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xxx P.F. Alao, H. Kallakas, T. Poltimäe and J. Kers
Effect of hemp fibre length on the properties of polypropylene composites
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Effect of hemp fibre length on the properties of polypropylene composites

P.F. Alao*, H. Kallakas, T. Poltimäe and J. Kers

Laboratory of Wood Technology, Department of Materials and Environmental Technology, Tallinn University of technology, Ehitajate tee 5, EE19086 Tallinn, Estonia
*Correspondence: percy.alao@taltech.ee

Abstract:

Hemp fibre (HF) is a natural fibre that has gained increased application in interior material for automobile industries (Sanjay, et al., 2016). However, good interfacial bonding between fibre/matrix is necessary to enhance the mechanical properties of the composite (Pickering, et al., 2007). This study focuses on the effect of fibre length, alkali and silane treatments on the mechanical and physical properties of hemp fibre reinforced polypropylene composites. Compression moulding technique was used to produce the composite, fibre lengths of 50, 100 and 150 mm were selected and combined with polypropylene powder at a fibre/PP ratio of 60/40%, a pressure of 1.67 MPa and temperature between 160–200 °C. The results obtained show that longer fibres enhanced mechanical strength. The tensile test result, for instance, shows a 21% increase in flexural strength at 150 mm compared to the fibre length of 50 mm. The modification resulted in a 46% decrease in strength, especially for 150 mm long fibres. This may have been as a result of fibre damage, inadequate modification, less quality fibre or higher initial moisture content in the modified fibres as observed from FTIR spectroscopy. Further investigation of these factors is required to be able to conclusively determine if they may have affected the mechanical performance (Alao, 2018).

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xxx J. McNamara, P. Griffin, J. Phelan, W.E. Field and J. Kinsella
Farm health and safety adoption through engineering and behaviour change
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Farm health and safety adoption through engineering and behaviour change

J. McNamara¹²*, P. Griffin³, J. Phelan², W.E. Field⁴ and J. Kinsella²

¹Teagasc- Agriculture and Food Development Authority, E32YW08 Kildalton, Co. Kilkenny, Ireland
²School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, D04 V1W8 Dublin 4, Ireland
³Health and Safety Authority, Metropolitan Building, D01 K0Y8 Dublin 1, Ireland
⁴University, Agricultural & Biological Engineering Department, IN 47907-2093 West Lafayette, Indiana, U.S.A.
*Correspondence: john.g.mcnamara@teagasc.ie

Abstract:

The agriculture sector is one of the most hazardous occupations worldwide. The EU farming population is predominantly self-employed, who are largely outside the scope of EU occupational safety and health (OSH) legislation. Utilising effective communications approaches to transmit clear messages is a possible way of motivating farmer OSH adoption. The Public Health Model (PHM) of accident causation conceptualises an accident as occurring due to multiple interacting physical and human factors while the Social-Ecologic Framework enhances the PHM by defining various levels of the social environment which are influential on persons’ OSH actions. A knowledge gap exists in how farmers conceptualise accident causation. The aim of this study is to report findings of a Score Card exercise conducted among Irish farmers (n = 1,151) to reveal knowledge on farmers’ conceptualisation of accident causation where farmers ranked in order of importance up to five causes of farm accidents. First ranked items related to ‘machinery/ vehicles’, ‘organisational’ and ‘livestock’ as accident causation factors (92%). Overall rankings for up to five ranked causes identified six causes: ‘machinery/ vehicles’, ‘organisational’, ‘livestock’, ‘slurry related’, ‘trips, falls, buildings-related’ and ‘electrical’ (96.5%). The study data indicated that farmers’ perceptions of accident causes were inaccurate when compared with objective fatal farm accident data. The study concluded that communicating accurate and contemporary OSH messages to farmers has potential to assist with farm accident prevention. Based on the multiple and interacting risk factors arising in agriculture it is suggested that more elaborate study of farm accident prevention is warranted.

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xxx V. Chaloupková, T. Ivanova and V. Krepl
Particle size and shape characterization of feedstock material for biofuel production
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Particle size and shape characterization of feedstock material for biofuel production

V. Chaloupková, T. Ivanova* and V. Krepl

Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Department of Sustainable Technologies, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: ivanova@ftz.czu.cz

Abstract:

Particle size and shape are key factors influencing the properties of particulate and agglomerated materials, and having an impact on a quality as well as utilization of a final product. In case of plant biomass particle morphology is greatly irregular. Large errors at most determinations of biomass particle sizes are caused by simplification on a single parameter of size, assuming particle sphericity or circularity. Thus, the aim of a present research was to determine the particle size in a complex way. Pine sawdust as an experimental material and typical biofuel feedstock was ground by a hammer mill to a fraction size of 12 mm. The dimensional features of such ground sawdust particles were identified for all particles individually via photo-optical analysis, a method based on a digital image processing that is sensitive to irregular particles’ shapes. The particles were described mainly by variables of length, max width, equivalent diameter, max and min feret diameter, sphericity, roundness, circularity together with length/width ratio and aspect ratio. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics, i.e. by arithmetic means, medians, minimum and maximum values, variance and standard deviation. The obtained results may contribute to a better knowledge of material properties needed for designing an optimal technology for the production of quality biofuels.

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xxx I. Sivicka, A. Adamovics, S. Ivanovs and E. Osinska
Some morphological and chemical characteristics of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) in Latvia
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Some morphological and chemical characteristics of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) in Latvia

I. Sivicka¹*, A. Adamovics¹, S. Ivanovs¹ and E. Osinska²

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Liela iela 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska 159, PL02-776 Warsaw, Poland
*Correspondence: Irina.Sivicka@llu.lv

Abstract:

By European Cooperative Programme for Plant Genetic Resources (ECPGR), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) is included on the list of priority species of medicinal and aromatic plants. In Latvia, it is important to cultivate oregano for keeping biodiversity and for meeting the needs of medicinal plant`s production. 44 accessions of oregano from the ex situ collection of genetic resources of medicinal and aromatic plants, attached to the Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, were analysed during 2012–2014. Plants` morphological characteristics were described by the Draft Descriptor List of oregano, using the methodology of ECPGR. The essential oil was isolated using solvent-free microwave extraction method and analysed by gas chromatograph Hewlett Packard 6890 equipped with flame ionization detector FID and polar capillary column HP 20M. The results showed, that oregano accessions differ morphologically. Accessions are characterized with dense branching and the possibility to create big biomass. Local oregano is poor in content of essential oil, but 17 compounds were identified as the principal. As well as the correlation between the content of essential oil and colour of flowers in full flowering stage was observed – it is higher for accessions with dark flowers. Also, the influence of meteorological conditions per vegetation period (year) on chemical characteristics was significant (p < 0.05).

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xxx I. Simakova, E. Volf, V. Strizhevskaya, O. Popova, V. Kozyreva and E. Karagulova
Blends of unrefined vegetable oils for functional nutrition
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Blends of unrefined vegetable oils for functional nutrition

I. Simakova*, E. Volf, V. Strizhevskaya, O. Popova, V. Kozyreva and E. Karagulova

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Saratov State Vavilov Agrarian University, Teatralnaya sq. 1, RU 410012 Saratov, Russia
*Correspondence: simakovaiv@yandex.ru

Abstract:

The unbalanced ratio of ω-3/ω-6 of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) causes a number of alimentary-dependent diseases, and the intake of capsulated forms as biologically active additives does not always take into account the established eating behavior of the population and the hedonic aspect of food consumption in general.
The Saratov region is one of the leading agricultural regions in the Russian Federation, one of the leaders in the cultivation and processing of low-used but valuable oily raw material, such as seeds of mustard, milkthistle, camelina, safflower.
The object of the study were the above listed oils and their food compositions obtained by blending. The functionality and biological efficiency of the initial oils were investigated by gas-liquid chromatography. Applying the methods of mathematical modeling, new food systems with the specified characteristics were designed (achieving the optimal ratio of ω-3: ω-6 acids). The most promising samples were selected through sensory analysis. Functional and sensory properties were taken as reference points for selection. The developed mathematical model is applicable to this food system, which was proved by the study conducted empirically. As a result of the work performed, blends of elite unrefined vegetable oils with health-promoting properties were obtained; their use in nutrition is designed to contribute to the formation of a healthy and active longevity in general, as well as to the minimizing the deficit of essential factors of nutrition in the child’s body, athletes in the popular sports and sports of records.

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xxx V. Hartová, J. Hart and M. Kotek
Reliability of palms security under difficult conditions
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Reliability of palms security under difficult conditions

V. Hartová¹*, J. Hart² and M. Kotek¹

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Vehicles and Ground Transport, Kamýcká 129, CZ16500 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ16500 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: nidlova@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Reliability of biometric identification systems is a much discussed topic and nowadays security of premises is very important. The work is focused on palms security research and reliability of the system under adverse conditions, the aim of the measurement was to determine the reliability of readers under adverse conditions that may occur in an industrial environment. Difficult conditions include dirty surface of hand by water, dust, oil and writing accessories. First, a sample measurement was carried out, where the hands of the subjects were washed and thoroughly dried. This measurement was used to compare with measurements under adverse conditions. The results show that the more viscous the fluid the lower the reliability and also dusty hands caused considerably distorted results. The reliability of biometric systems still needs to be improved, as it often happens that the real values do not match the parameters that are declared by the manufacturers. Certain conditions must be met for the proper functioning of palms security, so that identifying persons are allowed access to the protected areas and have not been repeatedly denied.

