Tag Archives: tillage

290–296 J. Tuure, A. Rammo and J. Ahokas
Realtime soil moisture measurement during field work
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Realtime soil moisture measurement during field work

J. Tuure¹, A. Rammo² and J. Ahokas¹*

¹University of Helsinki, Department of Agricultural Sciences Agrotechnology,
Koetilantie 5, FI 00014 Helsinki, Finland
²University of Mosul, College of Agriculture, Mosul Iraq
*Correspondence: jukka.ahokas@outlook.com

Abstract:

Soil moisture affects grain germination. If the seeds are sown in dry soil the germination is poor and the emergence is uneven. In Finland, the fieldwork during the spring sowing season takes a couple of weeks and during this period the soil is drying or it is wetting if there are rains. If the seeds can be sown to optimal soil moisture content this enhances germination and increases the yield.
Soil moisture content and temperature was measured before spring tillage. By utilizing these results a prototype of soil moisture measurement system was built utilizing commercial NIRtechnology moisture sensor. This system could be used in harrows and drills so that the work is done to proper soil moisture content. The principle functioned reliably when properly calibrated and mounted. The measuring system could be further improved with narrower light beam so that the falling soil aggregates would not have interference to the results. This kind of instrumentation could be used in implements.
Harrowing and sowing season could be prolonged with a small impact on yield if the seeds could be sown to advantageous moisture content. This would be also economical because the work capacity and machine sizes could be reduced. Also risk of soil compaction would be less.

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280–289 K. Tamm, E. Nugis, L. Edesi, E. Lauringson, L. Talgre, P. Viil, T. Plakk, T. Võsav, R. Vettik and P. Penu
Impact of cultivation method on the soil properties in cereal production
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Impact of cultivation method on the soil properties in cereal production

K. Tamm¹*, E. Nugis¹, L. Edesi¹, E. Lauringson³, L. Talgre³, P. Viil¹, T. Plakk¹, T. Võsav, R. Vettik¹ and P. Penu²

¹Estonian Crop Research Institute, J.Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva, Jõgeva Vald, Estonia
²Agricultural Research Centre, Teaduse 4/6, EE75501 Saku, Estonia
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu 4, Estonia
*Correspondence: kalvi.tamm@etki.ee

Abstract:

The aim of present paper is to give an overview about results collected in 2012–2014 related to impact of cultivation method on the cereal field soil properties. Experiments were conducted on Estonian farmers’ production fields to compare no-till and plough-based tillage practices. Studied properties were among others soil bulk density, structure, water content, microbial activity and weeds seeds content.
The bulk density, gravimetric moisture content and structure of soil from 0–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm layers were evaluated. For microbial activity an enzyme  dehydrogenase, which occurs in all viable microbial cells, was determined in soil layers 0–10 and 10–20 cm. Soil samples were taken from 0–25 cm layer to determine weed seeds content. Seeds were extracted from the soil using a flotation-method. The seeds were counted and species identified under the microscope.
The cultivation method has significant impact on some soil properties and insignificant to other. Cultivation method had no significant impact on ratio of agronomically preferred soil particles (2–4.75 mm). No-tilled fields soil bulk density had no differences between layers except 0–10 layer in Pärnumaa (p < 0.05). Soil bulk density differences (p < 0.05) between layers occurred in Soth-Viljandimaa and Pärnumaa tilled soils, in which plough pan in layer 20–30 cm was noticeable.
In average the abundance of weeds seeds was higher on no-tilled fields, compared to tillage accordingly 60,975 and 29,250 weed seeds m-2 (p < 0.003). Results showed higher soil dehydrogenase activity in the no-tilled soils layer 0–10 cm than in 10–20 cm layer (p < 0.05). In the tillage the dehydrogenase activity had no significant difference between soil layers.

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427-432 T. Saue, P. Viil, J. Kadaja
Do different tillage and fertilization methods influence weather risks on potato yield?
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Do different tillage and fertilization methods influence weather risks on potato yield?

