Impact of perennial legumes and timothy as green manure on productivity of Secale cereale L. and x Triticosecale Wittm and on occurrence of cereal diseases
¹Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Vezaiciai Branch,Vezaiciai, Gargzdų 29, LT-96216 Klaipeda distr. Lithuania;e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
²Botanical Garden of Klaipeda University,Kretingos 92, LT-92327 Klaipeda, Lithuania; e-mail: email@example.com
In 2002–2005 experiments were carried out at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s Vėžaičiai Branch (West Lithuania) on a podzolized gleyic soil to study 1) the ecological significance of perennial legumes and timothy used as green manure for the biological properties of triticale and rye, and 2) on diseases affecting these cereals. Our experimental evidence suggests that residues of the perennial grasses tested and ploughed-in aftermath contributed different contents of nitrogen to the soil. The highest content of nitrogen (185.8 kg ha-1) and other nutrients (P2O5, K2O) was contributed to the soil with the addition ofred clover residues and aftermath. However, when triticale and rye were grown after white clover as a preceding crop (1st crop for forage, aftermath ploughed in), the highest grain yield (on average 3.13 t ha-1 of triticale and 3.82 t ha-1 of rye) was obtained, which was by 0.34 and 0.28 t ha-1 higher compared to grain yield following similarly managed red clover. It was determined that some yield-forming indicators of cereal, such as plant height, ear length, number of grains per ear were higher for white clover rather than for red clover or timothy. The choice of preceding crop had no significant effect on differences in protein content in the winter cereal grain. However, different growing conditions of winter cereals, i.e. different preceding crops, had a significant effect on the occurrence of scald, brown rust and septoria.