Tag Archives: weed seeds

280–289 K. Tamm, E. Nugis, L. Edesi, E. Lauringson, L. Talgre, P. Viil, T. Plakk, T. Võsav, R. Vettik and P. Penu
Impact of cultivation method on the soil properties in cereal production
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Impact of cultivation method on the soil properties in cereal production

K. Tamm¹*, E. Nugis¹, L. Edesi¹, E. Lauringson³, L. Talgre³, P. Viil¹, T. Plakk¹, T. Võsav, R. Vettik¹ and P. Penu²

¹Estonian Crop Research Institute, J.Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva, Jõgeva Vald, Estonia
²Agricultural Research Centre, Teaduse 4/6, EE75501 Saku, Estonia
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu 4, Estonia
*Correspondence: kalvi.tamm@etki.ee

Abstract:

The aim of present paper is to give an overview about results collected in 2012–2014 related to impact of cultivation method on the cereal field soil properties. Experiments were conducted on Estonian farmers’ production fields to compare no-till and plough-based tillage practices. Studied properties were among others soil bulk density, structure, water content, microbial activity and weeds seeds content.
The bulk density, gravimetric moisture content and structure of soil from 0–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm layers were evaluated. For microbial activity an enzyme  dehydrogenase, which occurs in all viable microbial cells, was determined in soil layers 0–10 and 10–20 cm. Soil samples were taken from 0–25 cm layer to determine weed seeds content. Seeds were extracted from the soil using a flotation-method. The seeds were counted and species identified under the microscope.
The cultivation method has significant impact on some soil properties and insignificant to other. Cultivation method had no significant impact on ratio of agronomically preferred soil particles (2–4.75 mm). No-tilled fields soil bulk density had no differences between layers except 0–10 layer in Pärnumaa (p < 0.05). Soil bulk density differences (p < 0.05) between layers occurred in Soth-Viljandimaa and Pärnumaa tilled soils, in which plough pan in layer 20–30 cm was noticeable.
In average the abundance of weeds seeds was higher on no-tilled fields, compared to tillage accordingly 60,975 and 29,250 weed seeds m-2 (p < 0.003). Results showed higher soil dehydrogenase activity in the no-tilled soils layer 0–10 cm than in 10–20 cm layer (p < 0.05). In the tillage the dehydrogenase activity had no significant difference between soil layers.

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1372-1379 J. Kuht, V. Eremeev, L. Talgre, H. Madsen, M. Toom, E. Mäeorg and A. Luik
Soil weed seed bank and factors influencing the number of weeds at the end of conversion period to organic production
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Soil weed seed bank and factors influencing the number of weeds at the end of conversion period to organic production

J. Kuht*, V. Eremeev, L. Talgre, H. Madsen, M. Toom, E. Mäeorg and A. Luik

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia *Correspondence: jaan.kuht@emu.ee

Abstract:

In 2008 an experiment was set up on the field in Eerika experimental station (Estonian University of Life Sciences) as a 5-field crop rotation: red clover, winter wheat, pea, potato and barley undersown with red clover. The objective of the study was to measure the content of weed seeds in the soil and to evaluate the diversity of the species at the end of the period of converting to organic production. In conventional farming systems without fertilizer (Conv I) and conventional farming with mineral fertilizer (Conv II) herbicides were used for weed control. All the crops in Conv II system received P 25 kg ha-1 and K 95 kg ha-1, but the application rates of mineral nitrogen fertilizer differed. In organic systems (Org I – organic farming based on winter cover crop and Org II – organic farming based on winter cover crop and manure), the winter cover crops (ryegrass after winter wheat, winter oilseed rape after pea, winter rye after potato) were sown after the harvest and were ploughed into the soil as green manure in spring. The content of annual weed seeds was the lowest in red clover that had 17.7% less weed seeds in the soil of Org II system compared to control (Conv I). In winter wheat the content of winter annual weed seeds was 50–76% higher compared to other crops. By the end of 2009 the content of organic carbon (Corg %) in the soil had increased significantly in both organic systems which results in higher activity of organisms that decrease the viability of weed seeds.

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