Tag Archives: tractor

xxx V. Bulgakov, V. Adamchuk, M. Arak, I. Petrychenko and J. Olt
Theoretical research into the motion of combined fertilising and sowing tractor-implement unit
Abstract |
Full text PDF (1,020 kB)

Theoretical research into the motion of combined fertilising and sowing tractor-implement unit

V. Bulgakov¹, V. Adamchuk², M. Arak³, I. Petrychenko² and J. Olt³*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²National Scientific Centre, Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification, 11 Vokzalna Str., Glevaкha-1, Vasylkiv District, UA08631 Kiev Region, Ukraine
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

A mathematical model has been developed representing the motion of a seed drill combination simultaneously performing the preceding banded placement of mineral fertilisers. Such a combined unit comprises the gang-up wheeled tractor, the fertiliser distribution module behind the tractor attached to it with the use of a hitch and intended for the banded placement of mineral fertilisers and the grain drill behind the fertiliser distribution module attached to it also with the use of a hitch. For the components of this dynamic system the coordinates of their centres, their masses as well as the external forces and the reactions of the soil surface applied to them have been determined. In order to use the original dynamic equations in the form of the Lagrange equations of the second kind, the generalised coordinates and kinetic energy relations have been determined. Following the necessary transformations, a system of six differential equations of motion has been generated, which characterises the behaviour of the combined machine unit during its plane-parallel motion. In this system, two line coordinates and one angular coordinate characterise the behaviour of the propulsion and power unit (wheeled tractor), while three angular coordinates characterise the rotations of the draft gear and the centres of the machines integrated with its use.

Key words:

, , , ,




162–169 Ľ. Hujo, Z. Tkáč, J. Jablonický, D. Uhrinová and M. Halenár
The action of force measurement for the three-point hitch of a tractor
Abstract |
Full text PDF (359 kB)

The action of force measurement for the three-point hitch of a tractor

Ľ. Hujo*, Z. Tkáč, J. Jablonický, D. Uhrinová and M. Halenár

Department of Transport and Handling, Faculty of Engineering, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, A. Hlinku 2, SK 949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
*Correspondence: lubomir.hujo@uniag.sk

Abstract:

The object of the executed measurements which were carried out was to obtain time courses for the forces and pressures inherent in a hydraulic system for the three-point hitch of a tractor during the process of ploughing with a carrier-mounted plough and also with a semi-mounted plough. It was necessary to obtain experimental data on the basis of which it was then possible to consider and analyse the issue of dynamic loading for the three-point hitch of a tractor during basic agricultural operations. The selected operation was ploughing in random working conditions using, in turn, a carrier-mounted plough and a semi-mounted plough. The aim was to use the results obtained to simulate the loading and full usage of the three-point hitch (TPH) under laboratory condition by means of hydrostatic simulator.

Key words:

, ,




1626-1634 J. Kosiba, Š. Čorňák, J. Glos, J. Jablonický, V. Vozárová, A. Petrović and J. Csillag
Monitoring oil degradation during operating tests
Abstract |
Full text PDF (402 kB)

Monitoring oil degradation during operating tests

J. Kosiba¹*, Š. Čorňák², J. Glos², J. Jablonický¹, V. Vozárová³, A. Petrović³ and J. Csillag³

¹Department of Transport and Handling, Faculty of Engineering, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Tr. A Hlinku 2, SK 949 76, Nitra, Slovak Republic
²Department of Combat and Special Vehicles, Faculty of Military Technology, University of Defence, Kounicova 65, CZ 662 10 Brno, Brno, Czech Republic
³Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK 949 76, Nitra Slovak Republic
*Correspondent: jan.kosiba@gmail.com

Abstract:

This paper deals with a lifetime test of the hydraulic and transmission oil, Shell Spirax S4 ATF (Universal Tractor Transmission Oil (UTTO)). This fluid was used in the hydraulic and transmission circuit of a John Deere 5720 tractor. The fluid was assessed in terms of a possible contamination of chemical elements. Fluid samples were taken from a John Deere 5720 tractor at intervals of 250 engine hours. These samples were subjected to an IR spectroscopy analysis, a measuring of the kinematic viscosity at 40 °C, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The spectrometer, Spectroil Q100, has been used to monitor chemical elements.

