Effect of tillage systems, mulches and nitrogen fertilization on spring barley (Hordeum vulgare)
¹ Poznan University of Life Sciences, Plant and Soil Cultivation Department, Mazowiecka45/46, 60-623 Poznan, Poland; e-mail: email@example.com
² Poznan University of Life Sciences, Plant and Soil Cultivation Department, Mazowiecka45/46, 60-623 Poznan, Poland; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Yield, N uptake, weeds and diseases of spring barley were examined under five mulching practices (white mustard, phacelia, oat-pea mixture, straw mulch, and no mulch), three tillage systems (conventional, reduced and no-tillage) and three doses of nitrogen fertilization (0, 50 and 100 kg N ha-1). In general the grain yield of spring barley for cover crops was 10-31% higher compared with the no-mulch treatment. A mulch of straw provided a smaller barley grain yield than the no-mulch treatment. Compared to conventional tillage, grain yield under reduced tillage and no-tillage were 7 and 12% less, respectively. Spring barley sowing after a mixture of oat-pea led to decreased a negative response of reduced and no-tillage. Grain yield after treatment with legume cover crops and without N fertilization was similar compared as the rates 50 kg N ha-1 after white mustard or phacelia and as the rate 100 kg N ha-1 without mulches. There was no evidence of tillage x N fertilization interaction on grain yield, dry matter production and plant-N uptake. Cover crops and straw mulch significantly decreased total weed populations compared with the treatment without mulch. Total weed density increased from 108 plants per m2 in the no-tillage to 322 plants per m2 for reduced tillage, and to 416 plants per m2 for the conventional tillage over mulch. Higher infestation of spring barley with stem base and root diseases was observed in reduced and no-tillage in comparison with the conventional soil tillage and after straw mulch and no-mulch than after cover crops.