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1375–1385 N. Naumenko, A. Paymulina, A. Ruskina, V. Khudyakov
The Effects of Various Raw Ingredients on Bread Quality
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The Effects of Various Raw Ingredients on Bread Quality

N. Naumenko,* A. Paymulina, A. Ruskina, V. Khudyakov

South Ural State University, Higher School of Medicine and Biology, Department of
Food and Biotechnology, 85 Lenina Avenue, 454080 Chelyabinsk, Russia;
*Correspondence: naumenko_natalya@mail.ru

Abstract:

The purpose of the current research is to study the mechanisms behind how various
raw ingredients affect the quality of bread. The objects of the research were the flour used in
making the bread (consisting of gluten at 28.5%, and with an ash content of 0.55), with no added
fats; tap water or activated water (treated in a USTA-0.4/22 OM ultrasonic processor (Volna,
Russia), operating at a frequency of 22±1.65kHz and at 30% of maximum output power (400W)
for mixing dough); and plant extract additives based on stevioside and fucoidan (fully replacing
the sugar). Included in the analysis were the effects of using activated water and combined plant
extract additives on organoleptic qualities (appearance, crust colour, crumb condition, taste,
stickiness during mastication, and friability), as well as the physical and chemical qualities
(moisture content, porosity, and acidity). Yeast activity was studied in dough which had been
produced using activated water and combined plant extract additives. An Altami-136T optical
microscope (Altami, Russia) was used to study the activity of yeast cells. The effects of activated
water and combined plant extract additives were analysed by examining the microstructure.
Microscopic studies were carried out using a Jeol JEM-2100 electron microscope (Jeol Ltd,
Japan). The results confirm that activated water and combined plant extract additives may be used
to improve the quality of fresh bread.

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