Tag Archives: straw

173-182 K. Eisenhuber, A. Jäger, J. Wimberger and H. Kahr
Comparison of different pretreatment methods for straw for lignocellulosic bioethanol production
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Comparison of different pretreatment methods for straw for lignocellulosic bioethanol production

K. Eisenhuber, A. Jäger*, J. Wimberger and H. Kahr

University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Stelzhamerstr 23, A 4600 Wels, Austria;
*Correspondence: Alexander.Jaeger@fh-wels.at

Abstract:

In order to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels, the production  of  biofuels  from  lignocellulosic  agricultural  residues  is  the  focus  of  industrial  and scientific  interest.  The  feedstocks  of  the  second  generation  used  for  bioethanol  production  are lignocellulose-containing  raw  materials  like  different  types  of  straw,  or  other  plants  like miscanthus x giganteus. In all these plants, the cellulose in the lignocellulose is not accessible to enzymes. Therefore, lignin and/or hemicelluloses have to be removed by a specific pretreatment in order to make enzymatic degradation of cellulose possible. We examined and compared the pretreatment of wheat straw by means of steam treatment and steam explosion treatment. After  hydrolysis,  glucose  concentrations  up  to  ³00 g kg-¹  were  reached  both  for  steam- pretreated straw and steam-exploded straw. After fermentation, ethanol concentrations ranging from  ¹²0–¹⁴0 g kg-¹  were  achieved.  Results  suggest  that  the  explosion  process  slightly  favors the  solubilisation  of  sugars  and,  therefore,  enhances  ethanol  production.  Only  at  higher temperature and longer incubation time does the explosion process not seem to be necessary. In  addition  to  this,  we  examined  most  of  the  lignocellulosic  residuals  in  Austria  available  for bioethanol  production.  As  a  result,  we  can  show  that  even  in  a  country  not  focused  on agricultural production all the bioethanol needed for E¹0 can easily be provided.

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319-328 S. Kalinauskaitė,, A. Sakalauskas, E. Šarauskis, A. Jasinskasand M. Ahlhaus
Relation of energy content variations of straw to the fraction size, humidity, composition and environmental impact
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Relation of energy content variations of straw to the fraction size, humidity, composition and environmental impact

S. Kalinauskaitė¹,*, A. Sakalauskas¹, E. Šarauskis¹, A. Jasinskas¹and M. Ahlhaus²

¹Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentų g. 11, Akademija, Kauno r.LT-53361, Lithuania; *Correspondence: solveiga.kalinauskaite@gmail.com
²Fachhochschule Stralsund, Institut für Regenerative Energie Systeme (IRES),Zur Schwedenschanze 15, 18435 Stralsund, Germany

Abstract:

Biomass is the major source of renewable energy, the use of which is very importantin energy, environment and economical aspects. Biomass enables the replacement of fossilfuels, the importance of biomass usage is related to global warming questions. Biomassmoisture content is one of the main factors affecting straw preparation for the usage cost.In this research the main focus is on straw and different biomass composition and how itinfluences the solid biofuels preparation for usage, paying attention to straw fraction, humidity,composition and finally how it influences the energy and environmental aspects. Testedsamples consist of different composition- raw straw, 100% yellow straw pellets, 100% greystraw pellets, 98% straw pellets with 2% additives, 50% straw and 50% hay pellets, 49% strawand 49% hay pellets with 2% additives, 100% hay pellets, 98% hay pellets with 2% additivesand additionally two samples of straw briquettes with different chop size – (20 mm) and(30 mm and 10 mm). This research pays attention to the main material characteristics –moisture value, ash content, HHV (higher heating value), pyrolysis coke. Research results willhelp to find the best biomass pellet and briquette composition for solid biofuel usage. Duringthe research it was found that the lowest moisture value was 98% hay pellets with 2% CaOadditive – 5.79%. Highest amount of ash value was found in 50% straw and 50% haycomposition pellets – 0.021 g. Highest amount of HHV were tested pellets which consisted of98% hay with 2% CaO additives. Highest amount of pyrolysis coke in organic and dry matterwere in 100% yellow straw tested samples.Achieved results will help to estimate material fraction, humidity and composition on biomasspreparation for conversion steps, following biomass usage energy and environmentrequirements. These research results will help to realise further tasks of agricultural biomassusage in practice.

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115-122 S. Kalinauskaite, A. Sakalauskas, E. Šarauskis, A. Jasinskas, M. Ahlhaus and H. Gerath
Biomass preparation for conversion humidity and value assessment
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Biomass preparation for conversion humidity and value assessment

S. Kalinauskaite, A. Sakalauskas, E. Šarauskis, A. Jasinskas¹, M. Ahlhaus² and H. Gerath³

¹Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentų g. 11, Akademija, Kauno r. LT-53361,
Lithuania; e-mail: solveiga.kalinauskaite@gmail.com
²Fachhochschule Stralsund, Institut für Regenerative EnergieSysteme (IRES), Zur
Schwedenschanze 15, 18435 Stralsund, Germany;
e-mail: Matthias.Ahlhaus@fh-stralsund.de
³Hochschule Wismar, Philipp-Müller-Straße PF 1210 Wismar 23952, Germany;
e-mail: horst.gerath@hs-wismar.de

Abstract:

