Tag Archives: strawberry

1854-1861 S. Salazar, F. Bayas-Morejón, Z. Niño, J. Guevara, M. Ruilova, O. Merino, W. Donato and J. Guamán
Morphological and biochemical indicators of Fusarium oxysporum f sp. fragariae in strawberry crops (Fragaria x ananassa Duch) in the province of Pichincha, Ecuador
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Morphological and biochemical indicators of Fusarium oxysporum f sp. fragariae in strawberry crops (Fragaria x ananassa Duch) in the province of Pichincha, Ecuador

S. Salazar¹, F. Bayas-Morejón¹*, Z. Niño², J. Guevara¹, M. Ruilova¹, O. Merino¹, W. Donato² and J. Guamán¹

¹Estatal de Bolívar, Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias Recursos Naturales y del Ambiente, Departamento de Investigación. Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Biotecnológico, EC020150 Guaranda, Ecuador
²Universidad Estatal de Bolívar, Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias Recursos Naturales y del Ambiente, Departamento de Investigación. Centro de Investigación del Ambiente, EC020150 Guaranda, Ecuador
*Correspondence: isba@doctor.upv.es; fbayas@ueb.edu.ec

Abstract:

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae is a fungal pathogen, transmitted by soil in crops of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.), which causes wilt disease that, kill the strawberry cultivars. The disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp., fragariae is hard to detect as the of the symptoms are similar with other soil-borne diseases. In spite of detection methods targeted F. oxysporum using molecular criteria have been developed, they have not been shown to successfully identity the unique identity of F. oxysporum strain that causes this disease. In Ecuador, the cultivation of strawberry has acquired great importance for the consumption, promoting the increase of its production. However, the process of importing plant material from producing countries for the purpose of improving production has contributed to the spread of the fungus. The objective of this study was to identify the presence of the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp fragariae by means of morphometric identification and the application of biochemical methods (BIOLOG) in the province of Pichincha. Fifty-two diseased strawberry plants and 52 asymptomatic plants were analyzed. Of these, 13 isolates were identified by morphometry as F. oxysporum. However, through BIOLOG four strains were identified as F. oxysporum, 5 as Fusarium sp., 2 F. lateritium, 1 F. udum and 1 strain as F. sacchari. The results obtained through the identification and evaluation confirmed the presence of F. oxysporum f. sp., fragariae in evaluated strawberry cultivars, thus determining the high risk to exist if the pathogen spreads in new plantations in Ecuador.

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2056-2067 L. Jankevica, O. Polis, A. Korica, I. Samsone, V. Laugale and M. Daugavietis
Environmental risk assessment studies on new plant protection products which have been elaborated from coniferous tree bark
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Environmental risk assessment studies on new plant protection products which have been elaborated from coniferous tree bark

L. Jankevica¹*, O. Polis², A. Korica², I. Samsone¹, V. Laugale³ and M. Daugavietis²

¹University of Latvia, Institute of Biology, Department of Experimental Entomology and Microbiology, Miera street 3, LV-2169 Salaspils, Latvia
²Latvian State Forest Research Institute 'Silava', Rīgas street 111, LV-2169 Salaspils, Latvia
³Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Institute of Horticulture, Graudu street 1, Ceriņi, Dobele District, LV- 3701, Latvia
*Correspondence: liga.jankevica@lu.lv

Abstract:

Nowadays there are still various chemical pesticides being applied in the course of ensuring plant protection. Since 2010, we have been working on the development of new, environmentally-friendly plant protection products which will provide an effective tool against pathogenic fungi and bacteria which cause disease in crop plants. The specific aim of this study was to evaluate a risk assessment for new plant protection products that have been elaborated on the basis of coniferous tree bark. Various products were tested which are extracted during the processing of wood bark from pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Ethanol extracts were formulated and applied during these experiments. Two formulations, which showed anti-fungal activity in vitro and in field trials on fruit crops (involving strawberries and raspberries) were selected for the risk assessment studies. The impact was studied of formulation treatment on crop plants and soil biological activity, and the accumulation of residues of active substances in crop plants and soil. The application of new formulations did not show any negative effect on the chlorophyll content and the chlorophyll fluorescence of plant leaves. The results showed that pine and spruce bark extract formulations contain active compounds (coumaric acid, quercetin, epicatechin, and ferulic acid) within the range of 5.1–5.9 mg kg-1 and 11.1–443.9 mg kg-1 respectively. The amount of active substances which were determined in most cases was higher in the spruce bark extract formulation when compared to the pine bark extract formulation. Our results confirmed the presence of active compounds – epicatechin, quercetin, and coumaric acid – in strawberry fruits which remained untreated and in those that were treated with spruce ethanol extract formulation. Untreated raspberry fruits contained all four active substances within the range of 81–5,300 μg kg-1. We observed a significant increase of coumaric acid and quercetin in raspberries after their having been treated with spruce bark extract formulation in a 2% concentration, P < 0.05, and did not find any negative impact for spruce bark extract formulations when used on soil microbial biomass.

