Tag Archives: varieties

563-572 B. Jansone, S. Rancane, P. Berzins, V. Stesele and A. Jansons
Evaluation of perennial grass mixtures of different species and varieties in the central part of Latvia introduced from other European countries
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Evaluation of perennial grass mixtures of different species and varieties in the central part of Latvia introduced from other European countries

B. Jansone, S. Rancane, P. Berzins, V. Stesele and A. Jansons

LUA Research Institute of Agriculture, 7 Zemkopibas instituts, Skriveri, Skriveruregion, Latvia, LV-5125;e-mail: sarmite.rancane@inbox.lv

Abstract:

Forage grasses growing in the wild and cultivated in fields represent many species with various properties. Scientists at the LUA Research Institute of Agriculture have for many years performed purposeful breeding work with the aim of originating new, highly productive cultivars of different grassland species with good forage quality suitable for growing under Latvia’s climatic conditions, as well as being competitive in the EU countries. A field trial was sown in 2007 to evaluate our new cultivars in the poly-component mixtures with diploid and tetraploid varieties of forage grasses and mixtures offered by other companies and countries. Twenty-two multiform grassland mixtures for cutting and pastures were compared. The test results proved that it is possible to obtain two full cuttings from these mixtures in the sowing year under good climatic conditions; the most productive mixtures yielded 8 t ha-1 DM and more. In the first year, with three cuts, DM yields ranged within 8.89–16.11 t ha-1 the highest DM yields were obtained from mixtures with the newest perennial grass cultivars of the Research Institute. The average DM yields for better swards (SK-1, SK-2, SK-3, P/2) were above 10 t ha-1 in three years. The mixtures with white clover and rhizomatous low grasses proved to be most winter-hardy. The highest protein content and digestibility in the first year of use were the characteristic features of cutting mixtures SK-5 and P/1, but in the second year, it was found in mixtures for grazing Dot-21, Dot-24, SK-6 and G-2.

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625-632 S. Kiru and I. Nasenko
Use of genetic resources from Jerusalem artichoke collection of N. Vavilov Institute in breeding for bioenergy and health security
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Use of genetic resources from Jerusalem artichoke collection of N. Vavilov Institute in breeding for bioenergy and health security

S. Kiru¹ and I. Nasenko²

¹N. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry (VIR), B. Morskaya St. 44, 190000 St.Petersburg, Russian Federation; e-mail: s.kiru@vir.nw.ru
²Majkop research station of N. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry, Shuntuk, Majkopdistr. Krasnodar reg., Russian Federation

Abstract:

The VIR Collection contains 313 varieties and hybrids of Jerusalem artichoke Heliantus tuberosus L. The material originated from several countries of America and Europe represents a potential source of valuable traits for breeding, including yield and precocity. Clones of 70 varieties and hybrids of Jerusalem artichoke from 11 countries were evaluated for yield and precocity. The selection of valuable for breeding accessions was carried out. As result of five years screening new perspective genetic sources of valuable commercial traits for breeding were singled out.

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217-223 J. Cesevičienė, A. Leistrumaitė and V. Paplauskienė
Grain yield and quality of winter wheat varieties in organic agriculture
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Grain yield and quality of winter wheat varieties in organic agriculture

J. Cesevičienė, A. Leistrumaitė and V. Paplauskienė

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto al. 1, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr., LT-58344,Lithuania; e-mail: jurgita@lzi.lt

Abstract:

During the period 2004–2006, grain yield and quality characteristics of ten winter wheat (Triticum aestive L.) varieties from the very good, good and satisfactory baking quality groups were investigated at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture under the conditions of organic agriculture. Results showed a marked influence of climatically different years on the winter wheat varieties’ grain yield and quality characteristics (protein and gluten content, gluten quality by gluten index, sedimentation index according to Zeleny). When the growing conditions were rather dry and warmer (2006), compared with the long-term mean, grain yield was the poorest but grain quality was the best and grain of most of the winter wheat varieties met the requirements set for bread-making. The varieties ‘Lars’ and ‘Zentos’ combined high yield with stability, their sum of integral assessment of grain yield was respectively (11+) and (10+). From quality parameters in varieties a higher variability was noted for sedimentation (26.6–29.7%), but similar variation in separate years showed that this quality parameter was most stable over years. In overall high-quality varieties from the very good / good baking quality groups, an ecological way of growing may give good baking utilization possibilities but this strongly depends on environmental conditions. Varieties ‘Širvinta 1’ and ‘Ada’ were more stable concerning wet gluten content and sedimentation, ‘Zentos’ and ‘Alma’ – concerning gluten index. Glu-1 score corresponded significantly and positively with higher sedimentation, hectolitre weight and gluten index.

