Tag Archives: sugar beet

73-86 K. Romaneckas, R. Romaneckiene, E. Šarauskis, V. Pilipavicius and A. Sakalauskas
The effect of conservation primary and zero tillage on soil bulk density, water content, sugar beet growth and weed infestation
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The effect of conservation primary and zero tillage on soil bulk density, water content, sugar beet growth and weed infestation

K. Romaneckas¹, R. Romaneckiene¹, E. Šarauskis, V. Pilipavicius¹ and A. Sakalauskas

¹Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Dept. of Soil Management, Studentu 11, LT-53067
Akademija, Kaunas r., Lithuania; e-mail:
kestas.romaneckas@lzuu.lt, romanr@one.lt, vytautas.pilipavicius@lzuu.lt
²Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Dept. of Agricultural Machinery, Studentu 11, LT-53067
Akademija, Kaunas r., Lithuania; e-mail: egidijus.sarauskis@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

The effect of different conservation primary soil tillage on sugar beet was investigated at the Experimental Station of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture in a silty loam Luvisol during the period of 2001 – 2006. The aim of the trial was to establish the influence of reduced soil tillage intensity on some soil physical properties, sugar beet yield and quality, and weed infestation. Treatments of the trial: 1. conventional (22–25 cm) ploughing with a mouldboard plough (CP); 2. shallow (12–15 cm) ploughing with a mouldboard plough (SP); 3.deep (25–30 cm) cultivation with a chisel cultivator (DC); 4. shallow (10–12 cm) loosening with a disc harrow (SL); 5. zero tillage (ZT). Reduction of primary soil tillage intensity increased the amount of moisture and level of soil bulk density in the soil upper layer (0-10 cm). According to the average data of 2001-2006, the highest amounts of moisture and soil bulk density were observed in no tilled soil (ZT) before pre-sowing soil tillage (25.8% and 1.40 Mg m-3) and after sowing until sugar beet germination (23.6% and 1.40 Mg m-3). Soil tillage intensity had no significant influence on soil moisture content and bulk density in a deeper (10-20 cm) layer. Sugar beet seed germination in shallow loosened soil (SL) was higher in comparison with control treatment (CP) fourfold per 6 years; this influence was significant in two experimental years. Average data showed that germination of directly sowed seeds was less by 37% in comparison with conventional ploughing (CP). Reducing of soil tillage intensity to zero tillage had no significant influence on sugar beet yield, ramification and sucrose content of root-crop. The reduction of soil tillage intensity and refusal to use full-scale herbicides had negative, but not significant influence on weed infestation in the sugar beet crop, except in the no-tillage pattern. The data of the beginning of the second rotation showed a significantly higher number of annual (32%) and all (29%) weeds in no-tilled (ZT) soil in comparison with conventional ploughing (CP). Generally, the number of weed species increased from 22 to 26. The number of Chenopodium album increased from 11.3 to 22.1, Poa annua – from 5.6 to 14.2, Taraxacum officinalis – from 0.66 to 6.1 plants per m2 . Elytrigia repens became a widespread weed.

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135-144 A. Sakalauskas, E. Šarauskis, A. Jasinskas,K. Romaneckas and E. Vaiciukevičius
Trials of sugar beet seed pressing with various pressure rollers
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Trials of sugar beet seed pressing with various pressure rollers

A. Sakalauskas¹, E. Šarauskis¹, A. Jasinskas¹,K. Romaneckas² and E. Vaiciukevičius¹

¹Department of Agricultural Machinery, Lithuanian University of Agriculture,Studentu St. 15A, LT-53361 Kauno r., Lithuania; e-mail: ZUM.katedra@lzuu.lt
²Department of Soil Management, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentu St. 11,LT-53361 Kauno r., Lithuania; e-mail: Kestas.romaneckas@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

This paper presents the investigation of the technological process of operation of special type sugar beet seed pressure rollers and the experimental trial results of tests carried out in various soils at Hohenheim University. Pressure rollers are mounted behind the seeder coulters, improving the contact between sugar beet seeds and the soil and, in addition, improving seed germination ability. But pressure rollers of conventional sugar beet seeders used for sowing tilled and cultivated soils cannot always be used for seed pressing in non-ploughed and uncultivated soils. The main design parameters of the pressure rollers of sugar beet seeds are diameter, width, the number of rollers and fingers, mass, etc. The even pressing of seed, furrow bed profile, its hardness, seed damage and gravity, etc. depend on the above mentioned parameters.The theoretical investigations proved that the pressure rollers should be mounted on theseeder unit with the help of hinges. As a result, when the sugar beet seeds were sown in non-ploughed soils, the pressure force onto the soil would depend on the gravitational force The diameter of the pressure rollers should be not less than 180 mm in order to press the seeds into the soil to a depth of about 3 mm and ensure their good contact with the soil.The experimental trials revealed that the narrow disk pressure roller of 220 mm diameterand 15 mm width introduces the seeds of sugar beet into the hard soil of 0.4 and 0.9 MPa and satisfies the conditions of good seed and soil contact. The disk pressure roller with fingers is made of two disks; each 17-finger disk introduces sugar beet seeds by 2 mm shallower than the narrow one and forms waves in the furrow bottom. When the finger-type pressure roller has been pulled through 0.4 – 0.9 MPa hardness soil the recommended force should be from 0.004 to 0.011 kN greater than using the narrow pressure roller.

