Tag Archives: wheat

343-356 J. Pozdíšek, B. Henriksen, A. Ponížil and A.-K. Løes
Utilizing legume-cereal intercropping for increasing self- sufficiency on organic farms in feed for monogastric animals
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Utilizing legume-cereal intercropping for increasing self- sufficiency on organic farms in feed for monogastric animals

J. Pozdíšek¹, B. Henriksen², A. Ponížil³ and A.-K. Løes²

¹Research Institute of Cattle Breeding, Rapotín s.r.o, Výzkumníků 267, 788 13 Vikýřovice, Czech Republic; e-mail:jan.pozdisek@vuchs.cz
²Bioforsk - Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Organic Food and Farming Division, Gunnars veg 6, NO-6630 Tingvoll, Norway; e-mail: britt.henriksen@bioforsk.no and anne-kristin.loes@bioforsk.no
³Agritec, research, breeding and services Ltd., Zemědělská 16, 787 01 Šumperk, Czech Republic; e-mail: ponizil@agritec.cz

Abstract:

In 2009, controlled field trials were conducted on three certified organic farms with field pea (leaf type), spring barley and spring wheat in monocultures and mixtures (pea:cereal ratio 60:40) to study the possibility of producing fodder for monogastric animals under Czech conditions. By grain harvest time, seed samples were collected and analysed for dry matter, ash, crude protein, fat and crude fiber, and content of organic matter and nitrogen-free extracts (NFE) were determined. Weed harrowing at various pea heights were included at one farm. Samples for analysis of tannins and trypsin-inhibitor activity (TIA) were taken from treatments with no weed harrowing (H0) and harrowings at 5 and 10 cm pea height (H2). Analyses of amino acids were conducted from H0-samples. To complement the data from the farm trials, samples of grains from treatments with the same pea and cereal varieties in plot trials conducted in 2008 and 2009 studying the effect of pea:cereal seed ratio and weed harrowing at various pea heights, were analysed. In cereals, the crude protein content increased by intercropping with pea. This increase was compensated for by a decrease in NFE. Wheat and barley grown in mixtures with peas seemed to contain more methionine than cereals in monoculture, and there tends to be higher threonine content in intercropped barley compared with barley monoculture. This is positive for the nutrition of monogastric animals.  There were no pronounced effects of intercropping on tannins or TIA or on the content of other analysed nutrients in the cereals. The chemical composition of peas was not significantly impacted by intercropping.

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263-271 E. Stanislawska-Glubiak and J. Korzeniowska
Yield of Winter Wheat Grown under Zero and Conventional Tillage on Different Soil Types
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Yield of Winter Wheat Grown under Zero and Conventional Tillage on Different Soil Types

E. Stanislawska-Glubiak and J. Korzeniowska

Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation, National Research Institute in Pulawy,
Department of Weed Science and Tillage Systems in Wroclaw,
Orzechowa 61, 50-540 Wroclaw, Poland; e-mail: e.glubiak@iung.wroclaw.pl

Abstract:

In three-year field trials, conducted in West Poland, the growth and development of winter wheat grown under zero tillage (ZT) and conventional tillage (CT) methods on four soils were investigated. The soils were different mainly in grain fraction distribution and content of organic matter. The tested soils were sandy loam (SL), loamy sand (LS-1, LS-2) and sand (S). In GPS-fixed sites, in ZT and CT fields, yield of aerial part biomass in four growth stages: stem elongation, second node, and heading and inflorescence phases, was compared. In addition, yields of grain and straw were tested. On medium and coarse textured soils (SL, LS-1, LS-2), more biomass was produced by wheat under CT than ZT, but on very coarse textured soil (S), the biomass yields obtained from wheat growing under both soil tillage methods were identical. On medium textured soils and on coarse textured (LS-1) soil, wheat under CT contained more N and P as well as much more Ca and Mg in tissues than under ZT. In contrast, on the other coarse textured (LS-2) soil and on very coarse textured soil, wheat plants under ZT were generally characterized by identical or slightly higher nutrient content than plants under CT. Despite periodic fluctuations in biomass yields between ZT and CT for particular growth stages of wheat, the yields of grain and straw were the same for both soil tillage methods, irrespective of the soil type.