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436-443 B. Petkeviciene
The effects of climate factors on sugar beet early sowing timing
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The effects of climate factors on sugar beet early sowing timing

B. Petkeviciene

Rumokai Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculturepost LT-4293 Zalioji, district Vilkaviskis, Lithuanian;tel: +370-342-49422, +370-342-49435; e-mail: rumokai@post.omnitel.net

Abstract:

Important environmental variables that affect determination of sugar beet growing processes are temperature, precipitation and soil moisture. The optimal time for sugar beet sowing was determined in the variety testing trial conducted at the Rumokai Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during the period 2000–2006. This time was found to be when the mean daily temperature for three subsequent days reached the limit of base air temperatures (> 10ºC). The sowing time was found to strongly correlate (r = 0.9*) with the amount of precipitation and accumulated base temperatures (> 5ºC) in March and May. The potential of sugar beet root biomass and white sugar correlated moderately strongly with the duration of the growing season (r = 0.55 and 0.62) and sowing time (r = −0.64 and −0.70).Data from the sowing timing trial averaged over the period 2000–2004 suggests that in thecase of early sowing the soil moisture at sowing depth was 16.3. With the delay of sowing soil moisture decreased. At early sowing the stand density was by 3.3  lower compared with the average (99,900 plants ha-1). One week’s delay in sowing reduced roots by 4.7 t ha-1 and white sugar 0.9 t ha-1 and increased alpha amino nitrogen content in roots by 2.58 mg 100g-1.

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59-72 A. Razukas, Z. Jankauskiene, J. Jundulas and R. Asakaviciute
Research of technical crops (potato and flax) genetic resources in Lithuania
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Research of technical crops (potato and flax) genetic resources in Lithuania

A. Razukas¹, Z. Jankauskiene, J. Jundulas¹ and R. Asakaviciute¹*

¹ Voke Branch of Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Zalioji a. 2, Vilnius, Lithuania.
² Upyte Research Station of Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Linininku 3, Upyte, Panevezys distr., Lithuania.
* Corresponding author; e-mail: rita.asakaviciute@voke.lzi.lt

Abstract:

The research of potato accessions preserved in Lithuanian potato gene bank genetic diversity research was carried out at the Voke branch of Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in years 1990–2006. Research was provided with potato collection covering 200 varieties and hybrids from the main potato origin and growing regions and selection material bred in Lithuania. Potato varieties varied in accordance of morphologic, physiologic, immunologic and farming features in the different maturity groups and between groups. Using transgenic hybridization method and working with genetic material of local potato collection were selected potato varieties of Lithuanian origin. The key objective was to select the varieties immune to wart disease, cyst nematodes, with high resistance to other diseases, with excellent agronomic and cooking qualities, suitable for the processing industry. Over 1966–2006 years the collection of more than 350 flax breeding lines and varieties from different countries were investigated at the Upyte Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture. Therefore it is desirable for the new flax varieties to be highly adaptable, stabile yielding and high fiber quality under different growing conditions. The collection serves as a base while selecting flax varieties for hybridization. There have been chosen the varieties and breeding lines having the complex of qualities and positive characters. The varieties and breeding lines with positive characters were involved into the program of fiber flax breeding.

