Tag Archives: variety

xxx M. Olle
The yield, height and content of protein of field peas (Pisum sativum L.) in Estonian agro-climatic conditions
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The yield, height and content of protein of field peas (Pisum sativum L.) in Estonian agro-climatic conditions

M. Olle

Estonian Crop Research Institute, Department of Plant Breeding, J. Aamissepa 1, EE48309 Jogeva alevik, Estonia
Correspondence: margit.olle@etki.ee

Abstract:

Pisum sativum L. is important protein crop in the world. The purpose of this investigation was to see whether pea varieties differ in their yield, height and content of protein. Another aim was to select the best varieties suitable for production. Field experiments with different varieties of peas (‘Bruno’, ‘Capella’, ‘Clara’ and ‘Vitra’) were carried out at the Estonian Crop Research Institute in 2014 and in 2015. Yields (t ha-1) in 2014 and 2015 did not differ much, while yield from variety ‘Bruno’ was very different between years 2014 and 2015 and was much higher in 2015. The most suitable height of field peas is in a range of 60…100 cm, because the plants with such a height are most effectively suppressing weeds. It can be concluded that varieties with suitable height in our investigation were: ‘Bruno’, ‘Capella’ and ‘Clara’. Variety ‘Vitra’ was too high, is lodging easily and is therefore hard to harvest. Crude protein content (% in dry matter) was lowest in ‘Clara’; all other varieties had a higher content of protein, within much the same range. Based on the results of present investigation it can be concluded that out of those four varieties the most suitable varieties for production are ‘Bruno’ and ‘Capella’. Choice of the right variety for pea cultivation is very important, but depends on the local agro-climatic conditions. As in Baltic – Nordic countries and in north of America the agro-climatic conditions are more or less similar the results are useful for those countries.

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801-810 P. Konvalina, Z. Stehno, J. Moudry
The critical point of conventionally bred soft wheat varieties in organic farming systems
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The critical point of conventionally bred soft wheat varieties in organic farming systems

P. Konvalina¹, Z. Stehno², J. Moudry¹

¹University of South Bohemia in ýeské BudČjovice, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Plant
Production and Agroecology, Department of Organic Farming, ýeské BudČjovice, Czech
Republic, konvalina@zf.jcu.cz
²Crop Research Institute Prague, Czech Republic, stehno@vurv.cz

Abstract:

Nowadays, wheat is the most important crop for organic farming systems. However, the varieties bred and tested in the conditions of organic farming systems are still missing, resulting in a very low level of yield in the Czech Republic (less than 50% of level of conventional yield in the same conditions). One reason is that the ideotype of the organically bred variety is different from that of the conventional. The varieties suitable for an organic farming system differ in many respects from those adopted in conventional farming. The first difference is obvious from the conventional tests of the varieties’ value for use, taking only direct indicators influencing the main parameter (yield) into account. Generally speaking, the features to be tested can be divided into 4 groups: the morphological, biological, economic and quality parameters. The conventional varieties are bred in conditions characterised by an abundance of soluble nutrients, and therefore, their root systems are not adapted to an insufficiency or weaker bonding of nutrients. The competitiveness with weeds has also been ignored. Any conventional variety which has not had to confront strong weeds during the breeding process cannot be assumed to be competitive enough in the conditions of an organic agro-ecosystem. Resistance to diseases and pests can be similarly characterised. Varieties are protected by pesticides throughout the conventional breeding process. Because of the seasonal fluctuations in weather, we need a plastic and flexible variety. They also differ in their qualitative parameters.

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197–209 A. Makaraviciute
Effect of organic and mineral fertilizers on the yield and quality of different potato varieties
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Effect of organic and mineral fertilizers on the yield and quality of different potato varieties

A. Makaraviciute

Elmininkai Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Dvaro 6, N. Elmininkai, Anykš?iai district, LT-4930, Lithuania; e-mail: elmininkai@anyksciai.omnitel.net

Abstract:

The effect of different fertilizers on potato tuber yield and its quality was investigated at the Elmininkai Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during 1997-1999. Potatoes of 10 varieties belonging to different maturity groups were grown on plots with different fertilization. The following potato varieties were investigated: the extra early ‘Venta’ and ‘Ukama’, the early ‘Voke’, the medium early ‘Mirta’ and ‘Karolin’, the medium late ‘Hertha’, ‘Saturna’ and ‘Agria’, and the late ‘Aistes’ and ‘Speci’.
It was established that different fertilizers, varietal properties and meteorological conditions during the potato vegetation period significantly influenced the yield and  quality of different potato varieties. The highest potato tuber yields (20.1–29.6 t ha-1) of all the tested varieties were harvested when one-component and complex mineral fertilizers with microelements had been applied, the lowest (14.6–21.7 t ha-1) when manure (60 t ha-1) had been used in spring. The highest starch and dry matter content had potatoes of the following varieties: the early ‘Voke’ (up to 16.3% and 22.6%, respectively), the medium early ‘Karolin’ (up to 15.6% and 21.8%, respectively), the medium late ‘Saturna’ (up to 17.4% and 23.7%, respectively) and the late ‘Speci’ (up to 16.3% and 22.6%, respectively). The 1998 vegetation period was the most favourable for potato tuber yield, and the 1997 vegetation period for the accumulation of starch and dry matter. The vegetation period of 1999 was the most unfavourable both for potato tuber yield and the accumulation of starch and dry matter.

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115–122 V. Eremeev, J. Jõudu, A. Lõhmus, P. Lääniste and A. Makke
The effect of pre-planting treatment of seed tubers on potato yield formation
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The effect of pre-planting treatment of seed tubers on potato yield formation

V. Eremeev, J. Jõudu, A. Lõhmus, P. Lääniste and A. Makke

Department of Field Crop Husbandry, Estonian Agricultural University, Kreutzwaldi 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: slava@eau.ee

Abstract:

In the trials conducted in 2000–2002, we examined possibilities for growing potato using different methods of pre-planting treatment of seed tubers.
The varieties exploited were ‘Varajane kollane’ (early), ‘Piret’ (medium early) and ‘Ants’ (medium late). There were used the following ways of treatment for all varieties: PS – pre-sprouting, TT – thermal treatment and 0 – tubers not treated.
The dynamics of tuber yield formation during the vegetation period was significantly influenced by the weather. In terms of potato growth, weather conditions were the most favourable in 2001. The weather in 2000 and 2002 was not the most suitable for potato growth and development, and the yield in these years proved lower than the three-year average.
The average results from the three years show that potatoes could not realise their full potential to reach maximum yield. Pre-planting germination and thermal treatment had positive effects during the entire vegetation period, the effect being stronger at the beginning and then gradually decreasing.
Pre-planting treatment of seed tubers had a different effect on varieties with different growing times.
A comparison between the varieties showed that ‘Piret’ and ‘Varajane kollane’ started to form tubers early and thus exceeded the development of the variety ‘Ants’ until the 60th day of growth. ‘Ants’ reached its maximum yield, 47.0 t ha-1, already by the 114th day, followed by the fast-ripening ‘Varajane kollane’ and the medium-ripening ‘Piret’. Thermal treatment did not give any advantage in terms of total yield formation compared to untreated seeds, except for the pre-planting germination variant of the variety ‘Varajane kollane’, the total yield of which exceeded that of its untreated variant by 7.08 t ha-1.

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