Tag Archives: water

767–787 Z. Libiete,,, A. Bardule, S. Murniece and A. Lupikis
Impact of clearfelling on dissolved nitrogen content in soil-, ground-, and surface waters: initial results from a study in Latvia
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Impact of clearfelling on dissolved nitrogen content in soil-, ground-, and surface waters: initial results from a study in Latvia

Z. Libiete¹,²,*, A. Bardule¹, S. Murniece¹ and A. Lupikis¹

¹ Latvian State Forest Research Institute ‘Silava’, Rigas str. 111, LV-2169 Salaspils, Latvia
² MNKC, Dzerbenes Str. 27, LV-1006 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: zane.libiete@silava.lv

Abstract:

Conventional forest management has traditionally been targeted to enhance provisioning ecosystem services. Recently, however, awareness about the effect of forest management on other groups of ecosystem goods and services has been raised at the European and global levels. A number of initiatives addressing the evaluation and mitigation of the impact of forest management operations on biodiversity, soil quality, nutrient cycling, and water quality have been reported. In 2011, the development of a monitoring system to assess the impact of forest management on biodiversity and environment in the state forests of Latvia was initiated in the Latvian State Forest Research Institute ‘Silava’. A number of studies to obtain experimental data and to test potential monitoring methods were implemented during this project. Among other activities, three research objects related to the quantification of changes in nutrient cycling after clearcut with whole-tree harvesting and stem-only harvesting were established. Data on changes in nutrient concentrations in soil solution, ground water, and surface waters, and on nutrient input through precipitation, are presently available for one year before and two years after clearfelling. Significant increase of dissolved nitrogen concentration in soil solution, as well as differences between stem-only and whole-tree harvested plots emerged only in the second year after harvesting. No significant increase of the dissolved N in the streams was observed, compared to the reference period. Ground vegetation recovery, amount of slash, soil properties and processes in the buffer zone are among those factors influencing the N leaching most, and these will be investigated further.

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297–302 K. Veselá, M. Pexa and J. Pavlů
The water content in the engine oil by using E85
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The water content in the engine oil by using E85

K. Veselá*, M. Pexa and J. Pavlů

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for
Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamycka 129, CZ 16521, Prague 6,
Czech Republic
*Correspondence: katerina86@email.cz

Abstract:

The European Union adopted a decision to achieve by 2020 at least 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. To fulfill this task, the EU proposed in 2020 binding targets – further improve energy efficiency by 20%, achieving a 20% share of renewable energy and a 10% share of biofuels in the fuel market. One of the most widely used biofuel in the automotive industry is bioethanol. Bioethanol can be used on low-percentage blending into petrol, which is governed by European Directive 2003/30/EC, and on high-blend bioethanol mixture, particularly E85 consists of 85% bioethanol and 15% petrol BA95. But in recent years, increasingly demonstrating opinions, that biofuels do not produce nearly as much effect as was propagated. This paper deals with the concentration of water in the engine oil with using biofuel E85. The water in the engineoil significantly affects its parameters (especially viscosity). How measurement results demonstrated the use of bioethanol in the fuel increases the concentration of water in the engine oil.

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550-557 V. Hönig,, Z. Linhart, J. Táborský and J. Mařík
Determination of the phase separation temperature and the water solubility in the mixtures of gasoline with biobutanol and bioethanol
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Determination of the phase separation temperature and the water solubility in the mixtures of gasoline with biobutanol and bioethanol

V. Hönig¹,*, Z. Linhart², J. Táborský¹ and J. Mařík³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Chemistry, Kamycka 129, CZ16521, Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: honig@af.czu.cz
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Economics and Management, Department of Management, Kamycka 129, CZ16521, Prague 6, Czech Republic
³Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamycka 129, CZ16521, Prague 6, Czech Republic

Abstract:

Original hydrocarbon composition, volatility, compatibility with materials, calorific value and stability of the mixture in the presence of water are monitored usually. This paper deals with the stability of gasoline-biobutanol and gasoline-bioethanol mixtures in the presence of water. Biobutanol is better biofuel than bioethanol using the same raw materials. Different contents of alcohol and oxygenated cosolvents are evaluated. Experimental analysis are focused on the water solubility and phase stability. Solubility in water of butanol and ethanol mixtures is very similar. Butanol-gasoline mixture provides better phase stability upon contact with water or atmospheric moisture oppose to ethanol mixtures. Butanol also does not enter to the aqueous layer and fuel properties remain in phase separation preserved. Further, it was found that crystals occur at low temperatures after exclusion of water was seen. Moreover, the temperature of phase separation can affect the content of alcohol, water, hydrocarbon composition and cosolvents added. The only difference found between more beneficial butanol and less beneficial ethanol was ABE (Aceton–Butanol–Ethanol) fermentation with Clostridium Acetobutylicum allowing to ferment also saccharidic cellulose to biobutanol according to standard of second generation biofuels.