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545-552 D. Grauda, N. Lepse, V. Strazdiņa, I. Kokina, L. Lapiņa, A. Miķelsone, L.Ļubinskis and I. Rashal
Obtaining of doubled haploid lines by anther culture method for the Latvian wheat breeding
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Obtaining of doubled haploid lines by anther culture method for the Latvian wheat breeding

D. Grauda¹, N. Lepse¹, V. Strazdiņa², I. Kokina³, L. Lapiņa¹, A. Miķelsone¹, L.Ļubinskis¹ and I. Rashal¹

¹Institute of Biology, University of Latvia, Miera 3, Salaspils, LV-2169, Latvia;e-mail: dace@email.lubi.edu.lv; izaks@email.lubi.edu.lv
²State Stende Cereals Breeding Institute, p/o Dižstende, Talsi region, LV-3258, Latvia;e-mail: vijastrazdina@inbox.lv
³Institute of Systematic Biology, Daugavpils University, Vienības 13, Daugavpils, LV-5401,Latvia; e-mail: inese.kokina@biology.lv

Abstract:

Methods of modern biotechnology, like double haploids (DH), could highly contribute improving efficiency and speeding up the breeding process. Aim of the present work was to elaborate most effective protocol of obtaining DH lines by spring and winter wheat anther culture. As initial material 10 spring and 4 winter wheat F2 hybrids were used. The cold (4ºC) pre-treatment of spikes was applied, and spikes were sterilized by 50% solution of bleach for 17 min. Isolated anthers were cultivated on the different induction media: 190-0, AMC, and AMC with addition of 2.5 mg l-1 CuSO4 x 5H2O. The most suitable induction medium for obtaining DHs from used wheat hybrids was the AMC medium with copper. Produced DH lines were multiplied and tested in the field conditions.

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684-690 A. Nykänen, L. Jauhiainen and M. Rinne
Biomass production and feeding value of whole-crop cereal-legume silages
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Biomass production and feeding value of whole-crop cereal-legume silages

A. Nykänen¹, L. Jauhiainen² and M. Rinne³

¹ MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Plant Production Research, Lönnrotinkatu 3, FIN-50100Mikkeli, Finland; e-mail: arja.nykanen@mtt.fi
² MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Method Services, FIN-31600 Jokioinen, Finland
³ MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Animal Production Research, FIN-31600 Jokioinen, Finland

Abstract:

In eastern Finland, 12 mixtures of spring wheat, spring barley, spring oats and/or rye with vetches and/or peas  were evaluated in  field experiments from 2005 to 2007 for their dry matter (DM) production, crude protein (CP) concentration and digestibility using three different harvesting  times.  Spring  wheat-pea  and  spring  wheat-vetch-rye  mixtures  produced  the  highest DM  yields  (5,000–6,000  kg  ha-1)  while  the  lowest  yields  were  found  with  spring  oats-vetch (4,000 kg ha-1 DM). The highest CP concentrations were found in vetches (200 g kg-1 DM) and lowest in  spring cereals (90–120 g kg-1  DM). Organic  matter digestibility  was  highest in peas (700–750  g  kg-1)  and  lowest  in  spring  rye  and  wheat  (550–610  g  kg-1).  It  is  suggested  that decisions concerning when to harvest legume-cereal mixtures for forage could be based on the maturity stage of the cereal, because changes in digestibility and CP concentration are slow in legumes during the potential harvesting period.  Key words: barley, dry matter yield, forage digestibility, oats, pea, rye, vetch, wheatINTRODUCTION

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363-366 R. Semaškienė, A. Mankevičienė, Z. Dabkevičius and S. Supronienė
Effect of fungicides on Fusarium infection and production of deoxynivalenol in spring cereals
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Effect of fungicides on Fusarium infection and production of deoxynivalenol in spring cereals