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xxx M. Dąbrowska, A. Świętochowski and A. Lisowski
Physicochemical properties and agglomeration parameters of biogas digestate with addition of calcium carbonate
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Physicochemical properties and agglomeration parameters of biogas digestate with addition of calcium carbonate

M. Dąbrowska*, A. Świętochowski and A. Lisowski

Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Department of Agricultural and Forestry Machinery,
Faculty of Production Engineering, Nowoursynowska 166, PL02-787 Warsaw, Poland
*Correspondence: magdalena_dabrowska@sggw.pl

Abstract:

The aim of the work was to determine the physical properties of digestate from biogas production – either with or without the addition of calcium carbonate and to determine the parameters of its compaction. The material for research was obtained from an agricultural biogas plant specialized in processing cattle manure, vegetable pomace, chicken manure and maize silage. The parameters of compaction of digestate were experimentally determined and its net calorific value was calculated based on the gross calorific value. Physical properties were determined according to standards. The moisture content of liquid digestate was 96%. Mechanical separation allowed to decrease the water content by 19% and addition of 20% of calcium carbonate by 30%. It was found that digestate with addition of calcium carbonate is not suitable to use for energy purposes, because of its low net calorific value (5.2–5.9 MJ kg-1), however it can be used for fertilizer purposes in relation to its chemical composition. Without  additives, the net calorific value was 14.9 MJ kg-1, but due to the high moisture content of the raw material it is unprofitable to dry it and burn. On the other hand, it was proved that it is possible to obtain pellets of appropriate density out of the digestate using 40 mm of the die height and 0.3 g of single portion of the material.

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xxx L. Degola, V. Sterna, I. Jansons and S.Zute
The nutrition value of soybeans grown in Latvia for pig feeding
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The nutrition value of soybeans grown in Latvia for pig feeding

L. Degola¹*, V. Sterna², I. Jansons² and S.Zute²

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Institute of Animal Sciences, Liela 2, LV3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, “Dizzemes”, LV–3258 Dizstende, Libagi parish, Talsi County, Latvia
*Correspondence: lilija.degola@llu.lv

Abstract:

Soybean products are excellent sources of protein for pigs because their amino acid profiles complement those of cereal grains. Soy protein is rich in the limiting amino acids lysine, threonine, and tryptophan that are present in relatively low concentrations in the most commonly fed cereal grains. Amino acids in soy protein are more digestible than amino acids in most other plants proteins, which results in less nitrogen being excreted in the manure from pigs fed diets containing soybean meal than if other protein sources are used. The phosphorus in soy products is bound to phytic acid, which has a low digestibility to pigs, but the digestibility of phosphorus in soy products may be increased to more than 60% if diets are supplemented with microbial phytase. There are no much results about nutrition value of soybean growing in Latvia. Therefore the aim of study was determined chemical composition of soybeans growing in Latvia and evaluates their potential in pig feeding.
Research object were soybeans growing in Latvia. In the studied samples content of protein, fat, ash, fibre, composition of amino acids were determined and metabolizable energy were calculated. Evaluated that protein content varied from 32.7 till 40.7%, fat content was from 18.4–21.4% and significantly differed (p < 0.05) among growing places, but the sum of essential amino acids in the soy beans determined 115–125 g kg-1, and were not differed significantly by varieties. The content of lysine in protein were determined 5.1–5.5 g 100 g-1. Concluded that soy bean growing in Latvia provides equilibrium high metabolizable energy for pigs – from 13.2 to 17.6 MJ kg-1 and could be used in feed.

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xxx E. Mellelo, E.O. Samuilova, T.S. Denisov, D.M. Martynova and R.O. Olekhnovich
Influence of the bentonite-containing acrylic humectant composite on the soil microflora
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Influence of the bentonite-containing acrylic humectant composite on the soil microflora

E. Mellelo, E.O. Samuilova, T.S. Denisov, D.M. Martynova and R.O. Olekhnovich*

International Research Center BioEngineering, ITMO University, Kronverkskiy Prospekt, 49, RU197101 St. Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: r.o.olekhnovich@mail.ru

Abstract:

Acrylic derivative-based superabsorbents are widely used currently in agriculture as the soil conditioners, plant growth regulators, etc. Their usage has a positive effect on the growth and survival of the plants cultivated in the arid regions. However, the effects of hydrophilic acrylic polymers on the soil microbiocenosis still remain unknown. The influence of the moisture-absorbing acrylic acid-based hydrogels with different proportions of bentonite filler was studied on the soil microbiota. N,N-methylenebisacrylamide was used as a crosslinking agent. Acrylic hydrogels were synthesized by radical polymerization in an aqueous medium at a synthesis temperature of 45 °C during 4 hours. The application of hydrogel of the certain concentrations (1.0, 1.5, and 2.5% wt) into the soil did not cause significant changes in the total abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and the length of the fungal mycelium. The CO2 emission rates did not change after and during the application of the hydrogel), which indicated the same level of carbon mineralization in the soil with presence of acrylic bentonite-containing hydrogels. The nitrogen fixation rate decreased on the first day after hydrogel application; after 14 days, it was close to the control values. We assume the activity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria has though turned to the normal level.

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xxx L. Dubova, A. Senberga, I. Alsina, L. Strauta and I. Cinkmanis
Development of symbiotic interactions in the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) roots
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Development of symbiotic interactions in the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) roots

L. Dubova¹*, A. Senberga¹, I. Alsina¹, L. Strauta² and I. Cinkmanis³

¹Institute of Plant and Soil sciences, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Laboratory of Biotechnology, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Strazdu street 1, LV-3004 Jelgava, Latvia
³Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Food Technology, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: Laila.Dubova@llu.lv

Abstract:

Double-inoculation of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) seeds before sowing with rhizobium bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi is a known agronomic practice. It improves symbiotic nitrogen fixation and enhances legume supply with mineral elements and water. Effective symbiosis makes it possible to replace some of the required mineral fertilizer needed for plant growth with symbiotically fixed. This will ensure more environmentally friendly agricultural production. The formation of an effective symbiosis depends on a number of biotic and abiotic factors affecting the biochemical signals released by the partners. The biochemical mediator for symbiosis formation is flavonoids. The aim of this experiment was to test the effects of rhizobial and mycorrhizal inocula on symbiosis formation under different temperatures. Beans are an important source of protein for animal feed and human consumption. Four cultivars of faba beans were used – two V. faba var. minor Beck. -‘Fuego’ and ‘Lielplatone’, and two V. faba var. major Harz. – ‘Bartek’ and ‘Karmazyn’. The combination of microorganisms for seed inoculation influenced the frequency of root mycorrhization and abundance of arbuscules. The content of flavonoids in seed exudates correlated (r = 0.93) with germination temperatures. The use of mycorrhizal fungi alone or in combination with rhizobia reduced the amount of flavonoids in the bean seed exudate. In the pot experiment the amount and size of nodules significantly differed between cultivars. Use of mycorrhizal preparation mitigated the effect of inadequate germination temperature. Higher degree of mycorrhization and more intense formation of arbusculs formation was observed in the bean roots grown in vegetation pots in comparison with field ones. Local bred ‘Lielplatone’ had significantly better compatibility with microsymbionts in local agroclimatic conditions.

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xxx D. Baranenko, V. Bespalov, L. Nadtochii, I. Shestopalova, A. Chechetkina, A. Lepeshkin and V. Ilina
Development of encapsulated extracts on the basis of meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) in the composition of functional foods with oncoprotective properties
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Development of encapsulated extracts on the basis of meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) in the composition of functional foods with oncoprotective properties

D. Baranenko¹*, V. Bespalov¹², L. Nadtochii¹, I. Shestopalova¹, A. Chechetkina¹, A. Lepeshkin¹ and V. Ilina¹

¹ITMO University, International research centre "Biotechnologies of the Third Millennium", Lomonosov street 9, RU191002 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
²N.N Petrov National Medical Research Center of Oncology, Laboratory of Cancer Chemoprevention and Oncopharmacology, Leningradskaya street 68, RU197758 St. Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: denis.baranenko@niuitmo.ru

Abstract:

Meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) is a quite common plant throughout the European countries, including Russia. Therapeutic and prophylactic properties of the meadowsweet are mainly associated with the action of biologically active substances (BAS), in particularly tannins, phenolic compounds, phenolcarboxylic acids, catechins, flavonoids, essential oils etc. The main substances with proven clinical effects are salicylates and flavonoids, what allows to consider meadowsweet as an anti-inflammatory, immunostimulating, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, nootropic, adaptogenic and antihypoxic agent.
The aim of this study was to analyze the content of BAS in water and 70% ethyl alcohol extract of F. ulmaria flowers from different regions of Russia and develop their encapsulated forms for further use as an ingredient for functional food products.
To increase the shelf life of meadowsweet extracts and create a stable form for their delivery to the human body with various food products, encapsulated forms of extracts in the form of micro- and nanosized capsules were developed. The method of encapsulation was carried out using a spray dryer. It was shown that encapsulated meadowsweet BAS can be added to a chicken pate without negative effect on the organoleptic properties of the finished product. The calculation of the cost of the meat product with the complex functional dry mixture showed a slight increase in the cost of the final product compared to the traditional analogue. This study shows that encapsulated meadowsweet BAS can be used for inclusion in various food products, to ensure the functional properties of food and optimize the population’s rations.