Biomass usage for heat and energy purposes is one of the questions which still required more detailed analysis and scientific research. In this research we have focused on an analysis of humidity correlation on biomass preparation to conversion steps and calorific value assessment. The concept of biomass is widely understood, and in this research the chosen research object is agricultural, biomass with a main focus on straw, and additionally for results comparison are analyzed samples, composition are a mixture of straw and hay, with an additional 2% lime additive. For this research analyzed samples and their humidity for production steps is: one chop size reduction (20 mm) straw briquettes, two chops size reduction (30 mm and 10 mm) straw briquettes, pallets composition of 100% straw, 98% straw incl. 2% lime additive, 50% straw and 50% hay, 49% straw and 49% hay incl. 2% lime additive, 100% hay, 98% hay incl. 2% lime additive. Samples of straw and hay mixture, also with a lime additive is choosen because it is discussed widely that not only is it possible to use surplus straw from agricultural biomass as renewable energy and heat source, as a lime additive helps to keep a higher temperature on the combustion process and to generate more energy, but it is not healthy for the plant and not recommended under environmental aspects. The results received will help to estimate and determine the material humidity impact on biomass preparation for conversion steps, following an energy requirement for the production of briquettes and pallets, combustion factor and efficiency. It is defined as material calorific, HHV (higher heating value) and ash content which is one of the main factors and the criteria for fuel valuation will allow to determine tested samples further usage for heat and energy purposes. The research results will help further research tasks on bio energy as an agricultural biomass usage.

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397-402 A. Arlauskienė, S. Maikštėnienė and A. Šlepetienė
Effect of cover crops and straw on the humic substances in the clay loam Cambisol
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Effect of cover crops and straw on the humic substances in the clay loam Cambisol

A. Arlauskienė¹, S. Maikštėnienė¹ and A. Šlepetienė²

¹ Joniskelis Research Station of Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Joniskelis, LT-39301 Pasvalys distr., Lithuania; e-mail: joniskelio_lzi@post.omnitel.net
² Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Akademija, LT–58344 Kėdainiai distr., Lithuania

Abstract:

The experiments were done on a productive clay loam Gleyic Cambisol used for agricultural production and were designed to estimate the effects of various cover crops – red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) mixture with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lamk.) and white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) biomass and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw incorporated into the soil on the composition of humus. In the first year, incorporation of only the cover crops’ biomass or together with straw increased the content of mobile humic acids (HA 1) by 10.7–28.0% compared with that before the trial was established.. Conditionally stable humic acids fractions (HA 2, HA 3) formed more intensively in the second year of the effects of the measures applied. Having incorporated cover crops’ biomass together with straw, the fraction of humic acids HA 3 tended to increase or was the same as that before the trial establishment. An increase in the content of humic acids, compared with the levels before the trial establishment determined positive changes in the one of the main indicators of humus quality – humification rate; they were the most distinct having incorporated red clover phytomass together with straw. The incorporation of mineral nitrogen fertilizer N 45 together with straw increased the soil organic matter mineralization rate and determined a reduction in humic acids content.

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394-399 L. Masilionyte and S. Maiksteniene
The changes of mineral nitrogen content in clay loam Cambisol in sustainable and organic agriculture
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The changes of mineral nitrogen content in clay loam Cambisol in sustainable and organic agriculture

L. Masilionyte and S. Maiksteniene

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Joniskelis Experimental StationJoniskelis, Pasvalys district, Lithuania; e-mail: joniskelio_lzi@post.omnitel.net

Abstract:

Experiments were conducted in the Joniskelis Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in 2006–2008 on the clay loam Gleyic Cambisol. The aim of the research – to estimate changes of amount of mineral nitrogen in several humus content soils under influence of fertilization systems with a catch crop of green manure – combinations of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.), oil radish (Raphanus sativus L.), narrowleaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum MOENCH.) in sustainable and organic farming systems. Experiments showed that in late autumn, before incorporation of different catch crops biomass, the lowest amount of mineral nitrogen – 6.21-6.31 mg kg-1 in the soil layer of 0–40 cm was found in the organic farming system. In the sustainable farming system growing white mustard and using nitrogen at low rates – N30 for more intensive straw mineralization, the amount of mineral nitrogen in the soil was significantly – 17.0-15.2% – higher. The highest content of mineral nitrogen – 8.04 mg kg-1 in the soil was found in the fields without catch crops, where N30 was also applied for straw mineralization.

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91–98 K. Pranaitis and S. Marcinkonis
Effect of stubble breaking and ploughing at different depths on cultivation of peas
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Effect of stubble breaking and ploughing at different depths on cultivation of peas

K. Pranaitis and S. Marcinkonis

Voke branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Žalioji aikštė 2, Trakų Vokė,
LT-02232 Vilnius; e-mail: kestas.pranaitis@voke.lzi.lt

Abstract:

Field trials were conducted over the period 1998–2001 at the Voke Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture on a sandy loam Haplic Luvisol (LVh). Pea’s precrop was winter rye. Crop residues were returned to the soil; straw was chopped at harvest. The aim of the investigation was to determine the effect of stubble breaking, ploughing at different depths on the weediness of cultivated crop, as well as on the crop yield.
Most couch-grass (Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski) infested were unbroken-stubble and shallow-ploughed plots. It caused a yield reduction by 11–20%. The lowest numbers of weeds were counted and the highest pea’s yield was obtained on broken stubble, 0.22–0.25 m depth ploughed.

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