of elements (N; P; K; Ca; Mg) in the dry matter of spring wheat and spring barley was determined. It appeared that the nitrogen uptake ability of spring wheat plants decreased almost by 30% and that of barley by 40% in the case of heavy soil compaction (4 and 6 times). As a result of compaction, the content of potassium and calcium in barley and spring wheat was decreased as compared with the non-compacted area.

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