Tag Archives: weeds

162-168 A. Auškalnis and O. Auškalnienė
Harrowing timing for winter wheat and spring barley under organically growing conditions
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Harrowing timing for winter wheat and spring barley under organically growing conditions

A. Auškalnis and O. Auškalnienė

Lithuanian Institute of AgricultureInstituto Alėja 1, LT – 58344, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr.; e-mail: albinas@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Field trials were conducted over the period of 2005–2007 at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture to test the efficacy of harrowing on weeds at different growth stages of ecologically grown winter wheat and spring barley. The main weeds in winter wheat were: Lamium sp., Chenopodium album, Tripleurospermum inodorum, Capsella bursa-pastoris and in spring barley Ch.album, Sinapis arvensis, Stellaria media, T. inodorum. The weeds most vulnerable to harrowing in winter wheat were: Veronica sp., Chenopodium album and Capsella bursa pastoris. Chenopodium album and Sinapis arvensis were vulnerable to harrowing in spring barley. Early harrowing pre-emergence followed with harrowing at the 3–4 leave stage of spring barley was the most optimal.Winter wheat grain yield reduction tendencies were obtained in plots harrowed threetimes. No statistical difference in spring barley grain yield was found among the treatments. The decrease in weed number and mass depended on harrowing timing and frequency, meteorological conditions and weed species composition.

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239-244 I. Deveikyte, Z. Kadziuliene and L. Sarunaite
Weed suppression ability of spring cereal crops and peas in pure and mixed stands
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Weed suppression ability of spring cereal crops and peas in pure and mixed stands

I. Deveikyte, Z. Kadziuliene and L. Sarunaite

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto aleja 1, Akademija, Kedainiai distr.,LT-58344, Lithuania; e-mail: irenad@lzi.lt, zkadziul@lzi.lt, lina@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Weeds were investigated in the stands of field pea (Pisum sativum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.) and triticale (Triticale hexaploide Lart.) grown as pure and as mixtures at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture. Results revealed that annuals dominated in the weed flora composition (7–19 species) while perennials were more recessive (2–11 weed species). The total weed number was higher by 1.3–1.6 fold in the peas stand compared to the weed number in peas-cereals stands. In barley, wheat, oat and triticale stands the number of weeds was significantly lower than that for peas. Cereals and their mixtures with peas had the best suppressing ability compared to peas investigated. The dry mass of weeds in the peas stand was essentially higher than in the other stands of crops. The effect of pea mixtures with cereals crops on weed mass was similar as compared to that of pure cereals crops.

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457-464 K. Romaneckas, R. Romaneckienė and V. Pilipavičius
Non-chemical weed control in sugar beet crop under intensive and conservation soil tillage: I. Crop weediness
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Non-chemical weed control in sugar beet crop under intensive and conservation soil tillage: I. Crop weediness

K. Romaneckas, R. Romaneckienė and V. Pilipavičius

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Dept. of Soil Management, Studentu 11, LT-53067Akademija, Kaunas r., Lithuania; tel.: +370 37 75 22 33, fax: +370 37 75 22 93;e-mail: kestas.romaneckas@lzuu.lt, romanr@one.lt, vytautas.pilipavicius@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

The effect of non-chemical weed control under different soil tillage on sugar beet crop weediness was investigated at the Experimental Station of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture in a silty loam Luvisol during the period of 2004–2005. The aim of the experiment was to establish the influence of soil tillage intensity, living and straw mulch on the number and dry mass of weeds in the sugar beet crop. Treatments of the trial were the following: I. Soil tillage (factor A): 1. intensive (straw loosening, moldboard ploughing; control variant) (IT); 2. conservation (straw loosening) (CT); II. Non-chemical weed control (factor B): 1. hand weeding, twice (control variant) (HW); 2. spring barley living mulch (SBM); 3. annual ryegrass living mulch (ARM); 4. white mustard living mulch (WMM); 5. spring oilseed rape living mulch (SRM); 6. winter wheat straw mulch (WSM).According to the results of investigations, in conditions of intensive soil tillage the highestchoking of weeds was observed by annual ryegrass (ARM) and white mustard (WMM) living mulches. In sugar beet row spaces, which were mulched with winter wheat straw mulch (WSM) there was a large number of weeds but their mass was not high. Conversely, in conservation soil tillage conditions the lowest weed infestation and dry mass of weeds were observed in straw mulch (WSM) up to 4 cm. White mustard living mulch (WMM) also influenced weed dry mass decrease though its number was high.