Key words:

, ,




148-157 V. Nadykto, M. Arak and J. Olt
Theoretical research into the frictional slipping of wheel-type undercarriage taking into account the limitation of their impact on the soil
Abstract |
Full text PDF (247 kB)

Theoretical research into the frictional slipping of wheel-type undercarriage taking into account the limitation of their impact on the soil

V. Nadykto¹, M. Arak² and J. Olt²⋅*

¹Tavria State Agrotechnological University, Khmelnytskoho pr. 18, Melitopol, 72312 Zaporozhye region, Ukraine
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; *Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

The frictional slipping of the tractor’s wheels causes great damage to the soil fertility. To ensure the minimal disturbance of its structure, it has been proposed to determine the maximum slippage of driving wheels taking into account the value of their permissible pressure on the soil in the horizontal plane. As a result, it has been established that for the substantial reduction of the soil structural damage during the spring agricultural field operations the maximum permissible frictional sliding δmax of the wheel-type undercarriage of tractors classified into drawbar pull categories 5, 3 and 1.4 (drawbar pull based classification approach is used in Ukraine and some other countries) has to be equal to 15%, 12% and 9% respectively. In the summer/autumn period, the values δmax can be greater and, accordingly, be equal to 20%, 16% and 13%. Wheeled tractors in drawbar pull category 5 equipped with single standard tyres can be used for field operations only in the summer/autumn period. For their operation in spring they must certainly be equipped with twin tyres. The implementation of this design solution is appropriate for all wheeled tractors.

Key words:

, , , , , ,




17-24 J. Ahokas and T. Jokiniemi
Light tractor simulator
Abstract |
Full text PDF (565 kB)

Light tractor simulator

J. Ahokas¹ and T. Jokiniemi²

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, PL 28, 00014 Helsingin yliopisto, Finland; e-mail: 1jukka.ahokas@helsinki.fi, 2tapani.jokiniemi@helsinki.fi

Abstract:

A tractor simulator was made for hard tillage work. The aim of the simulator was to have it in national language and that it is easy to use. There are tractor simulators available but they are mainly made for different conditions than we have and they are also in languages not common to our farmers. The simulator user can interactively experiment how working depth and – width, soil conditions, ballasting and driving speed effect on wheel slip, field capacity and fuel consumption l ha-1. The simulator also shows how complicated a tractor – implement system is. Because the soil conditions and implement conditions are varying there can be large scatter in the results.

Key words:

, , ,




287-300 Ü. Traat, A. Küüt and J. Olt
Specific Features of Establishment and Maintenance of Tractor Fleet in a Typical Estonian Agricultural Holding
Abstract |
Full text PDF (198 kB)

Specific Features of Establishment and Maintenance of Tractor Fleet in a Typical Estonian Agricultural Holding

Ü. Traat, A. Küüt and J. Olt

Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences,
56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
e-mail: ylo.traat@emu.ee; arne.kyyt@emu.ee; jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

In spite of the high reliability of modern tractors, they are no perpetuum mobiles and need at times designated by the manufacturer’s technical condition regular diagnostics, the diagnostic results being determined on the basis of work and the amount of content, technical maintenance and repair, if necessary. This study examines the design and maintenance problems of an Estonian representative farm tractor compared to similar indicators in the Republic of Latvia. The outlines of a typical company are based on expert opinions. These indicators have been analyzed and compared to those of the whole Estonia at the level of one particular farm in real terms. The machine/tractor maintenance-related economic and technical indicators have been set to ensure the reliability of machine/tractor use in competitive agricultural production. The investigation examines the company’s actual use of machine/tractor, tractor upkeep and methods for determining the composition of the qualitative and quantitative indicators.

Key words:

, , , , ,




73-85 Ü. Traat, M. Heinloo and L. Aadusoo
Trends of the transformation of Estonia’s Wheeled Tractor Park
Abstract |

Trends of the transformation of Estonia’s Wheeled Tractor Park

Ü. Traat, M. Heinloo and L. Aadusoo

Estonian University of Life Sciences

Abstract:

This paper analyses the current situation of the Estonian Tractor Park and the trends of its transformation. The examination focuses on the brands and age of the tractors in use currently and in the recent past. It tries to predict the composition and the main tendencies of tractor procurement in the near future. It became evident that 90% of the tractors currently used in Estonian agriculture are of Russian origin, although during the last 10 years the purchase of Russian tractors has decreased substantially. At the same time the purchase of convenient, well-designed, highly efficient, but expensive Western tractors has increased rapidly, indicating the growing prosperity of Estonian farmers.

Key words:

, , ,