Tag Archives: winter wheat

1460–1466 I. Skudra and A. Ruza
Winter wheat grain baking quality depending on environmental conditions and fertilizer
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Winter wheat grain baking quality depending on environmental conditions and fertilizer

I. Skudra¹²* and A. Ruza¹

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Agrobiotechnology, St. Liela 2, LV3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvian Rural Advisory and Training centre, St. Rigas 34, LV3018 Ozolnieki region, Ozolnieki parish, Ozolnieki, Latvia
*Correspondence: ilze.skudra@llkc.lv

Abstract:

Yield and quality of wheat grain depends on many factors such as environmental conditions, soil quality, genetic parameters and fertilization, especially nitrogen fertilizer which is one of the most important factor influencing quality parameters of winter wheat. Field experiments were done at the Research and Training Farm Vecauce of the Latvia University of Agriculture during 2013 till 2015. The aim of our study was to determine effect of nitrogen fertilization and environmental conditions on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety ‘Kranich’ grain quality parameters. The investigated factors were six different nitrogen application norms (0 – control, 85, 153, 175+S21, 187 N kg ha-1) and differential nitrogen norm according to chlorophylmeter (Konica Minolta Ltd.) data 180 N kg ha-1 in 2013, 150 N kg ha-1 in 2014 and 205 N kg ha-1 in 2015. One more variant was added – 175 N kg ha-1 in 2015. During the study years the meteorological conditions were significantly different. Our trials results showed that protein content suitable for bread making was obtained in variants N175+S21, 180 and 187 in year 2013, in all N application forms in 2014, but in 2015 – in all applications except N0, N175+S21, N85. The meteorological conditions had factor influence (2) 46% on protein content, but fertilizer application – 35%. Strong significant relationship at the 0.01 probability level between protein content and gluten content (r = 0.99), sedimentation value (r = 0.97) and falling number (r = 0.74) was found.

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115-122 J. Korzeniowska and E. Stanislawska-Glubiak
Variation in Response of Five Polish Winter Wheat Cultivars to Foliar Copper Application
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Variation in Response of Five Polish Winter Wheat Cultivars to Foliar Copper Application

J. Korzeniowska and E. Stanislawska-Glubiak

Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - National Research Institute in Pulawy,
Department of Weed Science and Tillage Systems in Wroclaw,
Orzechowa 61, 50-540 Wroclaw, Poland; e-mail: j.korzeniowska@iung.wroclaw.pl

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to verify whether new, intensive and commonly grown winter wheat cultivars in Poland differ significantly in Cu efficiency. Winter wheat is considered as one of the most sensitive agronomic species to Cu deficiency. Copper fertilization of wheat seems to be a necessity in our country due to common Cu deficiency in Polish soils.
In 2004-2006, three field experiments were conducted in the Experimental Station Osiny in Eastern Poland, where the response of five winter wheat cultivars to foliar copper application was tested. Copper was applied in the form of CuSO4·5H2O at a rate of 305 g ha-1 Cu. Fertilization was performed in spring during the full tillering stage of growth. Analysis of variance was used for statistical calculations. The means were compared using Tukey’s test.
It was demonstrated that the five cultivars responded differently to the Cu fertilization, with a medium content of this element in soil. A single Cu spray caused 5-9% increase in grain yield in three out of the five tested cultivars. The other two cultivars did not show any significant yield increase in response to copper application. Besides, all the cultivars accumulated different quantities of copper in plant tissues, such as shoots and grain. The field trials have proven that winter wheat cultivars are diverse in their nutritional demand for copper. The necessity of winter wheat fertilization with Cu depends not only on the concentration of this nutrient in soil, but also on the tolerance of a given wheat cultivar to copper deficiency.

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637-644 R. Koppel, A. Ingver
Stability and predictability of baking quality of winter wheat
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Stability and predictability of baking quality of winter wheat

R. Koppel, A. Ingver

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 1. J. Aamisepa St., Jõgeva alevik, 48306; e-mail:
Reine.Koppel@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

Baking quality of 11 winter wheat varieties was studied at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute during 5 years (2005–2009). Protein content, farinograph absorption, dough stability time and loaf volume were examined in this study. The varieties were divided into clusters according to the average value of quality characteristics and coefficient of variation. Ada, Tarso, Portal, Ramiro had high protein content. Bjorke, Portal, Tarso belonged to the cluster with the highest farinograph absorption. Ada had the highest value of dough stability every year. Ada, Ebi, Compliment, Gunbo, Ramiro, Širvinta 1 and Tarso had higher loaf volume. For all the wheat quality parameters the variety effect was statistically significant but had very small magnitude compared to year effect. For the milling and baking industry, it is desirable that quality traits should be maintained as stable as possible through all environments. Varieties that had lower Cultivar Superiority value usually had higher coefficient of variation. Protein content is commonly used as predictor of baking quality. The correlation existed between protein content and farinograph absorption. Farinograph absorption correlated also with dough stability. Loaf volume had correlation with protein content only in one year out of five.

