Tag Archives: weather conditions

317–326 N. Borys and A. Küüt
The influence of basic soil tillage methods and weather conditions on the yield of spring barley in forest-steppe conditions
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The influence of basic soil tillage methods and weather conditions on the yield of spring barley in forest-steppe conditions

N. Borys¹* and A. Küüt²

¹National Science Center, Institute of Agriculture NAAS Ukraine,
Mashinostroiteley Str. 2b, UK 08162 habany, Ukraine
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56,
EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: agrokaktys@mail.ru

Abstract:

The research on the effect the main methods of soil treatment have on its hydrophysical properties was carried out as a stationary experiment at the National Scientific Centre, Institute of Agriculture NAAS. It included a grain crop rotation with the subsequent crop sequencing: winter wheat/grain maize/barley. In 2013–2015, the spring barley variety ‘Solntsedar’ was sown. Throughout the three years of research, the consistency of the effect of the main soil treatment methods on the overall yield stayed more or less the same. Reduction in barley grain yield against the backdrop of long-term disking at the depth of 10–12 cm is explained by the thickening of the 10–30 cm layer of soil to the critical level of 1.57 g cm-3, moisture deficiency, as a result of the over-compaction of the root layer, and an increase in the amount of sterile spikelets. As the result of our research, we have come to a conclusion that for barley, soil disking at the depth of 10–12 cm is as good as ploughing if it is used as a part of differential treatment system, which includes ploughing at the depth of 28–30 cm or chisel tilling at 43–45 cm for its preceding crops. If disking was used for all crops of the grain crop rotation, a deterioration of hydrophysical properties was observed in the barley field, which can lead to a considerable reduction in the barley yield, especially in a dry cultivation year. 

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595-602 T. Kangor, A. Ingver, Ü. Tamm and I. Tamm
Effect of fertilization and conditions of year on some characteristics of spring wheat and barley
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Effect of fertilization and conditions of year on some characteristics of spring wheat and barley

T. Kangor, A. Ingver, Ü. Tamm and I. Tamm

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 1 J. Aamisepa St., 48309, Jõgeva alevik, Estonia;e-mail: Tiia.Kangor@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

Spring wheat and barley are the most cultivated spring cereals in Estonian farming. Six-year (2003–2008) field trial was conducted at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute to estimate the effect of fertilization and weather conditions of the tested years on characteristics of spring wheat and barley. Four levels of fertilization (N0 – untreated control N0P0K0 kg ha-1; N1 – N60P13K23; N2 – N100P22K39; N3 – N140P31K54) were applied using the complex fertilizer Kemira Power (N18P4K7). The weather data during the tested years were variable. Year as factor influenced the length of growing period of both cereals the most (wheat 98.0%; barley 98.5%). Wheat had longer growing period than barley (difference 11 days). Spring wheat was more sensitive to environmental conditions; its yield was more affected by year (32.3%) than barley (3.3%). Moreover, from variation of yield of barley 82.0% was explained by fertilization and the same for wheat was 52.9%. The lodging resistance of both crops was influenced by fertilization, year conditions and their interaction (Y x F). The year conditions and Y x F interaction influenced 1000 kernel weight of both cereals, but fertilization had only a marginal effect on this parameter. The protein content of both crops depended on the fertilization and year as factor. Wheat showed higher level of this characteristic in all the years and fertilizer doses.

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427-432 T. Saue, P. Viil, J. Kadaja
Do different tillage and fertilization methods influence weather risks on potato yield?
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Do different tillage and fertilization methods influence weather risks on potato yield?

T. Saue, P. Viil, J. Kadaja

Estonian Research institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, Saku, Harjumaa, Estonia;e-mail: triin.saue@eria.ee, peeter.viil@eria.ee, jyri.kadaja@eria.ee

Abstract:

The influence of weather variability on potato yield was assessed with an aim to address different soil tillage and fertilization regimes by their weather sensibility. The strong effect of an experimental year on potato yields was proved for the experimental period; the effect of fertilization proved significant only between the highest and the lowest fertilization rates; the effect of tillage tested insignificant. If synthesized statistically over the population (over an untested period of time), significant interactions occur between years and tillage/fertilization treatments, verifying that the effect of both tillage and fertilization is dependent on year-to-year weather differences. Yields of all examined variants were found to be significantly correlated to spring weather – positively to temperatures and negatively to precipitation. Negative correlation exists between yields and temperatures summed from emergence to flowering, positive between yields and precipitation from flowering to harvest.