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317-322 L. Raudonis
Comparative toxicity of spirodiclofen and lambdacihalotrin to Tetranychus urticae, Tarsonemus pallidus and predatory mite Amblyseius andersoni in a strawberry site under field conditions
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Comparative toxicity of spirodiclofen and lambdacihalotrin to Tetranychus urticae, Tarsonemus pallidus and predatory mite Amblyseius andersoni in a strawberry site under field conditions

L. Raudonis

Laboratory of Plant Protection, Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture,LT-54333 Babtai, Kaunas distr., Lithuania;e-mail: l.raudonis@lsdi.lt

Abstract:

The relative toxicity of broad-spectrum acaricide spirodiclofen 240 g AI l-1 from a new class of active ingredients and synthetic pyrethroid insecticide–acaricide lambdacihalotrin 50 g AI l-1 to the seasonal abundance of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), Tarsonemus pallidus Banks (Acari: Tarsonemidae) and predatory mite Amblyseius andersoni Chant (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was evaluated in strawberry sites under field conditions in 2003–2004. The field rate (96 g AI ha-1) of spirodiclofen was very toxic (82.3–96.1% mortality) after 7 and 21 days after treatment to T. urticae. The mortality to T. pallidus ranged from 76.6- 79.3% after 7 days, and from 59.0–74.9% after 21 days following treatment respectively. The rate (48 g AI ha-1) of spirodiclofen was very toxic (78.8–87.8% mortality) after 7 days and moderately toxic (54.1–73.4% mortality) after 21 days following treatment to T. urticae. The lower rate of spirodiclofen was moderately toxic after 7 days and from non- to slightly toxic after 21 days following treatment to T. pallidus. The toxicity of lambdacihalotrin (25 g AI ha-1) to T. urticae was similar to a lower rate of Spirodiclofen. Lambdacihalotrin was non-toxic to T. pallidus, but moderately toxic (51.4–62.5% mortality) after 7 and 21 days following treatment to A. andersoni. Both rates of spirodiclofen were non-toxic to predatory mites.

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421-425 N. Uselis, A. Valiuškaitė and L. Raudonis
Incidence of fungal leaf diseases and phytophagous mites in different strawberry cultivars
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Incidence of fungal leaf diseases and phytophagous mites in different strawberry cultivars

N. Uselis, A. Valiuškaitė and L. Raudonis

Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Babtai, Kaunas distr., LT-54333,Lithuania; e-mail: n.uselis@lsdi.lt

Abstract:

The incidence of fungal leaf diseases, phytophagous mites and productivity of strawberry cultivars ‘Saulenė’, ‘Honeoye’, ‘Kent’, ‘Elkat’, ‘Polka’, ‘Dangė’, ‘Senga Sengana’, ‘Pegasus’, ‘Bogota’ and ‘Pandora’ was investigated in 2004–2005 under field conditions at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture.The lowest incidence by common leaf spot (Mycosphaerella fragariae (Tul.) Sacc) wasrecorded on Dangė’, ‘Elkat’ and ‘Pegasus’. Disease prevalence ranged on average from 43–46 % and disease intensity from 14–15.7%. The most common white leaf spot was on ‘Honeyoe’ and ‘Senga Sengana’. ‘Elkat’ and ‘Polka’ were the most damaged (disease prevalence was 68–69% and intensity 36–46%) by leaf scorch (Marssonina potentilae Desm. Magn.), while the lowest incidence of leaf scorch was recorded on ‘Bogota’. The incidence of diseases varied depending on meteorological conditions during 2004–2005.The lowest infestation by strawberry mite (Tarsonemus pallidus Banks.) was recorded on‘Bogota’ and ‘Kent’. Moderately infested were ‘Honeoye’, ‘Saulenė’,‘Pandora’, ‘Senga Sengana’ and highly infested, ‘Pegasus’. Low infestation by two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae Koch) were ‘Bogota’, ‘Pandora’ and ‘Saulenė’, moderately – ‘Kent’ and ‘Honeoye’; the most common two-spotted spider mites were found on ‘Pegasus’.The study showed that ‘Saulenė’, ‘Pandora’, ‘Senga Sengana’, ‘Honeoye’, ‘Polka’,‘Elkat’ and ‘Dangė’ were highly productive, ranging from 11 to 17 t ha-1. The productivity of ‘Pegasus’ was 9 t ha-1. Cultivars ‘Bogota’ and ‘Kent’ were averagely productive (6 – 7 t ha-1) .

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45–48 K. Kahu
Use of Basta 150 SL in strawberries
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Use of Basta 150 SL in strawberries

K. Kahu

Polli Horticultural Institute of the Estonian Agricultural University, 69104 Karksi-Nuia, Estonia, e-mail: kersti@pai.neti.ee

Abstract:

The experiment was carried out in the strawberry plantations of the Polli Horticultural Institute during two years, 2000–2001. ‘Bounty’ was the strawberry cultivar studied. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of herbicide Basta 150 SL for problematic weeds and strawberry daughter plants. The strawberry plants were set in spring 1999, using  black plastic mulch. In the experiment, the plot size was 30 m2 (2 x 15 m) and planting scheme 1.2 x 0.3 m. The following treatment variants were used: 1. Untreated (control); 2. Basta 150 SL 3l/ha; 3. Basta 150 SL 5l/ha. Each variant was represented with 4 replications. The herbicide was applied twice by means of  a backpack sprayer: in May before  blooming and in August when new weeds had grown. The results of the experiment indicated that due to Basta 150 SL weed infestation in strawberry plantation was decreased. It was noted that, in both treatment variants, Basta 150 SL destroyed nearly 90–96% of strawberry daughter plants. The results also showed that Basta 150 SL did not cause damage to strawberry plants and berries. The herbicide applied in two doses (5 l/ha and 3 l/ha) did not affect the strawberry yield negatively. It was established that in both treatment variants yields were  increased by 26.9 and 29.2%, respectively. We noted that it was practical to use Basta 150 SL at the rate of 5 l/ha  only in the case of appearing perennial weeds (Taraxacum officinalis, Cirsium arvense, Viola arvensis) in an orchard. For other weeds, the rate of herbicide 3 l/ha suited well.

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