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xxx I.S. Dunmade
Potential social lifecycle impact analysis of bioenergy from household and market wastes in African cities
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Potential social lifecycle impact analysis of bioenergy from household and market wastes in African cities

I.S. Dunmade

Mount Royal University, Faculty of Science & Technology, Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences, 4825 Mount Royal Gate SW, Calgary T3E 6K6, Canada
E-mail: idunmade@mtroyal.ca or israel_dunmade@yahoo.ca

Abstract:

Bioenergy is touted as a viable source of stable and affordable energy in a number of remote sub-urban centres. This study evaluates the potential social lifecycle impacts of bioenergy production from household wastes and agri-wastes in some African cities. The assessment considered the use of rotten and unsold fruits, vegetables and other related agri-wastes from central open markets in Lagos and Johannesburg as case studies. The 2009 UNEP/SETAC’s social lifecycle assessment (sLCA) guidelines and the associated sLCA methodological sheets are used to evaluate the potential social impacts of bioenergy production from agri-waste on operators/workers, the consumers, the value chain, and the local community. Preliminary results showed that it will provide a lot of benefits such as alternative employment opportunities, improved profits for small businesses, waste minimization, cleaner environment and improved communal health. It will also lead to improvement in energy supply, and alleviation of poverty. However, care has to be taken to protect the bio-digestion facility’s neighbourhood from unpleasant odour, rodents and other organisms that may attempt to feed on the rotting agri-waste. The outcome of this study provides an insight to the necessity for the development of appropriate bioenergy policy/regulation and for the need to take preemptive steps to eliminate/minimize potential negative consequences of bioenergy production on the stakeholders.

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xxx O. Zinina, S. Merenkova, D. Tazeddinova, M. Rebezov, M. Stuart, E. Okuskhanova, Zh. Yessimbekov and N. Baryshnikova
Enrichment of meat products with dietary fibers: a review
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Enrichment of meat products with dietary fibers: a review

O. Zinina¹, S. Merenkova¹*, D. Tazeddinova¹, M. Rebezov¹, M. Stuart², E. Okuskhanova³, Zh. Yessimbekov³ and N. Baryshnikova⁴

¹South Ural State University (national research university), Lenin Avenue 76, RU 454080 Chelyabinsk, Russia
²Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, 286 Plant Rd, ON K0J 1J0 Chalk River, Canada
³Shakarim State University of Semey, Glinka street 20a, KZ071400 Semey, Kazakhstan
⁴Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University, Lenin Avenue 38, RU455000 Magnitogorsk, Russia
*Correspondence: merenkovasp@susu.ru

Abstract:

In recent years, much attention has been paid to the development of food products with properties that can promote well-being and prevent disease. Tested strategies to improve the functional value of meat products through the introduction of dietary fiber are reviewed here. Based on the literature reviewed, the addition of dietary fiber in meat products contributes to the fabrication of products which enhance physiological functions. Furthermore, fibers can be used to improve the quality and yield of meat products.

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xxx M. Toom, L. Talgre, P. Pechter, L. Narits, S. Tamm and E. Lauringson
The effect of sowing date on cover crop biomass and nitrogen accumulation
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The effect of sowing date on cover crop biomass and nitrogen accumulation

M. Toom¹²*, L. Talgre², P. Pechter¹, L. Narits¹, S. Tamm¹ and E. Lauringson²

¹Estonian Crop Research Institute, J. Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva, Estonia
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: merili.toom@etki.ee

Abstract:

Cover crops are important tools for reducing nitrogen (N) leaching from the soil and improving the nutrition of cash crops. In northern regions with short autumns it is important to maximise the growing season of cover crops to achieve sufficient biomass and N accumulation. The objective of the study was to evaluate the biomass and N accumulation of cover crops at different sowing dates in August.
Field experiment at Estonian Crop Research Institute was conducted in 2017 and 2018 with white mustard (Sinapis alba L.), phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.), field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Cover crops were sown on August 3, 8, 14 and 18 in 2017 and August 3, 8, 13, 17 and 23 in 2018.
The two year experiment showed that biomass and N accumulation of cover crops were reduced with delayed sowings, but the reduction mainly depended on cover crop species.
White mustard, field pea and faba bean accumulated significantly higher amount of biomass and N than phacelia, buckwheat and berseem clover at all sowing dates in both years. Because of a rapid decrease in biomass, the optimum sowing time for phacelia and buckwheat should not be later than middle of August. In both year berseem clover produced the modest amount of biomass and therefore more suited as spring sown cover crop in Estonian conditions.

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xxx M. Bappah, J. Bradna, J. Velebil and J. Malatak
The potential of energy recovery from by–products of small agricultural farms in Nigeria
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The potential of energy recovery from by–products of small agricultural farms in Nigeria

M. Bappah*, J. Bradna, J. Velebil and J. Malatak

Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamycka 129, CZ16521 Praha 6–Suchdol, Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: bappahmusa@gmail.com

Abstract:

Agricultural by–products are renewable energy sources from which essential amount of energy can be recovered, which can be used to replace the use of conventional fossil fuel, reduces the potential of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and at the same time reduces deforestation, especially in rural areas. Energy values of biomass from small Agricultural farms, in particular waste generated from different tropical crops, viz; Maize, Millet, Rice, Sorghum and Groundnut were determined, to ascertain their potentials as alternative fuel sources for rural use. The materials were found to be of importance judging by their combustion potentials in all the forms investigated. The Energy values of the by-products considered ranged between 11.68 MJ kg-1 to 17.48 MJ kg-1 with Groundnut pods and millet husk having the highest and least respectively. Moisture and ash had effect on the energy values of these biomass. Our results are relevant to the problems posed by the management of farm residues in developing countries.

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xxx A. Nemeikšis and V. Osadčuks
Development of intelligent system of mobile robot movement planning in unknown dynamic environment by means of multi-agent system
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Development of intelligent system of mobile robot movement planning in unknown dynamic environment by means of multi-agent system

A. Nemeikšis and V. Osadčuks*

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Engineering, 5 J. Cakstes blvd., Jelgava LV-3001, Latvia
*Correspondence: nemeiksis.andrius@llu.lv, vitalijs.osadcuks@llu.lv

Abstract:

Through the ages the world has conceived the projects which are aimed at creating diverse models of robots that would be beneficial for exploration of different dangerous surfaces where human participation is excluded. Therefore, the main task of the study of this article is to develop the researches, the object of which is mobile robot movement in unfamiliar environment, based on multi agent apparatus system and neural networks. The aim of the research is to develop methods for creating intellectual systems for planning mobile robot movement in unfamiliar environment applying the methods of multi agent apparatus and neural networks ensuring the robot executes the planned and adjusted on the way safe trajectory in an environment with unknown obstacles. Accordingly, the entire study of the article is based on a two-stage process. The first stage involves determination of distance between the robot and the obstacles in its operating area as well as classification of the possible location of obstacles, based on the information received from distance sensors, using the model of multilayer neural networks. During the second stage bypassing obstacles, wall tracking, movement-to-destination as well as speed management agents are developed. As the result of the study, a method was suggested for creating neural network model for classification of environment into agents and their consistent switching, which, according to the classification table compiled, involves all the possible locations of obstacles occurring on the robot’s movement trajectory and allows reducing the number of unfamiliar environment situations that are necessary to identify.

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xxx M. Hruška
Assessment of luggage compartment parameters based on the preferences of a heterogeneous driver group
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Assessment of luggage compartment parameters based on the preferences of a heterogeneous driver group

M. Hruška

Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Building, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Praha 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: jabko@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This work deals with the assessment of driver preferences in the area of passenger car luggage compartments. The data collected is compared to that of real vehicles from the full range of passenger cars available on the European market. The data used for the research described in this work was obtained using a questionnaire survey on a large heterogeneous group of drivers in the Czech Republic. All of the research participants had three categories of vehicles available during testing – for better imagination and the possibility of personal comparison of parameters. The collected data was subsequently subjected to statistical evaluation, where mainly statistically significant dependencies in the preferences of individual drivers were sought out given their personal and anthropometric parameters. On the basis of the statistical evaluation of the obtained data, a difference was found in the preferences of the types and dimensions of the individual luggage compartments for the individual respondents depending on the selected parameters. The results of this work can be used in the process of designing luggage compartments of passenger cars, in particular with regard to the specific needs of drivers. The results of the work could thus contribute to improving the safety in handling cargo in the luggage compartments of vehicles and to improving health protection.

