Tag Archives: yield

xxx H. Kirnak, I.S. Varol, H.A. Irik and H. Ozaktan
Effects of irrigation applied at different growth stages on chickpea yield
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Effects of irrigation applied at different growth stages on chickpea yield

H. Kirnak¹, I.S. Varol²*, H.A. Irik² and H. Ozaktan³

¹University of Adnan Menderes, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, TR09010 Efeler, Aydın, Turkey
²University of Erciyes, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Biosystems Engineering, TR38010 Melikgazi, Kayseri, Turkey
³University of Erciyes, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops, TR38010 Melikgazi, Kayseri, Turkey
*Correspondence: svarol@erciyes.edu.tr

Abstract:

This study was conducted over the experimental fields of Erciyes University in 2016 to investigate the effects of irrigations applied at different growth stages on chickpea yields. Experiments were conducted in randomized blocks design with 3 replications. There were 7 irrigation treatments as of I1: rainfed, I2: pre-bloom single irrigation, I3: single irrigation at the beginning of blooming, I4: single irrigation at 50% pod set, I5: two irrigations at 50% bloom and 50% pod-set, I6: two irrigations at pre-bloom and 50% pod-set, I7: full irrigation. The amount of applied irrigation water varied between 85.6–323 mm. Plant water consumptions varied between 262–569 mm. The greatest yield was obtained from I4 treatment with 273 kg da-1 and the lowest yield was obtained from I1 treatments with 146 kg da-1. It was concluded for chickpea cultivation under deficit water resources conditions that water deficits may be applied at different growth stages except for 50% pod-set period.

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xxx A. Adamovics, S. Ivanovs and V. Bulgakov
Investigations about the impact of the sowing time and rate of the biomass yield and quality of industrial hemp
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Investigations about the impact of the sowing time and rate of the biomass yield and quality of industrial hemp

A. Adamovics¹, S. Ivanovs¹* and V. Bulgakov²

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, 2, Liela str., Jelgava LV-3001, Latvia
²National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15, Heroyiv Obrony str., Kyiv UK 03041, Ukraine
*Correspondence: semjons@apollo.lv

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to find the optimum sowing rate of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and to clarify the impact of the sowing rate on the production of biofuel from hemp biomass in Latvia. Field trials were carried out at the Research and Study Farm ‘Pēterlauki’ of the Latvia University of Agriculture in 2012–2014. The industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) ‘Futura 75’ was sown in a Luvic Endogleyic Stagnosol soil: pHKCl 6.7; P – 52 mg kg-1; K – 128 mg kg-1; the organic matter content – 21–25 g kg-1. Hemp was sown in 10-m2 plots, triplicate, on May 8 and 17. The total sowing rate was 20 (100), 30 (150), 40 (200), 50 (250), 60 (300), 70 (350), 80 (400), 90 (450), and 100 (500) kg ha-1 (germinating seeds per 1 m2). The plots were fertilised as follows: N – 120 kg ha-1; P2O5 – 80 kg ha-1; and K2O – 112 kg ha-1. Hemp was harvested when the first matured seeds appeared. The biometrical indices (height and stem diameter), harvesting time, the amount of fresh and dry biomass, and the fibre content were evaluated. Depending on the sowing rate, the yield of dry matter was on average 9.2–12.1 t ha-1 when hemp was sown at the beginning of May, and 7.9–10.0 t ha-1 when hemp was sown in the middle of May.

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xxx J. Maga and K. Krištof
Effect of drill machine operating speed on quality of sowing and biomass yield
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Effect of drill machine operating speed on quality of sowing and biomass yield

J. Maga and K. Krištof*

University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Biosystems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovakia
*Correspondence: koloman.kristof@uniag.sk

Abstract:

The paper is focused on the study and evaluation of quality of the seeding of seeds and its effect on the biomass yield. The aim was to evaluate the space arrangement of the seeds by using of polygon method on one field with the repetition for different forward speeds of the drill machine. For the evaluation there were used digital photographs, which were taken during repeated measurements of the each value of the forward speed after sprouting of crop. These images have been used in order to determine the shape and size of the surface area belonging to the plant. Own software TfPolyM was used for the image analysis. The shape of the polygons belonging to the individual plants was expressed by values of the shape factor Tf. This factor characterises the suitability the shape of polygon surface related to the individual plant. By comparing of the values of the shape factors for different forward speeds of the drill machine we can determine the optimal value of the forward speed from the point of seed placement uniformity in horizontal level. During harvest of the crop there was analysed the variability of the biomass yield in relation to values of the forward speed used during seeding. The most suitable values of shape factor Tf (0.8519) was recorded for speed of drill machine set on 12 km h-1. For other tested speeds 8, 10, 15 km h-1 were recorded lower values of shape factor 0.7994, 0.8173 and 0.8449, respectively. In determination of biomass production for drill machine speed 12 km h-1 the greatest yield from 1 m2 was observed. Subsequently, for speeds 8 and 10 km h-1 was lower about 4.26% and 1.83%, respectively. For tested speeds of drill machinery 15 km h-1 and above was observed only a small descent of yields about 0.6%. Fluctuation in yields affected by working speed then demonstrates fluctuation in sowing rate. It was also observed that the working speed of sowing machinery also affect the amount of yield directly. However, in case of lowest yield of straw recorded it was observed even 20% decrease in yield of grains.

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xxx S. Lamptey, S. Yeboah L. Li and R. Zhang
Dry matter accumulation and nitrogen concentration in forage and grain maize in dryland areas under different soil amendments
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Dry matter accumulation and nitrogen concentration in forage and grain maize in dryland areas under different soil amendments

S. Lamptey¹²⁴*, S. Yeboah¹³⁵ L. Li¹² and R. Zhang¹³

¹Gansu Provincial Key Lab of Arid Land Crop Science, Lanzhou CN730070, China
²College of Agronomy, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou CN730070, China
³College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou CN730070, China
⁴University for Development Studies, P.O Box TL 1882, Tamale–Ghana
⁵CSIR–Crops Research Institute, P.O Box 3785, Kumasi, Ghana
*Correspondence: naalamp2009@yahoo.com

Abstract:

Soil amendment plays significant role in improving soil fertility and increasing crop productivity in rain–fed agriculture. Understanding the grain yield associated with dry matter and N concentration is essential for improving maize production. A 3– year field study was conducted to determine dry matter accumulation, nitrogen concentration and grain yield of forage and grain maize under different soil amendments in the Western Loess Plateau of China. The experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block design with four treatments and three replicates per treatment. Results showed that dry matter accumulation and nitrogen concentration in the swine manure in combination with chemical fertilized (SC) crops was significantly higher (by ≈ 60% and 39%) than no amendment (NA) which therefore translated into increased grain yield ≈ 74%. The SC treatment also improved leaf area index and chlorophyll content (P < 0.05) by approximately 34% to 32% compared to NA, which supported the above results. The nitrogen concentration in the leaf was higher at jointing and lower at maturity. Grain yield positively correlated with dry matter accumulation and nitrogen concentration at jointing, flowering and milk stage. Dry matter accumulation and grain yield also increased in the sole swine manure (SM) and maize stover (MS) treatments, but to lesser extent than SC. Based on the improvement of dry matter accumulation, nitrogen concentration and grain yield, swine manure in combination with chemical fertilizer appears to be a better fertilization option under dryland cropping systems.

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xxx M. Olle
The yield, height and content of protein of field peas (Pisum sativum L.) in Estonian agro-climatic conditions
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The yield, height and content of protein of field peas (Pisum sativum L.) in Estonian agro-climatic conditions

M. Olle

Estonian Crop Research Institute, Department of Plant Breeding, J. Aamissepa 1, EE48309 Jogeva alevik, Estonia
Correspondence: margit.olle@etki.ee

Abstract:

Pisum sativum L. is important protein crop in the world. The purpose of this investigation was to see whether pea varieties differ in their yield, height and content of protein. Another aim was to select the best varieties suitable for production. Field experiments with different varieties of peas (‘Bruno’, ‘Capella’, ‘Clara’ and ‘Vitra’) were carried out at the Estonian Crop Research Institute in 2014 and in 2015. Yields (t ha-1) in 2014 and 2015 did not differ much, while yield from variety ‘Bruno’ was very different between years 2014 and 2015 and was much higher in 2015. The most suitable height of field peas is in a range of 60…100 cm, because the plants with such a height are most effectively suppressing weeds. It can be concluded that varieties with suitable height in our investigation were: ‘Bruno’, ‘Capella’ and ‘Clara’. Variety ‘Vitra’ was too high, is lodging easily and is therefore hard to harvest. Crude protein content (% in dry matter) was lowest in ‘Clara’; all other varieties had a higher content of protein, within much the same range. Based on the results of present investigation it can be concluded that out of those four varieties the most suitable varieties for production are ‘Bruno’ and ‘Capella’. Choice of the right variety for pea cultivation is very important, but depends on the local agro-climatic conditions. As in Baltic – Nordic countries and in north of America the agro-climatic conditions are more or less similar the results are useful for those countries.