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331-334 A. Ronis and R. Semaškienė
Development of tan spot (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis) in winter wheat under field conditions
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Development of tan spot (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis) in winter wheat under field conditions

A. Ronis and R. Semaškienė

Department of Plant Pathology and Protection, Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture,Instituto aleja 1, Akademija, Kedainiai distr., LT 58344; e-mail: antanasr@lzi.lt

Abstract:

The pathogen that causes tan spot on wheat is Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Died.) Drechs. (anamorph Drechslera tritici-repentis (Died.) Shoemaker). In recent years tan spot has become a potentially destructive disease of wheat in Lithuania and neighbouring countries. Three winter wheat cultivars (Aron, Tauras and Hereward) were grown during three seasons. Weather conditions were observed from April to August when the tan spot pathogen spreads. During the experimental years the weather conditions varied from season to season. A severe epidemic of tan spot occurred in 2004 when there was a sufficient amount of rain and the air temperature was close to optimal. The other two seasons were not extremely favourable for tan spot occurrence, especially in 2005, because of the lack of rain during the main growing period.Investigations of tan spot development patterns under field conditions enable wheatgrowers to better forecast tan spot and achieve better timing of fungicide applications.

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407-411 L. Talgre, E. Lauringson, V. Vasar and H. Roostalu
The effect of pests on the yield and economical value of cereals
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The effect of pests on the yield and economical value of cereals

L. Talgre¹, E. Lauringson¹, V. Vasar² and H. Roostalu¹

¹ Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences,Kreutzwaldi St. 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; tel. +372-7-313522, e-mail: liina.talgre@emu.ee
² Research Centre EVIKA Tallinn University of Technology,Teaduse 6a, 75501 Saku, Harjumaa, Estonia

Abstract:

Abstract: One of the most serious factors that limit the yield of cereal crops is fungal diseases. In the Estonian University of Life Sciences field trials with various spray programs of fungicides were conducted to determine the efficacy and economical value of different pesticide combinations. The spray programs with full dose rates of fungicides were not always economically justified nor were the multiple application systems. Yield increase up to 35% in spring wheat and up to 33% in barley was achieved when the timing of pesticide application was optimal and the crop stand was good and had high yield potential. The dominating disease in spring wheat on both trial years was Septoria spp. The best control was provided by fungicide Opera (active ingredients pyraclostrobin and epoxiconazole). Barley was infected mostly by Pyrenophora teres. The economical efficiency of disease control depended primarily on the weather conditions, crop stand and the quality of cereals. Application of pesticides was economically more effective in spring wheat. Therefore multiple application programs with more expensive pesticides can be recommended. The dense crop stand and an environment favorable for distribution of diseases increased the efficacy of fungicides on barley.

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65–72 R. Lillak, A. Linke, R. Viiralt and T. Laidna
Invasion of broad-leaved weeds into alfalfa stand during time of utilisation of alfalfa stands in low-input farming system
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Invasion of broad-leaved weeds into alfalfa stand during time of utilisation of alfalfa stands in low-input farming system

R. Lillak, A. Linke, R. Viiralt and T. Laidna

Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian Agricultural University, Kreutzwaldi 56, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: rein_lillak@hotmail.com

Abstract:

The objective of the investigation was to determine the percentage and yield of weeds in lucerne stands during the productive period. Different cutting regimes (first and final cut date and cutting frequency) were applied as treatments for estimating the extent of the invasion of weeds. Experiment 1 was conducted in 1980–1995 with the locally-bred alfalfa cv. Jõgeva 118 to study the connection between the invasion of broad-leaved weeds in the stand and weather conditions. Experiment 2 was carried out in 1991–2003 to investigate the impact of the first cut date and cutting frequency on the total DM yield of the alfalfa stand (cv. Karlu), partial DM yield of weeds, and the percentage of weeds in the stand. Experiments 3 and 4, Medicago sativa type WL 252 HQ variety (US), were sown in Tartu and Koonu to study weed spreading and alfalfa production at different locations. The results showed that management system had a strong impact on the productivity and competition ability of alfalfa and the invasion of weeds into the stand. Decreasing cutting frequency to 2–3 harvest times per season and performing the final cut in the second half of September or in early October allowed us to successfully depress the weeds in the alfalfa stands under Estonian pedoclimatic conditions. It is especially important to avoid more intensive management when extremely rainy and cool, or opposite droughty, weather conditions (total precipitation from May to September below the equivalent of 200 mm) dominate during vegetation period.

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115–122 V. Eremeev, J. Jõudu, A. Lõhmus, P. Lääniste and A. Makke
The effect of pre-planting treatment of seed tubers on potato yield formation
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The effect of pre-planting treatment of seed tubers on potato yield formation

V. Eremeev, J. Jõudu, A. Lõhmus, P. Lääniste and A. Makke

Department of Field Crop Husbandry, Estonian Agricultural University, Kreutzwaldi 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: slava@eau.ee

Abstract:

In the trials conducted in 2000–2002, we examined possibilities for growing potato using different methods of pre-planting treatment of seed tubers.
The varieties exploited were ‘Varajane kollane’ (early), ‘Piret’ (medium early) and ‘Ants’ (medium late). There were used the following ways of treatment for all varieties: PS – pre-sprouting, TT – thermal treatment and 0 – tubers not treated.
The dynamics of tuber yield formation during the vegetation period was significantly influenced by the weather. In terms of potato growth, weather conditions were the most favourable in 2001. The weather in 2000 and 2002 was not the most suitable for potato growth and development, and the yield in these years proved lower than the three-year average.
The average results from the three years show that potatoes could not realise their full potential to reach maximum yield. Pre-planting germination and thermal treatment had positive effects during the entire vegetation period, the effect being stronger at the beginning and then gradually decreasing.
Pre-planting treatment of seed tubers had a different effect on varieties with different growing times.
A comparison between the varieties showed that ‘Piret’ and ‘Varajane kollane’ started to form tubers early and thus exceeded the development of the variety ‘Ants’ until the 60th day of growth. ‘Ants’ reached its maximum yield, 47.0 t ha-1, already by the 114th day, followed by the fast-ripening ‘Varajane kollane’ and the medium-ripening ‘Piret’. Thermal treatment did not give any advantage in terms of total yield formation compared to untreated seeds, except for the pre-planting germination variant of the variety ‘Varajane kollane’, the total yield of which exceeded that of its untreated variant by 7.08 t ha-1.

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3–10 M. Alaru, Ü. Laur and E. Jaama
Influence of nitrogen and weather conditions on the grain quality of winter triticale
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Influence of nitrogen and weather conditions on the grain quality of winter triticale

M. Alaru, Ü. Laur and E. Jaama

Department of Field Crop Husbandry, Estonian Agricultural University, Kreutzwaldi 64, 51008 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: malaru@hot.ee

Abstract:

The protein content and  falling numbers of five winter triticale cultivars were tested in very different weather conditions (1998/1999–2000/2001) on Stagnic Luvisol soils (WRB classification) in the experimental fields of the Department of Field Crop Husbandry of the Estonian Agricultural University near Tartu (58°23´N, 26°44´E). All cultivars were fertilised with nitrogen fertiliser (NH4NO3) in early spring, using a norm of 0–200 kg N ha-1 (increasing the amonts of fertiliser by 20 kg ha-1). Fertilising with nitrogen after hibernation at the tillering stage in early spring increased the protein content of  seeds averaged over years and cultivars by up to 1.57% in dry matter. Protein levels depended most on the cultivar, less on the weather conditions of the growth year and least  on the nitrogen fertiliser (the determination indices of a dispersion analysis were 0.35, 0.32 and 0.14, respectively). The yield and protein content were in negative correlation (r = 0,92*). Due to very different weather conditions during the growth period, the figures of the falling number were very different in different years.

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