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xxx M. Hruška, P. Vaculík, M. Kůrka, T. Hajlich and P. Benda
Holding the wheel in passenger cars in countries with driving on the right and left side depending on the driver’s side preference
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Holding the wheel in passenger cars in countries with driving on the right and left side depending on the driver’s side preference

M. Hruška*, P. Vaculík, M. Kůrka, T. Hajlich and P. Benda

Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Building, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Praha 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: jabko@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This paper deals with the assessment of the differences in how passenger car drivers hold a steering wheel with left and right-side steering in specific driving modes. The findings are compared to the generally-accepted optimal position in terms of active and passive safety, as well as long-term effects on the health of the driver. The research described in this work was conducted on a sample of randomly selected drivers in the Czech Republic, the UK and Australia using electronic questionnaires. The data was then subjected to a statistical evaluation, which looked primarily at the difference between the way in which the steering wheel was held in countries with driving on the right and driving on the left. Another parameter for statistical data evaluation was the used side preference of individual drivers. On the basis of a statistical evaluation of the obtained data, it was found that there is a difference in the way the steering wheel is held in the assessed traffic situations between drivers driving on the right and drivers driving on the left. The results of this work can be used in the design process of passenger car cabins, in particular in the field of adaptation of the control devices of particular models to the needs of drivers in individual countries based on the type of traffic. The results of the work point out the necessity to make innovations in the design of passenger car cabins with regard to the type of traffic in which the vehicle will be operated, which could lead to a better application of innovations, and thereby better possibilities of positively influencing traffic safety and the health of drivers.

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xxx A. Enn and E. Merisalu
Dynamics of work accidents incidence by severity, gender and lost workdays in Estonian agricultural sector and sub-sectors in 2008–2017
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Dynamics of work accidents incidence by severity, gender and lost workdays in Estonian agricultural sector and sub-sectors in 2008–2017

A. Enn* and E. Merisalu

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: anni.enn@student.emu.ee

Abstract:

The risk of dying in a work-related accident is greatest for those employed in agricultural sector. The aim of this study is to analyse the dynamics of work accidents (WA) incidence by severity, gender and lost workdays in Estonian agriculture in 2008–2017. Method: The database of accidents in agriculture (2008–2017) was obtained from the Estonian Labour Inspectorate (ELI). Work accidents statistics is based on official reports of employers. Results: In total 1,683 non-fatal work accidents (NFA) was registered in the past decade, from which 1,235 (79.3%) were minor and 448 (20.7%) severe. In total 13 fatal work accidents (FA) have occurred, which accounts 0.8% of all the WAs (n = 1,696). Although the trends of minor and severe WA cases showed steady increase, the number of FA has remained low. A major part WAs (74%) was registered in farming and horticulture, with prevalence of minor accidents. A severe WA is likely to occur in forestry or very likely in fishery. The proportion of injured male and female was 51.8% and 48.2%, accordingly. In the farming and horticulture sector there were more accidents among women – of all the minor accidents (n = 1,235) 52.1% occurred to women. Of all the severe WAs (n = 448) 61.2% and all the fatal work accidents happened to male workers. About 2/3 of severe WAs caused sick leave 31–90 days and more. Conclusion: The number of WAs in Estonian agricultural sector show steady increase in the past decade. A major part of accidents is minor and mostly occurred in farming and horticulture, and more often with females. Severe and FAs more often occurred in forestry and fishery. Mostly the severe WAs cause long sick leave – a month or more. When to increase work accidents severity level by one step (from minor to severe), the sick leave is increasing significantly.

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xxx A. Kubule, Z. Indzere and I. Muizniece
Modelling of the bioeconomy system using interpretive structural modelling
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Modelling of the bioeconomy system using interpretive structural modelling

A. Kubule*, Z. Indzere and I. Muizniece

Riga Technical University, Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Azenes iela 12/1, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: anna.kubule@rtu.lv

Abstract:

Due to European and global resource efficiency efforts, the bioeconomy research and the search for new bioresource valorisation alternatives has become topical. Bioeconomy directly concerns such major sectors of the economy as agriculture, forestry, fishery, as well as other indirect bioeconomy sectors. However, the practical implementation of bioeconomy has had quite low implementation rate, which is partly caused by the multitude and variety of factors that affect the bioeconomy system. This paper evaluates seven bioeconomy affecting factors (particularly related to biotechonomy concept) and links between them in order to promote successful implementation of bioeconomy. To evaluate these factors interpretive structural modelling method (ISM) is used. The application of ISM method allows to not only identify the factor interaction links, but also to graphically represent their directed structure. The results show that three out of seven factors have the strongest interrelation, namely, climate change, bioresources and technologies. This research can be complimented by further adding other factors that could be influencing for bioeconomy development, for example, financial resources, human health, well-being, and so on; therefore, to reach better understanding about influential factors and bioeconomy dependency on them; also, system dynamics approach could be used in order to fully uncover the factor interaction links.

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xxx J.I. Orisaleye, S.O. Jekayinfa, R. Pecenka and T.B. Onifade
Effect of densification variables on water resistance of corn cob briquettes
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Effect of densification variables on water resistance of corn cob briquettes

J.I. Orisaleye¹, S.O. Jekayinfa², R. Pecenka³* and T.B. Onifade²

¹University of Lagos, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, PMB 56, Akoka, Nigeria
²Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Department of Agricultural Engineering, PMB 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
³Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy, ATB, Department of Post-Harvest Technology, Max-Eyth-Allee 100, DE14469 Potsdam, Germany
*Correspondence: rpecenka@atb-potsdam.de

Abstract:

Solid biofuels can be used in heat and power generation applications. The utilization of agricultural residues for this purpose would be of immense benefit to rural communities of developing countries where the resource is being produced. Water resistance is a crucial property for transport and storage of biomass briquettes under moist climate conditions. In this study, the effect of process and material variables on the water resistance property of corn cob briquettes was investigated. The water resistance of briquettes produced ranged between 32.6 and 94.8% for die temperature between 90 °C and 120 °C, hold time from 7.5 to 15 minutes and die pressures between 9 and 15 MPa. A higher die temperature resulted in an increase in the water resistance of the biomass briquettes. Also, increasing the hold time improved the water resistance of the briquettes. Using a particle size less than 2.5 mm resulted in higher briquette water resistance property compared to briquettes produced from particle sizes greater than 2.5 mm. It was also shown that the effect of the interaction of the temperature with particle size on the water resistance of corn cob briquettes was statistically significant (p < 0.05).

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xxx V. Dubrovskis, I. Plume and I. Straume
Use of ethanol production and stillage processing residues for biogas production
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Use of ethanol production and stillage processing residues for biogas production

V. Dubrovskis*, I. Plume and I. Straume

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Liela street 2, LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: vilisd@inbox.lv

Abstract:

In Latvia, ethanol is produced mainly from wheat grains. The production process involves the formation of the by-products of wheat bran, grains residues and stillage. By-products from production of alcohol distilling dregs (stillage) contain much organic matter therefore could be useful for the production of the biogas The product with high protein content usable for feed can be produced from the stillage too. A liquid residue is formed during the production process. Purpose of study is the assessment of the methane volume obtainable from the stillage processing residue mixed with wheat brans and grains residues in anaerobic fermentation process and from wheat brans and grains residues mixed only with inoculum. Investigation was provided in 16 bioreactors operated in batch mode at 38 °C. Stillage processing residues mixed with the wheat brans and inoculum were filled into 4 bioreactors, mixed with grains residues were filled into 4 bioreactors and only inoculum was filled into two bioreactors for control. Wheat brans with inoculum were filled into 3 bioreactors. Into others 3 bioreactors were filled grains residues with inoculum. The yield of biogas from wheat brans was 1.151 L g-1DOM and methane 0.593 L g-1DOM after 30 days of anaerobic digestion. The yield of biogas from wheat brans with stillage processing residue was 1.098 L g-1DOM and methane 0.600 L g-1DOM. The yield of biogas from grains residues was 0.915 L g-1DOM and methane 0.451 L g-1DOM. The yield of biogas from grains residues with stillage processing residue was 1.01 L g-1DOM and methane 0.523 L g-1DOM. The study demonstrates that the investigated products are very good raw material for the production of methane. Stillage processing residue acted as a catalyst for the process.