R. Semaškienė, A. Mankevičienė, Z. Dabkevičius and S. Supronienė

Department of Plant Pathology and Protection, Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture,Instituto 1, LT 58344 Akademija, Kedainiu distr., Lithuania; e-mail: roma@lzi.lt, audre@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Field trials in spring wheat and spring barley were carried out over two years in Dotnuva, in the center of Lithuania. Different fungicidal spray programs were used in 2004-2005 to determine their efficacy in controlling Fusarium infection and toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulation in the grain. Azoxystrobin alone, and in a tank mixture with tebucanozole, a commercial mixture of prothioconazole and tebuconazole were used in spring barley. Epoxiconazole commercial mixture with pyraclostrobin and fenpropimorph, and tebuconazole alone were used in spring wheat. Fungicides were used at booting and heading or flowering stages. Naturally contaminated freshly harvested grain was analyzed. The Fusarium fungi infection level in grain was very high in both experimental years: in 2004 the level was 38.5–50.0%, and in 2005,45.0–70.8%. A lower percent of infected grains was found in spring wheat compared with spring barley. During 2004 there was identified 16.8–28.3% infection level; in 2005, 28.3–49.3%. Only in 2005 did fungicide treatments at heading or flowering slightly reduce the Fusarium infection. The level of mycotoxin DON detected in the grain samples was generally low and varied from 21 to 168 µg kg-1.

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371-378 A. Sliesaravičius, J. Pekarskas, V. Rutkovienė and K. Baranauskis
Grain yield and disease resistance of winter cereal varieties and application of biological agent in organic agriculture
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Grain yield and disease resistance of winter cereal varieties and application of biological agent in organic agriculture

A. Sliesaravičius, J. Pekarskas, V. Rutkovienė and K. Baranauskis*

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentų 11, Lt-53361, Akademija,Kaunas distr., Lithuania
*Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Babtai, LT-54333 Kaunas distr., Lithuania;e-mail: algis.Sliesaravicius@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

Field trials with different varieties of winter wheat, rye barley and triticale were carried out at the Agroecology Center of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture from 2003-2005. The biological agent biojodis was tested. The winter wheat varieties ‘Baltimor’ and ‘Residence’ were found to be the most resistant to Septoria tritici (leaf blotch. The biological agent biojodis increased wheat grain yield for separate varieties by 0.38 – 0.97 t ha-1. No significant differences in disease resistance were found among the triticale and rye varieties tested. Research on the biological agent biojodis revealed that this agent reduced the incidence of fungi in the grain of the winter wheat variety ‘Širvinta 1’, thus it could diminish the number of mycromicetes species and the fungal infection level.The grain untreated wtith biojodis was found to be infected with 4 fungi species(Aspergillus oryzae, Fusarium nivale, Fusarium poae, Mycelia sterilia), where the infection level reached 9.0×103 cfu (colony forming unit), whereas the grain treated with the agent at a rate of 2 l t-1 was found to be infected with 2 species of fungi (Fusarium poae, Fusarium sporotrichiodes) at 5.5×103 cfu (colony forming unit) infection level.

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37–44 R. Lauk and E. Lauk
Yields in vetch-wheat mixed crops and sole crops of wheat
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Yields in vetch-wheat mixed crops and sole crops of wheat

R. Lauk and E. Lauk

Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences; Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi St. 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: ruth.lauk@emu.ee

Abstract:

Field trials with common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mixes were conducted from 1994 to 2004 on pseudopodzolic moderately moist soils in the trial fields of the Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences of the Estonian University of Life Sciences at Eerika, outside Tartu (58o 23´ N, 26o44´ E). The results of the research showed that in cases where the yields of post-cereal wheat monocultures were 1500–3000 kg ha-1 vetch-wheat mixed crops (at the seed densities of 50 germinating vetch seeds and 250 germinating wheat seeds per m2) guaranteed an approximate harvest of 3000 kg ha-1, even under no nitrogen fertilisation, provided the total amount of precipitation in the growth period was 300 ± 50 mm. If the yields of monocultural wheat topped the level of 3000 kg ha-1, mixed crops, however, lost their advantage over wheat monocultures as the latter’s grain harvests were greater in those cases. Vetch-wheat mixed crops maintained their advantage over sole crops of wheat insofar as protein yields were concerned, primarily due to the high protein content of vetch. The extra gain in the protein yields of mixed crops compared to wheat monocultures was 100–500 kg ha-1 in our study, and was heavily dependent on the protein levels monocultural wheat was able to produce in each particular case.

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