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550-557 V. Hönig,, Z. Linhart, J. Táborský and J. Mařík
Determination of the phase separation temperature and the water solubility in the mixtures of gasoline with biobutanol and bioethanol
Abstract |
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Determination of the phase separation temperature and the water solubility in the mixtures of gasoline with biobutanol and bioethanol

V. Hönig¹,*, Z. Linhart², J. Táborský¹ and J. Mařík³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Chemistry, Kamycka 129, CZ16521, Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: honig@af.czu.cz
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Economics and Management, Department of Management, Kamycka 129, CZ16521, Prague 6, Czech Republic
³Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamycka 129, CZ16521, Prague 6, Czech Republic

Abstract:

Original hydrocarbon composition, volatility, compatibility with materials, calorific value and stability of the mixture in the presence of water are monitored usually. This paper deals with the stability of gasoline-biobutanol and gasoline-bioethanol mixtures in the presence of water. Biobutanol is better biofuel than bioethanol using the same raw materials. Different contents of alcohol and oxygenated cosolvents are evaluated. Experimental analysis are focused on the water solubility and phase stability. Solubility in water of butanol and ethanol mixtures is very similar. Butanol-gasoline mixture provides better phase stability upon contact with water or atmospheric moisture oppose to ethanol mixtures. Butanol also does not enter to the aqueous layer and fuel properties remain in phase separation preserved. Further, it was found that crystals occur at low temperatures after exclusion of water was seen. Moreover, the temperature of phase separation can affect the content of alcohol, water, hydrocarbon composition and cosolvents added. The only difference found between more beneficial butanol and less beneficial ethanol was ABE (Aceton–Butanol–Ethanol) fermentation with Clostridium Acetobutylicum allowing to ferment also saccharidic cellulose to biobutanol according to standard of second generation biofuels.

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333-340 V. Hönig, M. Kotek and J. Mařík
Use of butanol as a fuel for internal combustion engines
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Use of butanol as a fuel for internal combustion engines

V. Hönig¹*, M. Kotek² and J. Mařík²

¹Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, CULS-Czech University of Life SciencesPrague,Kamycka129,16521,Prague 6,CzechRepublic;
*Correspondence: honig@af.czu.cz
²Faculty of Engineering, CULS-Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 16521, Prague 6, Czech Republic

Abstract:

Abstract: Currently, the focus of the research and development is devoted to the wider use of fuels of plant origin focused on the possibility of producing a higher quality and use of motor fuel other than bioethanol. BioButanol is thus not only a promising alternative fuel for gasoline, but also a possible replacement for bioethanol as a fuel for internal combustion engines for transportation. Butanol can be produced virtually with the same ingredients as bioethanol, but in terms of fuel property, it is a preferable alternative to bioethanol. The efficient technology for its production by direct fermentation of simple sugars by fermentation, enzymatic hydrolysis or modified polysaccharides is currently the subject of intensive research work. The paper presents fuel properties of butanol and simultaneously compared with the properties of gasoline and bioethanol. It also specifies the advantages and disadvantages of its use both in mixtures and in its pure form. The article also reviews the experimental analysis of emissions in the driving cycle fuel consumption of butanol. Mixtures of butanol – gasoline 5%, 30%, 50%, 85% and 100% were selected as a fuel without further additions as compared to the automotive gasoline and ethanolic E85. Switching to fuel based butanol in FFVs is not a technical problem, particularly based on the comparison with its demonstrable benefits over bioethanol. The development of renewable sources of carbohydrates from agricultural crops butanol can also help reduce imports of petroleum fuels in support of agriculture, availability of drinking water and an increase employment in the region.