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xxx L.M.D. Santos, G.A.S. Ferraz, M.T. Andrade, L.S. Santana, B.D.S. Barbosa, D.T. Maciel and Giuseppe Rossi
Analysis of flight parameters and georeferencing of images with different control points obtained by RPA
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Analysis of flight parameters and georeferencing of images with different control points obtained by RPA

L.M.D. Santos¹*, G.A.S. Ferraz¹, M.T. Andrade¹, L.S. Santana¹, B.D.S. Barbosa¹, D.T. Maciel² and Giuseppe Rossi³

¹Federal University of Lavras, Department of Agricultural Engineering, University Campus, BR37.200-000 Lavras-MG, Brazil
²Federal University of Lavras, Department of Engineering, University Campus, BR37.200-000 Lavras, Brazil
³University of Florence, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry (DAGRI), Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Florence, Italy
*Correspondence: luanna_mendess@yahoo.com.br

Abstract:

New techniques for analysing the earth’s surface have been explored, such as the use of remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) to obtain aerial images. However, one of the obstacles of photogrammetry is the reliability of the scenes, because in some cases, considerable geometric errors are generated, thus necessitating adjustments. Some parameters used in these adjustments are image overlaps and control points, which generate uncertainties about the amount and arrangement of these points in an area. The aim of this study was to test the potential of a commercial RPA for monitoring and its applicability in the management of and decision-making about coffee crops with two different overlaps and to evaluate geometric errors by applying four grids of georeferenced points. The study area is located in an experimental Arabica coffee plantation measuring 0.65 ha. To capture the images, the flight altitude was standardized to a 30 m altitude from the ground, and a constant travel speed of 3 m s-1 was used. The treatments studied were two combinations of image overlap, namely, 80/80% and 70/60%. Six points were tracked through Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers and identified with signs, followed by an RPA flight for image collection. The obtained results indicated distinct residual error rates pointing to larger errors along Cartesian axis Y, demonstrating that the point distribution directly affects the residual errors. The use of control points is necessary for image adjustments, but to optimize their application, it is necessary to consider the shape of the area to be studied and to distribute the points in a non-biased way relative to the coordinate axes. It is concluded that the lower overlap can be recommended for use in the flight plan due to the high resolution of the orthomosaic and the shorter processing time.

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xxx L. Tyšer, M. Kolářová and T.T. Hoová
Occurrence of archaeophytes in agrophytocoenoses – field survey in the Czech Republic
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Occurrence of archaeophytes in agrophytocoenoses – field survey in the Czech Republic

L. Tyšer, M. Kolářová* and T.T. Hoová

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Agroecology and Crop Production, Kamýcká 129, CZ-165 00 Prague-Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: mkolarova@af.czu.cz

Abstract:

Archaeophytes are alien plants introduced to the Czech Republic before the year 1500. Their occurrence is strongly connected with agricultural production. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of archaeophytes in arable fields in the Czech Republic in terms of applied management systems (conventional and organic farming), crops (winter cereals, spring cereals, wide-row crops) and environmental site conditions at different altitudes. In 2006–2018, a phytocoenological survey was conducted in selected farms across the Czech Republic. Totally, 180 weed species were found, of which 48.89% were considered as archaeophytes (88 species). In view of the invasive status, 5 archaeophytes were considered as invasive, the other 83 species were regarded as naturalized. The net effects of all variables studied on the occurrence of archaeophytes were statistically significant. The majority of the variation was explained by altitude, followed by crop and type of farming. Incidence of archaeophytes increases with an increasing altitude and is also related to their affinity with environmental factors. The highest occurrence of archaeophytes was found in cereals, some species, however, occur more frequently in wide row crops. The higher occurrence of archaeophytes was observed in organically managed fields.

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xxx A. Kabutey, D. Herak, C. Mizera and P. Hrabe
Theoretical analysis of force, pressure and energy distributions of bulk oil palm kernels along the screwline of a mechanical screw press FL 200
Abstract |
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Theoretical analysis of force, pressure and energy distributions of bulk oil palm kernels along the screwline of a mechanical screw press FL 200

A. Kabutey¹*, D. Herak¹, C. Mizera¹ and P. Hrabe²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Kamycka 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Department of Material Sciences and Manufacturing Technology, Kamycka 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: kabutey@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The present study is a follow-up of the previously published study on the mathematical description of loading curves and deformation energy of bulk oil palm kernels under compression loading, aimed at determining theoretically the amounts of force, pressure and energy along the screw lamella positions 𝑆𝐿𝑝 of the screw press FL 200 by applying the tangent curve mathematical model and the screwline geometry parameters (screw shaft diameter, screw inner and outer diameters, screw pitch diameter and the screw thickness). The fitting curve value 𝐹𝑣 of the tangent mathematical model was further examined at 𝐹𝑣 = 2 and 𝐹𝑣 = 3 by identifying the force, deformation, stress and compression coefficients at varying vessel diameters 𝐷𝑣 and initial pressing heights 𝐻𝑡 of the bulk oil palm kernels. Based on the results of the stepwise regression analysis, the amounts of the theoretical deformation energy 𝑇𝐷𝐸 in linear pressing as well as the theoretical force 𝐹𝑟, pressure 𝑃𝑟 and energy 𝑆𝐿𝐸 of the screw press FL 200 were statistically significant (P-value < 0.05) or (F-value > significance F) in relation to the predictors (𝐻𝑡, 𝐷𝑣, 𝐹𝑣 and 𝑆𝐿𝑝). The coefficient of determination (R2) values between 61 and 86 % were observed for the determined regression models indicating that the responses 𝑇𝐷𝐸, 𝐹𝑟, 𝑃𝑟 and 𝑆𝐿𝐸 can accurately be predicted by the corresponding predictors. The normal probability plots of the responses approximately showed a normal distribution.

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xxx D. Urbancl, J. Krope and D. Goričanec
Torrefaction – the process for biofuels production by using different biomasses
Abstract |
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Torrefaction – the process for biofuels production by using different biomasses

D. Urbancl*, J. Krope and D. Goričanec

University of Maribor, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Smetanova street 17, SI2000 Maribor, Slovenia
*Correspondence: danijela.urbancl@um.si

Abstract:

Torrefaction process is a mild pyrolysis, where biomass material is converted into solid fuel with higher heating value. The results of torrefaction at different temperatures in a range from 220 to 400 °C for three varied materials, oak wood, mixed wood and dehydrated, granulated sewage sludge are presented. The torrefaction process started with warm up stage, which took place for 30 minutes, after that sample was torrefied for 2 hours at constant temperature. The process continued with cool down stage. The energy demands were covered by electric power, while the flue gasses were not integrated in the process. The influence of the operating temperatures are analysed in order to determine optimal operation parameters to get the torrefied biomass with highest calorific value. Furthermore, the optimal operation time according to the largest increase in calorific value for each material is evaluated. The results of calorific value, mass drop and chemical compositions such as elemental analyses are also presented. Results show that heating values increase with raising temperature for both wood samples. The heating values for sewage sludge increases to approximately 320 °C, after that temperature are unchangeable. Torrefied oak wood samples were more fragile at higher temperatures in comparison to raw or torrefied oak wood samples at lower temperatures. At torrefied sewage sludge samples the changes in fragility are not detected due to pre-prepared granulates of sludge.

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xxx O. Zinina, S. Merenkova, M. Rebezov, D. Tazeddinova, Z. Yessimbekov and V. Vietoris
Optimization of cattle by-products amino acid composition formula
Abstract |
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Optimization of cattle by-products amino acid composition formula

O. Zinina¹*, S. Merenkova¹, M. Rebezov², D. Tazeddinova¹, Z. Yessimbekov³ and V. Vietoris⁴

¹South Ural State University (National Research University), Lenin Avenue 76, RU454080 Chelyabinsk, Russia
²Ural State Agrarian University, Karl Liebknecht 42, RU620075 Ekaterinburg, Russia
³Shakarim State University of Semey, Glinki street 20a, KZ071400 Semey, Kazakhstan
⁴Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Hlinku 2, SK94901 Nitra, Slovakia
*Correspondence: zininaov@susu.ru

Abstract:

The aim of this research was to develop optimal formulations of by-product mixtures in terms of biological value using MS Excel Solver standard software application. The objects of study were underutilized cattle by-products as tripe, ears, lips, lungs, and heart. Physical and chemical studies were carried out to compile a database of the by-products used. As a result, the protein content was 14.3% in tripe, 24.6% in lips, 24.9% in ears, 15.2% in lungs, and 16.8% in heart (P < 0.05). The content of essential amino acids in various by-products, determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, did not have significant differences compared with the results obtained by other researchers. While conducting optimization of the by-product formulation, focused on the physiologically-based content of the essential amino acids in the ‛ideal’ protein according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). Essential amino acids index (EAAI) was chosen as the goal function. In the process of optimization, indicators such as chemical score, EAAI, biological value, and coefficient of amino acid score differences (CAASD) were calculated. Several variants of the formulations with high biological value were obtained as a result of the optimization. According to the results of the research it was found that more balanced ratio of the essential amino acids was in the following formulations: 1 – tripe (4.9%), ears (28.4%) and heart (66.7%) or 2 – ears (25.4%), lips (8.9%) and heart (65.7%). According to the results, the highest in vitro protein digestibility was in compositions number 1 and 2 (78.2% and 76.8%), which correlated with the calculated biological value. Thus, the use of computer modeling allowed obtaining the formulations of the by-products composition with the highest possible biological value by varying the content of the various by-products.