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522-527 I. Tamm, Ü. Tamm and A. Ingver
Spring cereals performance in organic and conventional cultivation
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Spring cereals performance in organic and conventional cultivation

I. Tamm, Ü. Tamm and A. Ingver

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 1 Aamisepa St., 48309 Jõgeva, Estoniae-mail: ilmar.tamm@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

The field trials were carried out at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute to compare grain yield and quality characteristics of spring wheat, barley and oat in organic and conventional conditions. Thirteen varieties of each cereal crop were tested during the four trial years (2005–2008). By the results turned out that all the spring crops were able to produce comparatively high yields in organic conditions after a suitable precrop. Oat as the most unpretentious crop was the highest yielding in organic trial and had the best weeds suppressing ability among the spring cereals. The most widely spread weeds were (Chenopodium album) and (Viola arvensis). Among the quality traits protein content was the most influenced by the management regime having evident decrease in organic conditions. A yield gap between organic and conventional production depended on crop, precrop and growing conditions.

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73-86 K. Romaneckas, R. Romaneckiene, E. Šarauskis, V. Pilipavicius and A. Sakalauskas
The effect of conservation primary and zero tillage on soil bulk density, water content, sugar beet growth and weed infestation
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The effect of conservation primary and zero tillage on soil bulk density, water content, sugar beet growth and weed infestation

K. Romaneckas¹, R. Romaneckiene¹, E. Šarauskis, V. Pilipavicius¹ and A. Sakalauskas

¹Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Dept. of Soil Management, Studentu 11, LT-53067
Akademija, Kaunas r., Lithuania; e-mail:
kestas.romaneckas@lzuu.lt, romanr@one.lt, vytautas.pilipavicius@lzuu.lt
²Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Dept. of Agricultural Machinery, Studentu 11, LT-53067
Akademija, Kaunas r., Lithuania; e-mail: egidijus.sarauskis@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

The effect of different conservation primary soil tillage on sugar beet was investigated at the Experimental Station of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture in a silty loam Luvisol during the period of 2001 – 2006. The aim of the trial was to establish the influence of reduced soil tillage intensity on some soil physical properties, sugar beet yield and quality, and weed infestation. Treatments of the trial: 1. conventional (22–25 cm) ploughing with a mouldboard plough (CP); 2. shallow (12–15 cm) ploughing with a mouldboard plough (SP); 3.deep (25–30 cm) cultivation with a chisel cultivator (DC); 4. shallow (10–12 cm) loosening with a disc harrow (SL); 5. zero tillage (ZT). Reduction of primary soil tillage intensity increased the amount of moisture and level of soil bulk density in the soil upper layer (0-10 cm). According to the average data of 2001-2006, the highest amounts of moisture and soil bulk density were observed in no tilled soil (ZT) before pre-sowing soil tillage (25.8% and 1.40 Mg m-3) and after sowing until sugar beet germination (23.6% and 1.40 Mg m-3). Soil tillage intensity had no significant influence on soil moisture content and bulk density in a deeper (10-20 cm) layer. Sugar beet seed germination in shallow loosened soil (SL) was higher in comparison with control treatment (CP) fourfold per 6 years; this influence was significant in two experimental years. Average data showed that germination of directly sowed seeds was less by 37% in comparison with conventional ploughing (CP). Reducing of soil tillage intensity to zero tillage had no significant influence on sugar beet yield, ramification and sucrose content of root-crop. The reduction of soil tillage intensity and refusal to use full-scale herbicides had negative, but not significant influence on weed infestation in the sugar beet crop, except in the no-tillage pattern. The data of the beginning of the second rotation showed a significantly higher number of annual (32%) and all (29%) weeds in no-tilled (ZT) soil in comparison with conventional ploughing (CP). Generally, the number of weed species increased from 22 to 26. The number of Chenopodium album increased from 11.3 to 22.1, Poa annua – from 5.6 to 14.2, Taraxacum officinalis – from 0.66 to 6.1 plants per m2 . Elytrigia repens became a widespread weed.

