Tag Archives: technology

33-38 V. Dubrovin and M. Melnychuk
Cleaner Production of Biomass and Biofuels
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Cleaner Production of Biomass and Biofuels

V. Dubrovin and M. Melnychuk

National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
15 Geroiv Oborony Str., 03041 Kiev, Ukraine
e-mail: dubrovin@nauu.kiev.ua; maksym@nauu.kiev.ua

Abstract:

Ukrainian agriculture is an industry which produces a huge quantity of biomass. The main part of the biomass potential is made up by straw. By moderate estimations only 20% of the total amount of straw can be used for energy production. All plant growing and biomass processing technologies can be based on cleaner production methodology. Only a few ecological options in corn growing technology gave real profit, which was ca 220 UAH per hectare. The main steps for rearing Trichogramma insects are technical services in laboratory conditions and soft implementation of them on agricultural plants by special aircraft. The most important result of the research is an overview of the possibilities of Ukraine to cover up to 12% of the total primary biomass energy demand for cleaner biofuel production.

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341-348 M. Schlegel, N. Kanswohl, D. Rössel and A. Sakalauskas
Essential technical parameters for effective biogas production
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Essential technical parameters for effective biogas production

M. Schlegel¹, N. Kanswohl¹, D. Rössel² and A. Sakalauskas³

¹Professorship of Technology and Process Engineering of Sustainable Agriculture, Institute forFarm Animals Sciences and Technology, University of Rostock, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 8,18059 Rostock, Germany; e-mail: mathias.schlegel@uni-rostock.de
²Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus San Luis Potosí, Iturbide No. 73, Salinas de Hgo., S.L.P.,C.P. 78600. México. e-mail: edietmar@colpos.mx
³Department of Agricultural Machinery, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentu 11,LT-53361 Kaunas, Lithuania; e-mail: zum.katedra@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

Rising agrarian raw material prices in 2006 had a negative impact on the biogas sector in Germany, leading to the search for potentials for optimisation of production. A problem is the workload of the block-type thermal power station (BTPS). This is caused by biogas process disturbances, construction errors, technical problems and management mistakes as well as by oversizing of the BTPS. Technical problems appear in particular with BTPS and aggregates, stirring devices and fermenter heatings, measuring and control technology as well as foil caps. The BTPS is an essential part of the economic efficiency of biogas production. A 2% increase in efficiency, to 40%, lowers the costs about 1 Cent kWh -1el . To achieve sufficientstirring power, the device type, heights and angle adjustment are vital. The substrate dosing engine must be adjusted to the particular substrates. The fermentation has to be controlled continuously. Parameters such as substrate amount, temperature, pH-factor, fermenter chamber load, gas amount and composition, ammonium concentration and short-chained fatty acids should be controlled regularly. Large temperature variations can lead to foam formation, resulting in a reduction of the gas yield. Disinfectants, antibiotics and a too tall fermenter chamber load can also have a negative influence. Low methane content often may often result from high sulphur and ammonia content in biogas composition, high aerial dosage accompanying desulphurisation as well as to coarse input material.

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451-455 R. Virbickaite, A. P. Sirvydas, P. Kerpauskas and R. Vasinauskiene
The comparison of thermal and mechanical systems of weed control
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The comparison of thermal and mechanical systems of weed control

R. Virbickaite, A. P. Sirvydas, P. Kerpauskas and R. Vasinauskiene

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Department of Heat and BiotechnologyEngineering, Kauno r. Studentu 15, LT 53356, Lithuania; tel: (+370) 37 75 23 17;fax: (+370) 37 75 23 24; e-mail: v.rasaa@gmail.com

Abstract:

In ecological farming weed control after sowing time is pursued by mechanical, and recently, by thermal means. In thermal weed control both the surface of the soil and the roots of cultural plants remain undisturbed, however, the l cultured plant experiences a thermal shock. This combination of factors has a positive influence on productivity. Data for the comparable efficiency of thermal and mechanical weed control research results in 2001–2003 and 2005 are presented. 16 weeds were destroyed. Thermal weed control for annual weeds is 22.5% more effective in comparison with the mechanical method, however the latter is 32% more effective for perennial weeds.

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