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xxx S. Palisoc, J. Leoncini and M. Natividad
Trace level determination of cadmium and lead in coffee (Coffea) using gold nanoparticles modified graphene paste electrode
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Trace level determination of cadmium and lead in coffee (Coffea) using gold nanoparticles modified graphene paste electrode

S. Palisoc¹², J. Leoncini¹ and M. Natividad¹²*

¹De La Salle University, Condensed Matter Research Laboratory, Physics Department, 2401 Taft Avenue, PH922 Manila, Philippines
²De La Salle University, Condensed Matter Research Unit, CENSER, 2401 Taft Avenue, PH922 Manila, Philippines
*Correspondence: michelle.natividad@dlsu.edu.ph

Abstract:

Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) modified graphene paste electrodes (GPE) were fabricated using graphene powder, gold nanoparticles, and mineral oil. The fabricated electrodes were used as working electrode in anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) for the determination of trace concentrations of cadmium (Cd2+) and lead (Pb2+). The modified GPE was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Optimization of the electrode’s AuNP content and the ASV parameters was performed. It was determined that the GPE modified with 0.5 mg AuNP obtained the highest anodic current peaks for both Cd2+ and Pb2+. The calibration curves obtained using the said electrode showed a linear relationship between heavy metal concentration and peak current and the detection limits were found to be 256 ppb for lead and 267 ppb cadmium. The modified electrode was successful in determining traces of Cd2+ and Pb2+ in coffee samples. The presence of the heavy metals in the samples were verified using atomic absorption spectroscopy.

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xxx A. Roumani, A. Biabani, A.R. Karizaki, E.G. Alamdari and A. Gholizadeh
Effects of salicylic acid and spermine foliar application on some morphological and physiological characteristics of isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk) under water stress
Abstract |
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Effects of salicylic acid and spermine foliar application on some morphological and physiological characteristics of isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk) under water stress

A. Roumani*, A. Biabani*, A.R. Karizaki, E.G. Alamdari and A. Gholizadeh

University of Gonbad Kavous, Faculty of Agricultural and Natural Resources, Department of Crop Production, Crop Physiology, IR4971799151 Golestan, Iran
*Correspondence: azamroumani2012@gmail.com; abs346@yahoo.com

Abstract:

Yield as well as concentration of relevant component in many medical plants are influenced by growing condition water stress. Field experiment was done based on a randomized complete block design with 18 treatments and three replications, at Gonbad Kavous University, Golestan, Iran in winter 2016. Irrigation treatment with three levels (normal irrigation, water stress imposed at flowering stage or at seed filling stage) was placed in main plot. Salicylic acid (SA) with three levels (control, 0.4 and 0.8 mM) and spermine (Spm) with two levels (control and 0.02 mM) were assigned in sub-plots. Result showed the foliar application SA and Spm treatments under normal irrigation and cutoff irrigation at seed filling stage have significantly affected relative water content, electrolyte leakage and membrane stability index, but under cutoff irrigation at flowering stage did not significantly affected measured traits. Exogenous applications of SA and Spm applied increased the plant height, 1,000 grain weight and biological yield in compared to the non-use product at normal irrigation regime. Foliar spraying SA and Spm under cutoff irrigation at flowering stage did not significantly affected measured traits. Application product especially SA0.8 mM and Spm0.02 mM under cutoff irrigation at seed filling stage increased the most characteristics in compared to control. Foliar application of phenolic compounds such as salicylic acid and polyamines like spermine can be considered as an effective measure to reduce the adverse effects of water stress and ultimately increase the yield and yield components of isabgol.

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xxx J. Rosend, R. Kuldjärv, G. Arju and I. Nisamedtinov
Yeast performance characterisation in different cider fermentation matrices
Abstract |
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Yeast performance characterisation in different cider fermentation matrices

J. Rosend¹³*, R. Kuldjärv¹³, G. Arju²³ and I. Nisamedtinov¹⁴

¹Tallinn University of Technology, School of Science, Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Division of Food Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, EE12616 Tallinn, Estonia
²Tallinn University of Technology, School of Science, Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Division of Chemistry, Ehitajate tee 5, EE12616 Tallinn, Estonia
³Center of Food and Fermentation Technologies, Akadeemia tee 15A, EE12618 Tallinn, Estonia
⁴Lallemand Inc., 1620 Rue Préfontaine, Montréal, QC H1W 2N8 Canada
*Correspondence: julia@tftak.eu

Abstract:

Nitrogen content management before fermentation is often used in cider production to avoid sluggish fermentations. In addition to enhanced fermentation rates, the proper nitrogen content in the apple must may have an impact on the flavour characteristics of cider. This research aimed to assess yeast performance in two different commercially available musts with similar non-limiting yeast available nitrogen (YAN) content. In addition to fermentation kinetics, volatile ester production by yeast, and sensory properties of the final product were evaluated. The results showed that the fermentation rate and consumption of sugar and nitrogen sources by yeast did not vary between the two different musts. Yeasts consumed more malic acid in the environment of higher initial malic acid content. The content of volatile esters and sensory properties of the final products varied significantly. The occurrence of intense sulfur off-flavour was noted in one of the products.

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xxx V. Dubrovskis, I. Plume and I. Straume
The production of methane from the straw pellets with addition of enzymes
Abstract |
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The production of methane from the straw pellets with addition of enzymes

V. Dubrovskis*, I. Plume and I. Straume

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Engineering, Institute of Energetics, Cakstes blvd. 5, LV3001, Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: vilisd@inbox.lv

Abstract:

Biogas production requires much cheaper raw materials. The use of straw, as not always the full use of agricultural residues, increases the methane yield in pelletised form compared to non-pelletised straw. Lack is the high ratio of carbon to nitrogen content of straw, which leads to a slow and incomplete breakdown of the matter, and less producing substances from which bacteria produce methane.Variety of additives can be used to improve anaerobic digestion process. This article shows the results of the study, where the enzymes alpha amylase and xylanase and catalysts Metaferm and Melafen mixture are used for the digestion process echancement. Investigation was provided in 16 bioreactors operated in batch mode at 38 °C. Additives were filled into 14 bioreactors and only inoculum were filled into two bioreactors for control. The yield of biogas from straw pellets without additives was 0.655 L g-1DOM and methane 0.301 L g-1DOM after 34 days of anaerobic digestion. The yield of biogas from straw pellets with added alpha amylase was 0.652 L g-1DOM and methane 0.318 L g-1DOM. The yield of biogas from straw pellets with added xylanase was 0.689 L g-1DOM and methane 0.347 L g-1DOM. The yield of biogas from straw pellets with added Metaferm and Melafen mixture was 0.638 L g-1DOM and methane 0.254 L g-1DOM. The study demonstrates that the adding of enzymes increases the production of methane.

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xxx A. Vagová, M. Hromasová, M. Linda and P. Vaculík
Determining external friction angle of barley malt and malt crush
Abstract |
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Determining external friction angle of barley malt and malt crush

A. Vagová¹, M. Hromasová²*, M. Linda² and P. Vaculík¹

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6-Suchdol, Czech Republic
²University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6-Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: hromasova@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This paper deals with determining the amount of external friction angle of barley malt and malt crush depending on the load size. Barley malt is a basic raw material for production of the traditional Czech Pilsner type of beer. The angle of internal and external friction is one of the basic parameters of bulk materials. Friction among individual grains of material, i.e. a connection with the forces, applied between individual material particles, includes the internal friction angle. Conversely, the external friction angle is the angle in which the bulk material begins to move on the other material (steel). A two-roll mill (or disc mill and hammer mill) was used for the malt crush manufacture, which is used in the traditional malt processing in beer production. During crushing on this machine, we used the passage of the milled material through a gap between two counter-rotating cylinders. The results of barley malt and malt crush external friction angle, depending on the load size of the barley malt and the malt crush on mobile prototype device, are from 8 to 22°. The mobile prototype device is based on the following principle: a square chamber filled with a loaded material moves on the pad (steel).

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xxx G. Bekele, N. Dechassa, T. Tana and J.J. Sharma
Effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and vermicompost fertilizers on productivity of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in Babile, Eastern Ethiopia
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Effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and vermicompost fertilizers on productivity of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in Babile, Eastern Ethiopia

G. Bekele¹*, N. Dechassa², T. Tana² and J.J. Sharma²

¹Depatment of Plant Sciences Bedele College of Agriculture and Forestry, Mettu University, P.O.Box 138, Ethiopia
²School of Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Haramaya University, P.O.Box 138, Ethiopia
*Corresponding author: getme.bekele@gmail.com

Abstract:

Though groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a main cash crop for smallholder farmers in several districts of eastern Ethiopia, its yield is very low. Farmers apply little or no fertilizers to grow the crop possibly because no generic or recommended fertilizers rates available for farmers. Therefore field experiments were conducted for two consecutive cropping seasons in Babile district, to prove the hypothesis that one of the major factors that severely reduce the yield of the crop was lack of nutrients in the soil with the objective of investigating the effects of applying mineral NP fertilizers and vermicompost on the productivity of improved groundnut variety ‘BaHa-Gudo’. The experiment was 3 × 3 × 3 factorial with three replications laid down in a randomized complete block design comprising nitrogen (0, 23 and 46 kg N ha-1), phosphorus (0, 46 and 92 kg P2O5 ha-1) and vermicompost (0, 2.5 and 5 t vermicompost ha-1). The data on crop growth, nodulation and yield were collected and subjected to analysis of SAS 9.2 software. Means separation were made using Duncans Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5% level of significance. The results revealed that growth, yield attributes, and yields were significantly (P < 0.01) affected by the main and interactions effect of the treatments. The pod yield obtained from combined application of 46: 46 kg N: P2O5 ha-1 and 2.5 t vermicompost ha-1 exceeded the pod yield produced from nil application of fertilizers by about 100%. The economic analysis also indicated that the highest marginal rate of return (671%) and net benefit ($ 1,830) ha-1 were obtained from combined application of 46: 46 kg N: P2O5 ha-1 and 2.5 t vermicompost ha-1. From the results it could be concluded that applying the aforementioned doses of fertilizers combination would enable farmers increase productivity of groundnut so as to enhance farmers’ income and livelihoods.