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129-132 O. Auškalnienė and A. Auškalnis
Effect of sulfonylurea herbicides on weeds and maize
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Effect of sulfonylurea herbicides on weeds and maize

O. Auškalnienė and A. Auškalnis

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto aleja 1 Akademija, LT-58344 - Kedainiai distr.,Lithuania; e-mail: ona@lzi.lt, albinas@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Three field experiments, designed to test the new sulfonylurea group herbicides, were conducted in maize crops during 2002–2003 at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in Central Lithuania.The weed species differed between fields. The most frequent weed species in maize standswere Elytrigia repens, and Chenopodium album. The efficacy of tested herbicides against Chenopodium album, Echinocloa crus – galli differed in relation to active ingredients. Rimsulfuron-methyl and nicosulfuron-methyl were effective against Echinochloa crus – galli; primisulfuron-methyl did not have any effect on this weed species. Nicosulfuron – methyl and primisulfuron-methyl were effective against Chenopodium album, however, rimisulfuron methyl did not control that weed as effectively.The green matter yield of maize in treated plots was 1–18.4 t ha-1 higher than in theuntreated.

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159-162 I. Deveikyte and V. Seibutis
Broadleaf weeds and sugar beet response to phenmedipham, desmedipham, ethofumesate and triflusulfuron-methyl
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Broadleaf weeds and sugar beet response to phenmedipham, desmedipham, ethofumesate and triflusulfuron-methyl

I. Deveikyte and V. Seibutis

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Department of Soil and Crop management, Instituto aleja 1,Akademija, Kedainiai distr., LT-58344, Lithuania; e-mail: irenad@lzi.lt, vytautas@lzi.lt

Abstract:

The sugar beet plant is a poor competitor against weeds. Uncontrolled weeds that emerge with the crop typically cause from 50 to 100% yield loss. Field studies were conducted from 2002-2004 to investigate the effects of different rates (1/1, ¾, ½) of herbicides on broadleaf weed control and yield of sugar beet. Phenmedipham + desmedipham + ethofumesate, triflusulfuron, metamitron, chloridazon, chloridazon + quimerac and oil-seed rape oil (1.0 l ha-1) were applied three times at 10 to 15 days intervals starting at the cotyledon growth stage of weeds at 91+71+112, 15, 700, 650, 540+90 g a.i. ha-1 dosage (full rate). All rates of herbicides phenmedipham + desmedipham + ethofumesate had a low efficacy. The addition of triflusulfuron to this herbicide reduced the amount of Tripleurospermum perforatum, Thlaspi arvense, Viola arvensis and Polygonum aviculare, but didn’t affect Chenopodium album, Lamium purpureum. Weed control by applying phenmedipham, desmedipham, ethofumesate and triflusulfuron had increased from 5.5 to 58% by the addition of metamitron, chloridazon and chloridazon+quimerac. The dry-weight of weeds varied significantly depending on the herbicide rates used. Using ½ of full (1/1) rates of the herbicide phenmedipham + desmedipham + ethofumesate had a low efficacy. All herbicide treatments produced higher sugar beet root and sugar yields than did phenmedipham + desmedipham + ethofumesate. Non-sugars were not affected by the herbicide treatments.