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653-662 Ž. Liatukas, V. Ruzgas and K. Razbadauskiene
Take-all resistance of Lithuanian winter wheat breeding lines
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Take-all resistance of Lithuanian winter wheat breeding lines

Ž. Liatukas, V. Ruzgas and K. Razbadauskiene

Institute of Agriculture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, 1Instituto al., Akademija, Kėdainiai distr., LT-58344, Lithuania; e-mail: liatukas@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Take-all, caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, is one of the most important root diseases of wheat around the world. Previous research has suggested that winter wheat varieties pose no effective resistance. The experiment was carried out in the winter wheat mono-crop nursery during 2006–2009. In total, 324 accessions, including standard cultivars, were tested during 3 vegetation seasons. The accessions were grown in 2.0 m2 plots. The disease severity was assessed as ear discoloration symptoms from early to late milk stages in scores, using the scale 1 to 9 points, where 1 is the lowest value. Disease severities were high during all three seasons and ear symptoms developed from just visible to full discoloration during 3 to 5 weeks depending on the accessions’ resistance and year. Take-all severity on the accessions tested was estimated from 4.75 to 9.0, 5.38 to 8.95, and 4.00 to 8.53 points in 2007–2009, respectively. Varieties ‘Flair’ and ‘Dream’ were the most frequent in the pedigree of the most resistant lines, occurring in 23.3% pedigrees of the lines. The thousand kernels and hectolitre weight showed no or low correlation with disease severities. Lines resistance showed weak correlation with yield when all plot data were used for calculation. However, correlation coefficients considerably increased when ten percent of each minimal, mean and maximal yields values were used. A mean yield of resistant and susceptible lines differed about 1 t ha-1 in 2007 and 2008, whereas a lower difference (0.54 t ha-1) was found in 2009. Some susceptible lines had higher or similar yield as well as the resistant ones in all years.

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403-408 G. Dinaburga, D. Lapins, A. Berzins, J. Kopmanis and A. Plume
Interconnection of altitude of stationary GPS observation points and soil moisture with formation of winter wheat grain yield
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Interconnection of altitude of stationary GPS observation points and soil moisture with formation of winter wheat grain yield

G. Dinaburga, D. Lapins, A. Berzins, J. Kopmanis and A. Plume

Institute of Soil and Plant Science, Latvia University of Agriculture, Liela iela 2,Jelgava, LV-3001, Latvia; e-mail: Gundega.Dinaburga@llu.lv

Abstract:

Field trials were carried out at the Research and Study farm “Vecauce” of the Latvian University of Agriculture during the years 2006–07 to investigate factors influencing the formation of the winter wheat grain yield. Researches have been carried out in stationary observation points. Results show tight negative correlation between the altitude of observation points and soil moisture. The correlation is significant P < 0.05 in both trial years but coherence is tighter in the year with reduced precipitation, as observed in April–July 2006. Significant negative correlation was established between altitude and winter wheat grain yield. In year 2006, when lack of precipitation was observed, this coherence is with increased probability P < 0.01. Soil moisture at the depth of 40−45 cm was below optimum – 25% – in both trial years and also in both stationary observation levels with average altitude 95 and 102 m above sea level. It was also significantly lower in the highest points of the terrain. Significantly higher grain yield of winter wheat was obtained in field points with an average altitude 95 m above sea level. This coherence is also more explicit in the year with less precipitation, as in 2006. Analysis of correlation established that soil moisture at the depth of 40−45 cm has significant positive impact on the winter wheat grain yield and on the flag leaf area.

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493-498 I. Vanaga, Z. Mintale and O. Smirnova
Control possibilities of Apera spica-venti (L.) P.Beauv. in winter wheat with autumn and spring applications of herbicides in Latvia
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Control possibilities of Apera spica-venti (L.) P.Beauv. in winter wheat with autumn and spring applications of herbicides in Latvia

I. Vanaga, Z. Mintale and O. Smirnova

Latvian Plant Protection Research Centre, Lielvardes iela 36/38, Riga LV-1006

Abstract:

This paper presents results on weed control and yield responses in winter wheat grown after winter oilseed rape and after winter wheat, using data from field trials with a range of herbicides registered for use in Latvia that were applied either in the autumn or in the spring. Apera spica-venti was the dominant weed in these trials, accounting for 70–80% of the total weed biomass. Spring application of herbicides did not provide good control of Apera spica-venti up to harvest time: the infestation at application time was more than 140 plants per m2. Autumn application of appropriate herbicides gave satisfactory control of Apera spica-venti up to harvest time in the following year. All herbicide treatments significantly increased crop yield but the autumn applications gave significantly greater increases than nearly all spring applications.