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xxx L. Hlisnikovský, P. Čermák, E. Kunzová and P. Barłóg
The effect of application of potassium, magnesium and sulphur on wheat and barley grain yield and protein content
Abstract |
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The effect of application of potassium, magnesium and sulphur on wheat and barley grain yield and protein content

L. Hlisnikovský¹*, P. Čermák¹, E. Kunzová¹ and P. Barłóg²

¹Department of nutrition management, Crop Research Institute, Drnovská 507, CZ16101 Prague 6, Ruzyně, Czech Republic
²Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Environmental Biogeochemistry, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 71F, PL60-625 Poznan, Poland
*Correspondence: l.hlisnik@vurv.cz

Abstract:

The objective of our experiment was to study the effect of mineral fertilizers, rich mainly in the K, Mg and S content, and compare their effect on grain yield and protein content of winter wheat and winter barley with fertilizer treatments without these elements. The analyzed fertilizer treatments were 1) Control, 2) mineral nitrogen treatment (N), 3) mineral nitrogen with phosphorus (NP), 4) NP with potassium, magnesium, and sulphur (NP+KMgS), and 5) NP with magnesium, sulphur and minor part of manganese (4%) and zinc (1%) (NP+MgSMnZn). The experiment was established in Lukavec experimental station (the Czech Republic) in 2013 and lasted until 2017. The crop rotation consisted of four arable crops: winter wheat, winter barley, rapeseed, and potatoes, but only winter wheat and winter barley are analyzed in this paper (grain yields and crude protein content).
In comparison with the Control, the application of mineral fertilizers significantly increased grain yield and protein content of both kinds of cereal. Comparing mineral fertilizers, no significant differences were recorded between N, NP, NP+KMgS and NP+MgSMnZn treatments, showing that nitrogen was the most limiting factor affecting yield and protein content, and initial concentrations of K and Mg were suitable and capable to cover cereal’s demands. However, application of fertilizers has increased the K and Mg soil content and thus prevents the soil from the element’s deficiency, which does not has to be recognized in the early stages by visual observation of arable plants. The effect of the year was also significant as two out of four seasons were characterized by high temperatures and drought.

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xxx L. Zihare, I. Muizniece and D. Blumberga
A holistic vision of bioeconomy: the concept of transdisciplinarity nexus towards sustainable development
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A holistic vision of bioeconomy: the concept of transdisciplinarity nexus towards sustainable development

L. Zihare*, I. Muizniece and D. Blumberga

Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Riga Technical University, Āzenes iela 12/1, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: lauma.zihare@rtu.lv

Abstract:

Current issue of bioeconomy development has been largely addressed on a linear or interdisciplinary level, however holistic view of bioeconomy requires a transdisciplinary system analysis. Developed methodology clarifies vision on bioeconomy definition, bioeconomy disciplines and disciplinary definition in context of nexus interlinkage, in the result concept of transdisciplinary approach connection to bioeconomy is determined as processes for sustainable bioeconomy, that not only replace fossil resources with biobased resources, but strengthens different disciplines, taken into account interlinkages, knowledge, and stakeholders and limitations set by planetary boundaries, different dimensions should be included in transition towards sustainable bioeconomy. Methodology bases on critical literature analysis. Different bioeconomy disciplines are defined and the obtained results are represented graphically. The obtained results can be used for further research as a transdisciplinarity basis of the bioeconomy, studying specific systems, factors influencing them and evaluating potential scenarios and their impacting tools. Results from implementing holistic vision would provide practical benefit to policy makers and industry actors by providing an analysis how to improve industrial practice, policy and how more effectively transfer to sustainable bioeconomy.

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xxx V. Gasiev, N. Khokhoeva and D. Mamiev
Biological features of formation of perennial binary grass crops
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Biological features of formation of perennial binary grass crops

V. Gasiev*, N. Khokhoeva and D. Mamiev

Vladikavkaz scientific center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 22 Markus street, RU362027 Vladikavkaz, Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Russia
*Correspondence: gasiev77@mail.ru

Abstract:

The paper deals with the impact of binary mixtures of perennial grasses on the productivity and quality of forage crops that differ in their species composition. The studies have shown that mixed crops exceeded single-species crops in all indicators of forage crops productivity. In total over five years binary crops of Poterium polygamum exceeded single-species ones in all productivity indicators. The plants safety by the end of vegetation was also slightly lower than in single-species crops, which can be explained by greater competition for light, moisture and nutrients. So the safety of Medicago sativa L. was 81.8%, Onobrýchis – 83.6%, Galéga orientális L – 89.7%, Poterium polygamum – 74.6%, which is lower than that of legumes in single-species crops. In all years of herbage use, the binary crops exceeded single-species ones. On average, for 5 years of research, the yield of Poterium polygamum was 25.5 t ha-1, Medicago sativa L. – 22.5 t ha-1, Onobrýchis – 23.7 t ha-1. Among legumes, the maximum yield had Galéga orientális L agrocenosis – 26.1 t ha-1. Mixed crops of burnet with leguminous grasses were characterized for yielding the vegetative mass on average 28.5–30.9 t ha-1. Maximum values of binary Poterium polygamum crops characterized crops with the leguminous plant component of goat’s rue in all years of research. Mixed crops also showed maximum values of dry matter per unit area and amounted respectively 33.52–36.74 t ha-1. The same pattern continued in the yield of fodder units, digestible protein and metabolic energy, their maximum was obtained at the variant Poterium polygamum+ Galéga orientális L.

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xxx V. Bulgakov, H. Kaletnik, I. Goncharuk, S. Ivanovs and M. Usenko
Results of experimental investigations of a flexible active harrow with loosening teeth
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Results of experimental investigations of a flexible active harrow with loosening teeth

V. Bulgakov¹, H. Kaletnik², I. Goncharuk², S. Ivanovs³ and M. Usenko⁴

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Heroiv Obrony 15, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, Soniachna street 3, UA21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine
³Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
⁴Lutsk National Technical University, Lvivska street 75, UA43018 Lutsk, Volyn region, Ukraine
*Correspondence: semjons@apollo.lv

Abstract:

Soil tillage processes significantly affect the growth of cultivated plants; therefore, improvement of various designs and combinations of ploughs is still an actual practical and scientific task. This paper presents investigations of the design of a soil tillage machine consisting of three plough bodies equipped from the lateral side with a module with a flexible active harrow driven by a support wheel. The technological process of tillage by this machine is carried out in such a way that the module of the flexible active harrow is installed at a certain depth of soil tillage. The purpose of this work is an experimental comparative investigation of the quality indicators of the work of a design of the soil tillage working body with a flexible active harrow having loosening teeth. In the process of comparative experimental investigations of the operation of ploughs with a standard flexible harrow and an experimental active harrow having loosening teeth, the soil lumpiness (characterising the quality of crumbling) and water permeability of the obtained soil structure were estimated. An experimental model of this working tool was tested under the production conditions, and it showed advantages of loosening and crumpling the soil compared to the conventional harrows. This can be explained by the fact that the harrow tines, freely mounted on the axes of its links, ensure their oscillatory movements when moving in two different planes, thereby creating conditions for more intense soil disintegration.

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xxx A. Lenerts, D. Popluga and K. Naglis-Liepa
Benchmarking the GHG emissions intensities of crop and livestock–derived agricultural commodities produced in Latvia
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Benchmarking the GHG emissions intensities of crop and livestock–derived agricultural commodities produced in Latvia

A. Lenerts*, D. Popluga and K. Naglis-Liepa

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Economics and Social Development, Institute of Economics and Regional Development, Svetes street 18, LV-3001, Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: arnis.lenerts@llu.lv

Abstract:

With the production of grain and livestock–derived agricultural commodities increasing, the agricultural sector has become one of the main sources of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in Latvia. In 2016, the agricultural sector contributed to 23.6% of the total GHG emissions originated in Latvia (266.4 kt CO2eq), and therefore the mitigation of the emissions is important. Considering the new indicative target, Latvia must reduce its GHG emissions in the non-ETS sectors by 2030 (Regulation 2018/842) so that the emissions do not exceed the 2005 level. The research aims to estimate the emissions intensities (EI) of grain and livestock-derived commodities produced in Latvia and benchmark the EI against those for other countries. The GHG EI were analysed per kilogram of product (kg CO2eq kg-1) and per hectare currently in use agricultural land (kg CO2eq ha-1). The main part of the GHG emissions of crop production originated from fertilizer application (direct N2O emissions) and soil liming (direct CO2 emissions). The main part of the GHG emissions of livestock–derived production originated from livestock enteric fermentation (direct CH4 emissions) and from manure management systems (direct CH4 and N2O emissions). The EI per hectare of industrial crops and grain were 550.5 and 438.4 kg CO2eq ha-1, respectively. The yield and fertilizer application had a strong impact on the EI per kilogram of product. Pulses had a lower EI (0.003 kg CO2eq kg-1), while industrial crops (0.17 kg CO2eq kg-1) and grain (0.09 kg CO2eq kg-1) had the highest EI. A comparison of the GHG EI of crop and livestock–derived agricultural commodities per kilogram of product between Latvia and other EU Member States showed: Latvia had the lowest grain EI (0.09 kg CO2eq kg-1), but one of the highest cattle meat EI (25.18 kg CO2eq kg-1) and milk EI (0.64 kg CO2eq kg-1).