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159-162 I. Deveikyte and V. Seibutis
Broadleaf weeds and sugar beet response to phenmedipham, desmedipham, ethofumesate and triflusulfuron-methyl
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Broadleaf weeds and sugar beet response to phenmedipham, desmedipham, ethofumesate and triflusulfuron-methyl

I. Deveikyte and V. Seibutis

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Department of Soil and Crop management, Instituto aleja 1,Akademija, Kedainiai distr., LT-58344, Lithuania; e-mail: irenad@lzi.lt, vytautas@lzi.lt

Abstract:

The sugar beet plant is a poor competitor against weeds. Uncontrolled weeds that emerge with the crop typically cause from 50 to 100% yield loss. Field studies were conducted from 2002-2004 to investigate the effects of different rates (1/1, ¾, ½) of herbicides on broadleaf weed control and yield of sugar beet. Phenmedipham + desmedipham + ethofumesate, triflusulfuron, metamitron, chloridazon, chloridazon + quimerac and oil-seed rape oil (1.0 l ha-1) were applied three times at 10 to 15 days intervals starting at the cotyledon growth stage of weeds at 91+71+112, 15, 700, 650, 540+90 g a.i. ha-1 dosage (full rate). All rates of herbicides phenmedipham + desmedipham + ethofumesate had a low efficacy. The addition of triflusulfuron to this herbicide reduced the amount of Tripleurospermum perforatum, Thlaspi arvense, Viola arvensis and Polygonum aviculare, but didn’t affect Chenopodium album, Lamium purpureum. Weed control by applying phenmedipham, desmedipham, ethofumesate and triflusulfuron had increased from 5.5 to 58% by the addition of metamitron, chloridazon and chloridazon+quimerac. The dry-weight of weeds varied significantly depending on the herbicide rates used. Using ½ of full (1/1) rates of the herbicide phenmedipham + desmedipham + ethofumesate had a low efficacy. All herbicide treatments produced higher sugar beet root and sugar yields than did phenmedipham + desmedipham + ethofumesate. Non-sugars were not affected by the herbicide treatments.

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483-492 L. Baležentienė and S. Mikulionienė
Chemical composition of galega mixtures silages
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Chemical composition of galega mixtures silages

L. Baležentienė and S. Mikulionienė

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentų 11, LT-4324, Akademija, Kaunas distr.,Lithuania; e-mail: ligita.balezentiene@ lzuu.lt

Abstract:

A b s t r a c t . According to the near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy data, the chemical composition of fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam.) is more valuable forage than traditional fodder plants such as the red clover and timothy at budding-early flowering stage. Due to the high concentration of total protein (231 g kg-1) and some amino acids (asp, glu, phenylala), galega fresh mass could be used as a substitute for the soybean cake for 1.4–2.9 kg equivalent amounts. The mean of asp, glu and phenylala content in galega DM constitutes 68.22–56.37 % of their concentration in soybean cake. The high total protein concentration of fodder galega which was determined indicated that this crop could be used for increasing the protein content of livestock rations and successfully replace soybean cake, which is imported and expensive.For supplying livestock with succulent forage during the year and for producing highquality silage, galega mixtures with grasses containing many water-soluble carbohydrates could be ensiled. Possibilities of ensiling mixtures of early flowering stage fodder galega (1:1) with orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), timothy (Phleum pratense L.), wheat grass (Elytrigia repens L.), milk stage maize and sugar beet leaves were studied at Research Station and Training Farm of Lithuanian University of Agriculture. The addition of 0.3% FPC to galega-maize silage had no significant influence on DM (225 and 214 g kg-1), mineral element concentration and pH value (4.7 and 4.4) as compared to galega-maize silage without preservatives. The results of ensiling indicate that the quality of pure galega and galega-wheat grass silage was poor quality due to an unbalanced ratio of protein and water-soluble carbohydrates. Fodder galega appears suitable for ensiling with a grass component (orchardgrass, timothy or maize) which accumulated not less than 30% DM.

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