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079–093 Z. Gaile, A. Ruza, D. Kreita and L. Paura
Yield components and quality parameters of winter wheat depending on tillering coefficient
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Yield components and quality parameters of winter wheat depending on tillering coefficient

Z. Gaile¹*, A. Ruza¹, D. Kreita¹ and L. Paura²

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Liela street 2, LV–3001, Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Information Technologies, Liela street 2, LV–3001, Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: zinta.gaile@llu.lv

Abstract:

Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the main and most profitable cereal crop in Latvia, thus different aspects of its growth are widely researched. The aim of this three-year (2004–2005 and 2006–2007) long investigation arranged at Research and Study farm ‘Peterlauki’ of Latvia University of Agriculture (56 30.658 N and 23 41.580 E) was to evaluate importance of tillering for wheat yield, yield components and quality formation alongside the effect of cultivar, sowing date and rate, and research year. Three cultivars (‘Cubus’, ‘Tarso’, ‘Zentos’), four sowing dates (starting with 30 August ± 2 days with 10-day intervals) and three sowing rates (300, 400 and 500 germinable seeds m-2) were used. Soil and crop management was appropriate. Yield components were detected from sample sheets. Yield was affected substantially (p < 0.05) by all the investigated factor except sowing rate. Plants with tillering coefficient (TC) ‘1’ to ‘6’ formed yield, and the biggest proportion (20%) was given by plants with TC ‘3’. Grain number and weight per spike was substantially (p < 0.01) affected by TC, but changes in their values were irregular and further investigations are needed. Average values of crude protein, gluten and starch content, Zeleny index and 1,000 grain weight was not affected by TC substantially. Thus, tillering was found beneficial for winter wheat yield formation as part of yield compensation mechanism. Sowing rate was the least yield, its components and quality affecting factor, but environmental conditions (research year) – the most affecting factor. The effect of cultivar and sowing date was mostly substantial, but dependent on evaluated parameter.

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317–326 N. Borys and A. Küüt
The influence of basic soil tillage methods and weather conditions on the yield of spring barley in forest-steppe conditions
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The influence of basic soil tillage methods and weather conditions on the yield of spring barley in forest-steppe conditions

N. Borys¹* and A. Küüt²

¹National Science Center, Institute of Agriculture NAAS Ukraine,
Mashinostroiteley Str. 2b, UK 08162 habany, Ukraine
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56,
EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: agrokaktys@mail.ru

Abstract:

The research on the effect the main methods of soil treatment have on its hydrophysical properties was carried out as a stationary experiment at the National Scientific Centre, Institute of Agriculture NAAS. It included a grain crop rotation with the subsequent crop sequencing: winter wheat/grain maize/barley. In 2013–2015, the spring barley variety ‘Solntsedar’ was sown. Throughout the three years of research, the consistency of the effect of the main soil treatment methods on the overall yield stayed more or less the same. Reduction in barley grain yield against the backdrop of long-term disking at the depth of 10–12 cm is explained by the thickening of the 10–30 cm layer of soil to the critical level of 1.57 g cm-3, moisture deficiency, as a result of the over-compaction of the root layer, and an increase in the amount of sterile spikelets. As the result of our research, we have come to a conclusion that for barley, soil disking at the depth of 10–12 cm is as good as ploughing if it is used as a part of differential treatment system, which includes ploughing at the depth of 28–30 cm or chisel tilling at 43–45 cm for its preceding crops. If disking was used for all crops of the grain crop rotation, a deterioration of hydrophysical properties was observed in the barley field, which can lead to a considerable reduction in the barley yield, especially in a dry cultivation year. 

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469-478 A. Jansons, S. Zurkova, D. Lazdina and M. Zeps
Productivity of poplar hybrid (Populus balsamifera x P. laurifolia) in Latvia
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Productivity of poplar hybrid (Populus balsamifera x P. laurifolia) in Latvia

A. Jansons*, S. Zurkova, D. Lazdina and M. Zeps

Latvian State Forest Research Institute ‘Silava’, Rigas 111, LV-2169 Salaspils, Latvia; *Correspondence: aris.jansons@silava.lv

Abstract:

