Tag Archives: triticale

315-329 M. Lonbani and A. Arzani
Morpho-physiological traits associated with terminal drought- stress tolerance in triticale and wheat
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Morpho-physiological traits associated with terminal drought- stress tolerance in triticale and wheat

M. Lonbani and A. Arzani*

*Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156 83111, Iran; e-mail: a_arzani@cc.iut.ac.ir

Abstract:

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the genotypic effects on tolerance to terminal drought stress in triticale and to compare it with that of durum and bread wheat under drought stress and normal field conditions using morpho-physiological traits. Five triticale ('Zoro', 'Moreno', 'Lasko', 'Prego' and 'Alamos 83'), one bread wheat ('Roshan') and one durum wheat ('Osta-Gata') cultivars were used. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used in each of the drought stress and well-watered (non-stress) experiments. Morpho-physiological traits including chlorophyll content, relative water content (RWC), excised leaf water retention (ELWR), rate of water loss (RWL), initial water content (IWC), leaf area, leaf angle, number of stomata, pollen viability, dry weight of awn and awn length were evaluated. Results of combined analyses of variances indicated the highly significant differences among genotypes for all traits and significant genotype × environmental interaction for all traits with the exception of leaf width, number of stomata and awn length. Overall performance of triticale cultivars was superior to wheat cultivars under both environmental conditions. Among triticale genotypes, 'Lasko' and 'Moreno' cultivars were the most drought tolerant and 'Prego' cultivar was the most sensitive genotype to water stress. Under drought stress conditions ELWR showed significant and negative correlation with grain yield, while their correlation was significant and positive under non-stress conditions. This relationship indicates that ELWR had an important impact on grain yield under both water stress and non-stress conditions.

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3–12 M. Alaru, B. Moller and A. Hansen
Triticale yield formation and quality influenced by different N fertilisation regimes
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Triticale yield formation and quality influenced by different N fertilisation regimes

M. Alaru¹, B. Moller² and A. Hansen²

¹Department of Field Crop Husbandry, Estonian Agricultural University, Kreutzwaldi 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia;
²Department of Dairy and Food Science, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Rolighedsvej -30, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C., Denmark

Abstract:

Two different field trials with triticale were carried out in a field of the Department of Field Crop Husbandry of the Estonian Agricultural University, situated near Tartu, in 2000/2001–2002/2003. In the first trial, the winter triticale cultivars ‘Modus’ and ‘Tewo’ were used to investigate the influence of different N fertilisation regimes on triticale yield formation and yield quality. Seven N fertiliser treatments in four replications in the first year and 11 fertiliser treatments in three replications in the second and third year were tested, by varying total nitrogen dosages and time of application. Nitrogen was applied as NH4NO3 at different plant development stages (EC30, EC47). In the second trial, 10 winter triticale cultivars were investigated (‘Modus’, ‘Tewo’, ‘Lasko’, ‘Dagro’, ‘Ulrika’, ‘Lamberto’, ‘Vision’, ‘Fidelio’, ‘Lupus’, and ‘Prego’) to select out cultivars of earlier maturing and higher tolerance to pre-harvest sprouting. Winter triticale parents – the winter rye ‘Vambo’ and the winter wheat ‘Kosack’ were used as the control.
The yield level and quality of winter triticale grains were most of all affected by weather conditions and then by cultivars and N application regimes. Nitrogen fertiliser application at the plant development stage EC47 decreased significantly the height of stems (r = -0.459***), which is the principal prerequisite for preventing lodging, and increased significantly grain protein content (1.69 and 1.8% as the average of three years in ‘Modus’ and ‘Tewo’ grains, respectively). Unlike spikes of wheat, all of these winter triticale cultivars started to germinate before general physiological maturity. The longer was the period from anthesis to general physiological maturity, the higher was the percentage of germination during the period (r = 0.727*). The higher was the moisture content in seeds of triticale 26 days after the EC65 (length of the period wheat reached physiological maturity), the higher was the germination percentage in spikes (r = 0.733*). Triticale cultivars with higher 1,000 kernel weight values reached physiological maturity later. An average germination before harvest time correlated positively with test weight (r = 0.608*).

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