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287-292 S. Maļecka and G. Bremanis
Effectivity of reduced dosages of herbicides to weed constitution of spring barley I
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Effectivity of reduced dosages of herbicides to weed constitution of spring barley I

S. Maļecka and G. Bremanis

State Stende Plant Breeding Station, Dizstende, LV 3258, Talsi district, Latvia;e–mail: stende.selekcija@apollo.lv

Abstract:

The barley variety ‘Ansis’ was cultivated in the field at the State Stende Plant Breeding station, 2001–2004, in sod podzolic and sod–gleysolic sand loamy soil with neutral soil response. Average annual dicotyledonous weed infestation level in trial years differed: 106.9 weed plants per m2 in the year 2001; 213 in 2002; 22.7 in 2003, and 216 in 2004. Thlaspi arvense (L.) was the most widespread weed in 2001, 2002 and 2004 trial years, but Chenopodium spp. was dominant in 2003–2004, and Polygonum convolvulus (L) in 2004. Lamium spp. was also widespread in all-trial years, Viola arvensis (Murray) in 2001, 2002 and 2004; Stellaria media (L.) in 2002 and 2003, and Capsella bursa–pastoris (L.) in 2002 and 2004.The effect of herbicides is usually calculated as decrease in weed number and as decreaseof fresh weight of weeds (% to control or % to initial amount). In this article the ratio of one weed’s weight after herbicide use to one weed’s weight in control is recommended for comparing effectiveness of the doses of herbicides to weeds. The effectiveness of herbicides is estimated as a special factor EfKo. The reduction of herbicide doses to one half or one fourth of recommended dosage usually had no significant effects on weed control.

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451-455 R. Virbickaite, A. P. Sirvydas, P. Kerpauskas and R. Vasinauskiene
The comparison of thermal and mechanical systems of weed control
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The comparison of thermal and mechanical systems of weed control

R. Virbickaite, A. P. Sirvydas, P. Kerpauskas and R. Vasinauskiene

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Department of Heat and BiotechnologyEngineering, Kauno r. Studentu 15, LT 53356, Lithuania; tel: (+370) 37 75 23 17;fax: (+370) 37 75 23 24; e-mail: v.rasaa@gmail.com

Abstract:

In ecological farming weed control after sowing time is pursued by mechanical, and recently, by thermal means. In thermal weed control both the surface of the soil and the roots of cultural plants remain undisturbed, however, the l cultured plant experiences a thermal shock. This combination of factors has a positive influence on productivity. Data for the comparable efficiency of thermal and mechanical weed control research results in 2001–2003 and 2005 are presented. 16 weeds were destroyed. Thermal weed control for annual weeds is 22.5% more effective in comparison with the mechanical method, however the latter is 32% more effective for perennial weeds.

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65–72 R. Lillak, A. Linke, R. Viiralt and T. Laidna
Invasion of broad-leaved weeds into alfalfa stand during time of utilisation of alfalfa stands in low-input farming system
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Invasion of broad-leaved weeds into alfalfa stand during time of utilisation of alfalfa stands in low-input farming system

R. Lillak, A. Linke, R. Viiralt and T. Laidna

Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian Agricultural University, Kreutzwaldi 56, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: rein_lillak@hotmail.com

Abstract:

The objective of the investigation was to determine the percentage and yield of weeds in lucerne stands during the productive period. Different cutting regimes (first and final cut date and cutting frequency) were applied as treatments for estimating the extent of the invasion of weeds. Experiment 1 was conducted in 1980–1995 with the locally-bred alfalfa cv. Jõgeva 118 to study the connection between the invasion of broad-leaved weeds in the stand and weather conditions. Experiment 2 was carried out in 1991–2003 to investigate the impact of the first cut date and cutting frequency on the total DM yield of the alfalfa stand (cv. Karlu), partial DM yield of weeds, and the percentage of weeds in the stand. Experiments 3 and 4, Medicago sativa type WL 252 HQ variety (US), were sown in Tartu and Koonu to study weed spreading and alfalfa production at different locations. The results showed that management system had a strong impact on the productivity and competition ability of alfalfa and the invasion of weeds into the stand. Decreasing cutting frequency to 2–3 harvest times per season and performing the final cut in the second half of September or in early October allowed us to successfully depress the weeds in the alfalfa stands under Estonian pedoclimatic conditions. It is especially important to avoid more intensive management when extremely rainy and cool, or opposite droughty, weather conditions (total precipitation from May to September below the equivalent of 200 mm) dominate during vegetation period.

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