Fast growing poplar clones have been widely used for biomass production in Southern Europe; however, there is insufficient information about the growth of poplar in north-eastern Europe that might hamper its wider use. The aim of the study was to assess the productivity of poplar hybrid and its potential for biomass productions. Material for the study was collected in 14 stands (age 54–65 years) located in the central and western part of Latvia (56–57°N, 22–23°E), which were established on fertile drained mineral soil (Mercurialiosa mel.) and mineral soil with normal moisture regime (Oxalidosa and Aegopodiosa). Tree diameter and height were measured and biomass was estimated using equation developed based on 24 sample trees. Mean tree diameter and height in stands on mineral soil varied greatly (from 29 ± 1.6 cm to 45 ± 3.9 cm and from 24 ± 0.9 m to 31 ± 0.8 m, respectively); however in stands on drained mineral soil mean diameter and height was 42 ± 2.1 cm and 27 ± 0.7 m, respectively. Mean diameter and height of poplar was 16.7–25.1% higher compared with Norway spruce and these differences were statistically significant (p-value < 0.05), differences with common aspen were not significant. The number of fallen and standing dead trees, reaching up to 14–46% from the number of living trees, indicated aging and intense self-thinning. Mean annual volume increment of all stands was 11.8 m3 ha-1 y-1 (in some of stands reaching 21.0 m3 ha-1 y-1), corresponding to 4.2–9.8 t of dry matter per year. Thus, the results suggest that poplar could be an efficient species for production of bioenergy.

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759-768 T. Albert, K. Karp, M. Starast and T. Paal
The effect of mulching and pruning on the vegetative growth and yield of the half-high blueberry
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The effect of mulching and pruning on the vegetative growth and yield of the half-high blueberry

T. Albert¹, K. Karp¹, M. Starast¹ and T. Paal²

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental
Sciences , Kreutzwaldi 1A, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering,
Kreutzwaldi 1A, 51014 Tartu, Estonia, e- mail: tairi.albert@emu.ee

Abstract:

The aim of this research was to determine the influence of different mulches (peat, sawdust, plastic) and different pruning methods (moderate, severe) on the growth and yield of the half–high blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum x Vaccinium angustifolium) ´Northblue´. The effect of a mixture of soil and peat was studied in the case of peat alone and peat and plastic mulches. The experiment was established in 1996 in South Estonia and in 2002 blueberry bushes were pruned. The results of the study showed that mulching significantly influenced nutrient content and pH. Depending on the mulch, the soil pH ranged from 4.5 to 6.1 – there was more acid soil in the peat treatment. The use of mulches had some influence on productivity of pruned half-high blueberry plants. When peat was applied a canopy of pruned plants recovered very well after one year. Within three years the plants had the same yield as un-pruned variants but four years after pruning the yield was highest in the variants where peat was applied. Plastic mulch is not suitable for blueberries: it decreases the yield and four years after pruning the normal plant growth in our study had not recovered. Severe pruning is more suitable for half-high blueberry fruiting plants in northern climate conditions.

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263-271 E. Stanislawska-Glubiak and J. Korzeniowska
Yield of Winter Wheat Grown under Zero and Conventional Tillage on Different Soil Types
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Yield of Winter Wheat Grown under Zero and Conventional Tillage on Different Soil Types

E. Stanislawska-Glubiak and J. Korzeniowska

Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation, National Research Institute in Pulawy,
Department of Weed Science and Tillage Systems in Wroclaw,
Orzechowa 61, 50-540 Wroclaw, Poland; e-mail: e.glubiak@iung.wroclaw.pl

Abstract:

In three-year field trials, conducted in West Poland, the growth and development of winter wheat grown under zero tillage (ZT) and conventional tillage (CT) methods on four soils were investigated. The soils were different mainly in grain fraction distribution and content of organic matter. The tested soils were sandy loam (SL), loamy sand (LS-1, LS-2) and sand (S). In GPS-fixed sites, in ZT and CT fields, yield of aerial part biomass in four growth stages: stem elongation, second node, and heading and inflorescence phases, was compared. In addition, yields of grain and straw were tested. On medium and coarse textured soils (SL, LS-1, LS-2), more biomass was produced by wheat under CT than ZT, but on very coarse textured soil (S), the biomass yields obtained from wheat growing under both soil tillage methods were identical. On medium textured soils and on coarse textured (LS-1) soil, wheat under CT contained more N and P as well as much more Ca and Mg in tissues than under ZT. In contrast, on the other coarse textured (LS-2) soil and on very coarse textured soil, wheat plants under ZT were generally characterized by identical or slightly higher nutrient content than plants under CT. Despite periodic fluctuations in biomass yields between ZT and CT for particular growth stages of wheat, the yields of grain and straw were the same for both soil tillage methods, irrespective of the soil type.

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