T. Saue, P. Viil, J. Kadaja

Estonian Research institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, Saku, Harjumaa, Estonia;e-mail: triin.saue@eria.ee, peeter.viil@eria.ee, jyri.kadaja@eria.ee

Abstract:

The influence of weather variability on potato yield was assessed with an aim to address different soil tillage and fertilization regimes by their weather sensibility. The strong effect of an experimental year on potato yields was proved for the experimental period; the effect of fertilization proved significant only between the highest and the lowest fertilization rates; the effect of tillage tested insignificant. If synthesized statistically over the population (over an untested period of time), significant interactions occur between years and tillage/fertilization treatments, verifying that the effect of both tillage and fertilization is dependent on year-to-year weather differences. Yields of all examined variants were found to be significantly correlated to spring weather – positively to temperatures and negatively to precipitation. Negative correlation exists between yields and temperatures summed from emergence to flowering, positive between yields and precipitation from flowering to harvest.

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785-792 E. Demjanová, M. Macák, I. Dalovic, F Majerník, Š. Týr, J. Smatana
Effects of tillage systems and crop rotation on weed density, weed species composition and weed biomass in maize
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Effects of tillage systems and crop rotation on weed density, weed species composition and weed biomass in maize

E. Demjanová¹, M. Macák¹, I. Dalovic,² F Majerník¹, Š. Týr¹, J. Smatana¹

¹Department of Sustainable Agriculture and Herbology, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food
Resources, Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra, Tr. A.Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra,
Slovak Republic, milan.macak@uniag.sk 2Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia, maizescience@yahoo.com Department of Sustainable Agriculture and Herbology, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food
Resources, Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra, Tr. A.Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra,
Slovak Republic, milan.macak@uniag.sk
²Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia, maizescience@yahoo.com

Abstract:

The field study was conducted over seven years in south-western Slovakia to investigate the effects of different soil tillage intensities and crop rotation on weed density, weed diversity and weed dry biomass in maize. Three basic tillage treatments were the following: mouldboard ploughing to a depth of 0.30 m (conventional tillage); offset disc ploughing to a depth of 0.15 m followed by combined cultivator; twice shallow loosening to a depth of 0.10 m (both reduced tillage). Annual broadleaf weeds (17 species) were clearly the dominant weed group under all soil tillage treatments, compared to perennial weeds (6 species) and annual grassy weeds (4 species). Dominant weed species were Amaranthus retroflexus and A. powelli, Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus–galli, Convolvulus arvensis and Cirsium arvense. The number of species of the annual broadleaf and grassy weeds group was insignificant in conventional tillage and reduced tillage systems. Total weed density was significantly lower under the conventional tillage than the other reduced tillage systems. The main benefit of conventional tillage is a highly significant decline of perennial weeds. Only 2.6 perennial weed plants per quadrant in conventional tillage as compared to 7.5–9.0 in reduced tillage treatments were noted. Significantly less weed dry biomass was found in conventional treatment under mouldboard ploughing as compared to reduced tillage. Crop rotation did not have a significant influence on variability of species richness expressed according to Margalef’s index in maize. Tillage system was more influential than crop rotations on the weed density and diversity and weed biomass.

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156-161 O. Auškalnienė and A. Auškalnis
The influence of tillage system on diversities of soil weed seed bank
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The influence of tillage system on diversities of soil weed seed bank

O. Auškalnienė and A. Auškalnis

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture,Instituto Alėja 1, LT – 58344, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr.;e-mail: ona@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Field experiments with different soil tillage systems were conducted in 2003–2006 at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture. Investigations to evaluate effects of soil tillage regime on weed seed bank and distribution in the soil layers were made after four years of experimentation. A total of 17 weed species were found in the soil seed bank; 98 % – annual dicotyledonous. The most abundant weed species in the seed bank were Chenopodium album, Lamium purpureum and Stellaria media. The highest number of weed seed species was found in treatments with reduced and no-tillage treatments in a soil layer of 0–5cm. In deeper soil layers, 5–10, 10–20, no differences in species number of weed seeds were found.

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