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371-378 A. Sliesaravičius, J. Pekarskas, V. Rutkovienė and K. Baranauskis
Grain yield and disease resistance of winter cereal varieties and application of biological agent in organic agriculture
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Grain yield and disease resistance of winter cereal varieties and application of biological agent in organic agriculture

A. Sliesaravičius, J. Pekarskas, V. Rutkovienė and K. Baranauskis*

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentų 11, Lt-53361, Akademija,Kaunas distr., Lithuania
*Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Babtai, LT-54333 Kaunas distr., Lithuania;e-mail: algis.Sliesaravicius@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

Field trials with different varieties of winter wheat, rye barley and triticale were carried out at the Agroecology Center of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture from 2003-2005. The biological agent biojodis was tested. The winter wheat varieties ‘Baltimor’ and ‘Residence’ were found to be the most resistant to Septoria tritici (leaf blotch. The biological agent biojodis increased wheat grain yield for separate varieties by 0.38 – 0.97 t ha-1. No significant differences in disease resistance were found among the triticale and rye varieties tested. Research on the biological agent biojodis revealed that this agent reduced the incidence of fungi in the grain of the winter wheat variety ‘Širvinta 1’, thus it could diminish the number of mycromicetes species and the fungal infection level.The grain untreated wtith biojodis was found to be infected with 4 fungi species(Aspergillus oryzae, Fusarium nivale, Fusarium poae, Mycelia sterilia), where the infection level reached 9.0×103 cfu (colony forming unit), whereas the grain treated with the agent at a rate of 2 l t-1 was found to be infected with 2 species of fungi (Fusarium poae, Fusarium sporotrichiodes) at 5.5×103 cfu (colony forming unit) infection level.

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203–209 V. Šlapakauskas and V.Ruzgas
Chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of different winter wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum L.)
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Chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of different winter wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum L.)

V. Šlapakauskas and V.Ruzgas

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentø 11, Akademija, Kaunas district, LT-53067, Lithuania; e-mail: BO@nora.lzua.lt

Abstract:

The objective of the study was to estimate the fluorescence level of newly developed winter wheat varieties. It was detected that the minimum (actual) fluorescence yield (Ft) and the maximum fluorescence yield (Fm), measured with every saturation pulse, as well as the quantum yield (Y) and rate of electron transport (ETR) in the illuminated leaves of the winter wheat varieties Ada and Alma were higher than in the control variety Širvinta. The fluorescence parameters of the variety Sedawere weaker. Nevertheless, the grain yield of this variety was higher compared with the other varieties. The variety Seda is late ripening and more resistant to leaf diseases. Therefore, at the time of the experiment, the total area available for photosynthesis of the variety Seda was higher compared with the other varieties. The maximum electron transport rate in rapid light curve in the leaves of the wheat varieties Ada and Alma was measured to be 850 μmol m-2s-1 and for the variety Seda 800 μmol m-2s-1 of photosynthetically active radiation. In order to select plant breeding material using the chlorophyll fluorescence method more precisely, it is necessary to group the varieties or breeding lines according to the dates of maturity.

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253–264 A. Svirskis
Investigation of amaranth cultivation and utilisation in Lithuania
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Investigation of amaranth cultivation and utilisation in Lithuania

A. Svirskis

Šiauliai University, P. Višinskio 25, Šiauliai, Lithuania; e-mail: selekcentras@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Studies of amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) collections have been carried out at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture since 1978. During the period of 1998–2001, 13 varieties and populations of amaranth and some parameters of amaranth growing technology (sowing time, seed rate, row spacing, etc.) were investigated. The amaranth was grown in the six-course perennial grass breeding crop rotation after ploughed-in first year clover, sown after black fallow without additional fertilising and pesticides.
Preliminary amaranth growing technology was elaborated. The highest yield was produced when amaranth had been sown in the middle of May, at a seed rate of 2–4 kg ha-1, with row spacings of 50 cm and thrashed dry after severe frosts (-3…-5°C). The technology needs further improvement, and it is especially necessary to investigate fertilisation of amaranth in ecological and conventional farming systems.
Three amaranth varieties – ‘Raudonukai’, ‘Geltonukai’ and ‘Rausvukai’ – were registered in Lithuania in 2001. It is necessary to continue selection of amaranth species and varieties best suited for local conditions and investigate possibilities for use of amaranth green material and seed for food, feed, and energy production.

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