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493-498 I. Vanaga, Z. Mintale and O. Smirnova
Control possibilities of Apera spica-venti (L.) P.Beauv. in winter wheat with autumn and spring applications of herbicides in Latvia
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Control possibilities of Apera spica-venti (L.) P.Beauv. in winter wheat with autumn and spring applications of herbicides in Latvia

I. Vanaga, Z. Mintale and O. Smirnova

Latvian Plant Protection Research Centre, Lielvardes iela 36/38, Riga LV-1006

Abstract:

This paper presents results on weed control and yield responses in winter wheat grown after winter oilseed rape and after winter wheat, using data from field trials with a range of herbicides registered for use in Latvia that were applied either in the autumn or in the spring. Apera spica-venti was the dominant weed in these trials, accounting for 70–80% of the total weed biomass. Spring application of herbicides did not provide good control of Apera spica-venti up to harvest time: the infestation at application time was more than 140 plants per m2. Autumn application of appropriate herbicides gave satisfactory control of Apera spica-venti up to harvest time in the following year. All herbicide treatments significantly increased crop yield but the autumn applications gave significantly greater increases than nearly all spring applications.

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162-168 A. Auškalnis and O. Auškalnienė
Harrowing timing for winter wheat and spring barley under organically growing conditions
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Harrowing timing for winter wheat and spring barley under organically growing conditions

A. Auškalnis and O. Auškalnienė

Lithuanian Institute of AgricultureInstituto Alėja 1, LT – 58344, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr.; e-mail: albinas@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Field trials were conducted over the period of 2005–2007 at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture to test the efficacy of harrowing on weeds at different growth stages of ecologically grown winter wheat and spring barley. The main weeds in winter wheat were: Lamium sp., Chenopodium album, Tripleurospermum inodorum, Capsella bursa-pastoris and in spring barley Ch.album, Sinapis arvensis, Stellaria media, T. inodorum. The weeds most vulnerable to harrowing in winter wheat were: Veronica sp., Chenopodium album and Capsella bursa pastoris. Chenopodium album and Sinapis arvensis were vulnerable to harrowing in spring barley. Early harrowing pre-emergence followed with harrowing at the 3–4 leave stage of spring barley was the most optimal.Winter wheat grain yield reduction tendencies were obtained in plots harrowed threetimes. No statistical difference in spring barley grain yield was found among the treatments. The decrease in weed number and mass depended on harrowing timing and frequency, meteorological conditions and weed species composition.

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217-223 J. Cesevičienė, A. Leistrumaitė and V. Paplauskienė
Grain yield and quality of winter wheat varieties in organic agriculture
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Grain yield and quality of winter wheat varieties in organic agriculture

J. Cesevičienė, A. Leistrumaitė and V. Paplauskienė

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto al. 1, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr., LT-58344,Lithuania; e-mail: jurgita@lzi.lt

Abstract:

During the period 2004–2006, grain yield and quality characteristics of ten winter wheat (Triticum aestive L.) varieties from the very good, good and satisfactory baking quality groups were investigated at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture under the conditions of organic agriculture. Results showed a marked influence of climatically different years on the winter wheat varieties’ grain yield and quality characteristics (protein and gluten content, gluten quality by gluten index, sedimentation index according to Zeleny). When the growing conditions were rather dry and warmer (2006), compared with the long-term mean, grain yield was the poorest but grain quality was the best and grain of most of the winter wheat varieties met the requirements set for bread-making. The varieties ‘Lars’ and ‘Zentos’ combined high yield with stability, their sum of integral assessment of grain yield was respectively (11+) and (10+). From quality parameters in varieties a higher variability was noted for sedimentation (26.6–29.7%), but similar variation in separate years showed that this quality parameter was most stable over years. In overall high-quality varieties from the very good / good baking quality groups, an ecological way of growing may give good baking utilization possibilities but this strongly depends on environmental conditions. Varieties ‘Širvinta 1’ and ‘Ada’ were more stable concerning wet gluten content and sedimentation, ‘Zentos’ and ‘Alma’ – concerning gluten index. Glu-1 score corresponded significantly and positively with higher sedimentation, hectolitre weight and gluten index.

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381-386 Ž. Liatukas and A. Leistrumaitė
Selection of winter wheat for organic growing
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Selection of winter wheat for organic growing

Ž. Liatukas and A. Leistrumaitė

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto al. 1, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr., LT-58344,Lithuania; e-mail: alge@lzi.lt

Abstract:

The study was conducted at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during 2006–2008. Sixteen registered winter wheat varieties and advanced breeding lines were tested. Correlation analysis of traits of winter wheat genotypes grown under conventional and organic systems showed stronger correlations between the traits that had been found to be environmentally more stable. Overwintering, plant height, heading, maturity, lodging and hectolitre weight strongly correlated (r = 0.74**–0.98**) between the growing systems in both years. Soil coverage, which is a very important trait for organic system showed weak or medium correlations (r = 0.43*–0.64**) between the systems tested. Yield and 1000 grain weight mostly correlated with the traits of plant vegetative development, whereas hectolitre weight showed random correlations with the other traits. The yield was found to positively correlate with soil coverage at development stages BBCH41-42, 60-65 and number of productive tillers (r = 0.31*–0.54*).

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