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147-154 M. Müller
Research of liquid contaminants influence on adhesive bond strength applied in agricultural machine construction
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Research of liquid contaminants influence on adhesive bond strength applied in agricultural machine construction

M. Müller

Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Czech University of Life Science, Kamýcká ¹²⁹, ¹⁶⁵²¹ Prague, Czech Republic; e-mail: muller@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

An  adhesive  bonding  technology  is  a  prospective  bonding  technology  of  diverse materials.  Namely the research in the  sphere of the degradation aspects affecting the adhesive bond  during  the  technical  life  of  the  adhesive  bonded  complex  is  essential.  Mineral  and industrial fertilisers can be included as significant degradation agents. The aim of the research was to find out the relevant knowledge in the sphere of the degradation of the adhesive bonds placed in the water bath, the oil bath and the solution of the mineral and industrial  fertilisers.  The  experiment’s  results  bring  knowledge  for  producers  of  agricultural machines  introducing  adhesive  bonding  technology  into  their  production  programme.  Two-component constructional epoxy adhesives were tested which were placed into the water bath, the  oil  bath  and  the  solution  of  mineral  and  industrial  fertilisers.  Some  agents  caused  such changes in the adhesive that the adhesive bond strength decreased to zero value already after ⁹0 days.  Significant  changes  of  the  adhesive  bond  strength  occurred  in  the  interval  ¹⁵–⁴⁵  days depending on the adhesive and agents. The strength decrease was connected with the change of a  failure  area  from  cohesive  one  to  combined  and  then  to  adhesive  one.  The  research  showed that it came to diffuse seepage and to a partial corrosion of the adhesive bonded steel samples.

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457-460 K. Voolma and I. Sibul
The effect of collecting fluid on the catch results of Hylobius abietis in pitfall traps
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The effect of collecting fluid on the catch results of Hylobius abietis in pitfall traps

K. Voolma and I. Sibul

Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences,Kreutzwaldi St. 5, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: kaljo.voolma@emu.ee

Abstract:

Two different collecting and killing agents – ethylene glycol and water – were tested in pitfall traps used for trapping adults of the large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (L.) in clear-felled areas of a massive pine-dominated forest in southern Estonia. The traps were baited with a blend of turpentine and ethanol and filled with a 50%-water-solution of ethylene glycol or clean water without any ingredients and were established in fresh or one-year-old clear-cuttings. During the two-year experiment, 5952 individuals of the pine weevil were caught, of which 50.5% were female and 49.5% male. No significant differences were observed either in the total catch results or in the sex ratios of the pine weevil between the traps filled with ethylene glycol or water.

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499-508 B. Gajic, G. Dugalic and N. Djurovic
Comparison of soil organic matter content, aggregate composition and water stability of gleyic fluvisol from adjacent forest and cultivated areas
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Comparison of soil organic matter content, aggregate composition and water stability of gleyic fluvisol from adjacent forest and cultivated areas

B. Gajic¹, G. Dugalic² and N. Djurovic¹

¹Institute of Land Management, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, Nemanjina 6,11080 Belgrade, Serbia; e-mail: bonna@agrifaculty.bg.ac.yu
²The Faculty of Agronomy, Cacak, Serbia

Abstract:

The paper includes the results of comparative investigation of soil organic matter (SOM) content, aggregate size distribution (ASD) and water-stability of structural aggregates (WSA) of humus horizon (0–30 cm) of non-carbonate silty clay gleyic fluvisol in the Kolubara river valley (West Serbia) under natural deciduous forest vegetation and the same gleyic fluvisol used for more than 100 years as arable soil.Long-term cultivation significantly (P < 0.01) decreased the SOM content in the ploughhorizon (0–20 cm). Due to long-term anthropogenization, the ASD and WSA in plough and sub-plough (20–30 cm) horizons of cultivated gleyic fluvisol are significantly degraded. In plough and sub-plough horizons, the content of the agronomically most valuable fraction (0.25–10 mm) is decreased about twice (from 67.7–74.0% to 37.1–39.2%), while the content of very coarse aggregates (> 10 mm) is increased to the same degree (from 22.8–31.2 % to 48.3–62.1%).The conversion of forest semigley to continuous cropping using conventional cultivationsignificantly (P < 0.05) decreased the water stability of soil aggregates in the plough horizon. The lowest water-stability is found in structure aggregates > 3 mm. Their content is 2–3 times lower in the plough horizon (12.6–15.6%) than in the same depth zone of forest gleyic fluvisol (31.9–42.3%). Due to anthropogenization, water-stability of micro-aggregates (< 0.25 mm) is decreased in the plough horizon. The content of these aggregates is about twice as high in this horizon (29.9–34.0%), as in the same depth zone of the forest gleyic fluvisol (16.7–17.2%).

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