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xxx S. Stankowski, M. Bury, A. Jaroszewska, B. Michalska and M. Gibczyńska
Effect of multi-component fertilizers on seeds yield, yield components and physiological parameters of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)
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Effect of multi-component fertilizers on seeds yield, yield components and physiological parameters of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

S. Stankowski¹, M. Bury¹, A. Jaroszewska¹, B. Michalska² and M. Gibczyńska³*

¹West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Department of Agronomy, street Papieża Pawła VI 3, PL71-459 Szczecin, Poland
²West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Department of Meteorology, Botany and Green Areas Management, Papieża Pawła street VI 3, PL71-459 Szczecin, Poland
³West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Department of Chemistry, Microbiology and Environmental Biotechnology, Słowackiego street 17, PL71-434 Szczecin, Poland
*Correspondence: marzena.gibczynska@zut.edu.pl

Abstract:

Subject of the discussed studies was an analysis of the impact of mineral multi-component fertilizers, from Polish and foreign producers, on the yield and yield components of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus var. oleifera). Two field experiments were carried out in 2015–2017 in Lipnik. The experimental crop was winter oilseed rape, hybrid cultivar DK EXPLICIT. Two factors were studied in the experiment A: 4 multi-component mineral fertilizers – two Belarusian (1 i 2), one Russian and one Polish (Polifoska 6) and 4 doses of fertilization (250, 500 and 750 kg ha-1). In the experiment (B) were compared two factors: 3 multi-component mineral fertilizers – Belarusian, Russian and Polish production – Polifoska 8 and 4 doses of fertilization (200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1). The fertilizers applied in the experiments, manufactured in Belarus, Russia and Poland, did not show variations in the amount of yield of winter rape. The number of winter rapeseed plants on the area unit (in autumn and spring) was independent of the type of fertilizers. In the experiment B, higher number of rapeseed siliques was obtained after application of Polifoska 8, than other fertilizers. Rapeseed grown on soil with the fertilizers manufactured in Belarus showed a lower value of greenness index (SPAD) and leaf area index (LAI). As a result of the application of multi-component fertilizers, manufactured in Belarus, Russia and Poland, the recorded differences in the winter rapeseed yield, yield components and physiological parameters did not exceed 10%.

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xxx R. Nurzyńska-Wierdak, H. Łabuda, H. Buczkowska and A. Sałata
Pericarp of colored-seeded common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties a potential source of polyphenolic compounds
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Pericarp of colored-seeded common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties a potential source of polyphenolic compounds

R. Nurzyńska-Wierdak, H. Łabuda, H. Buczkowska* and A. Sałata

University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Department of Vegetable Crops and Medicinal Plants, Akademicka 15, PL20-950 Lublin, Poland
*Correspondence: halina.buczkowska@up.lublin.pl

Abstract:

Bioactive substances produced by plants are defined as secondary metabolites causing different pharmacological effects in human organism. Various plant raw materials, some known as vegetables or spices, are their source. Pericarp of white-seeded common bean varieties is a pharmacopoeial product traditionally used as an antidiabetic agent. The object of this study was to evaluate the biological value of pericarp of colored beans (cultivars: ‘Małopolanka’, ‘Nida’, ‘Rawela’, ‘Tip Top’, and ‘Nigeria’) compared to the reference white-seeded cultivar (‘Laponia’). Bean pericarp was characterized by a high level of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Its phenolic acid content (expressed as caffeic acid equivalents) was at a similar level, at least 0.1 mg g-1 (0.01%). The highest amount of flavonoids was accumulated by the cultivars with dark blue and black seeds, respectively 0.138 and 0.139 mg g-1 DW, as well as by the white-seeded cultivar (0.132 mg g-1 DW). The highest antioxidant activity (AA) was found for bean extracts of the cultivars ‘Laponia’ and ‘Małopolanka’, respectively 12.35 and 12.10%. Phenolic acid content was significantly positively correlated with AA of the bean extracts tested. This study indicates that pericarp of the colored-seeded bean cultivars is characterized by high biological value and can be used as a source of polyphenolic compounds.

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xxx M. Mahfudz, S. Saleh, M. Antara, A. Anshary, S. Bachri, U. Made, U. Hasanah and R.A. Rauf
Adoption and advantages of eco-friendly technology application at the Shallot farming system in Indonesia
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Adoption and advantages of eco-friendly technology application at the Shallot farming system in Indonesia

M. Mahfudz¹*, S. Saleh¹, M. Antara², A. Anshary¹, S. Bachri³, U. Made¹, U. Hasanah¹ and R.A. Rauf²

¹Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tadulako University, ID94118 Palu, Indonesia
²Department of Agribusiness, Faculty of Agriculture, Tadulako University, ID94118 Palu, Indonesia
³Department of Marketing, Faculty of Economic, Tadulako University, ID94118 Palu, Indonesia
*Correspondence: shahabsaleh@gmail.com

Abstract:

This study aimed to evaluate the benefits farmers obtained by adopting eco-friendly technologies on local shallot cultivation in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. The technology applied includes; trap crops, biofertilizers (bokashi and mycorrhiza arbuscular) biopesticides (Beauveria bassiana and Trichoderma sp.) and plastic mulch. Ninety-nine shallot farmers were selected, consisting of 35 farmers who applied the technology (adopters) and 64 farmers who did not (non adopters). Characteristics, rates of adoption, and benefits of both groups of farmers were measured and analyzed. The results showed that the level of technology adopted by the farmers was high and supported by farmer characteristics, particularly their age and education. The application of technology increases the production of shallots and the total profits of farmers by 29.5% and 79.1% respectively. In addition, adopters can reduce the costs of chemical inputs by around 69.5%. Therefore, the technology introduced provides multiple benefits for farmers; economically and environmentally.

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xxx D. Nemeikšytė and V. Osadčuks
Robotic electromechanical object control by means of variable structure system
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Robotic electromechanical object control by means of variable structure system

D. Nemeikšytė and V. Osadčuks

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Engineering, 5 J. Cakstes blvd., Jelgava LV-3001, Latvia
E-mail: nemeiksyte.daiva@llu.lv, vitalijs.osadcuks@llu.lv

Abstract:

The practical purpose of robot design is to transfer types of complex human activities that require much effort, are monotonous and harmful. The robotic systems differ from traditional automation measures in terms of their universality and the possibility to reconstruct them quickly which enables them to create flexible automation production measures on the basis of universal equipment. Therefore, the subject matter of the present article is constituted by manipulator robot control system methods (semi-continuous control method, coordinator parameter control method and adaptive control method etc.) and the aim of the present study is to cover the said manipulator robot control system methods in order to assess the problems relating to their application and to provide the potential solutions. In analysing studies by other authors and assessing the results based on them, the following results of the present article were obtained: having regard to the peculiarities of control object model, due to their universality, theoretical methods of systems with semi-continuous control are the most attractive. The approach of other studies is also improper as it is claimed that the dynamics of electric executive equipment may be neglected and control moments can be formed in the same way as breakage functions and the problem which occurred may partly be solved, by using the advantages of the system with semi-continuous control in the pre-limiting situation which occurs by approximating semi-continuous control by means of continuous functions. The fundamental gap of the majority of electromechanical object control studies is, first of all, related with the fact that the phase variables are considered measurable, so the necessity arises to note that the entire complex of measurement equipment may lead to a significantly more expensive control system; moreover, measurement equipment adds additional dynamics to the control system and makes the synthesis procedure even more complex.

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xxx P. Matějka, J. Kadeřábek and V. Shapoval
Measurement Robotic Arm (MRA) for the evaluation of localization sensors properties
Abstract |

Measurement Robotic Arm (MRA) for the evaluation of localization sensors properties

P. Matějka¹*, J. Kadeřábek² and V. Shapoval²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ16500 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16500 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: matejkapavel@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The purpose of this longitudinal project is to verify the dynamic properties of the Real Time Kinematic receivers (‘RTK’). For this purpose, a verification method using Measurement Robotic Arm (‘MRA’) described in this paper has been developed. This device can be moved along a circular trajectory in a horizontal surface. Using the methodology described in this paper, the absolute position of the MRA trolley in absolute time can be defined with absolute accuracy and can serve as a reference for the verification of RTK receivers positioning. Its movement, including its breaking, can be controlled via a PC app and various sensor properties can be monitored. The position of the trolley is determined by the encoder. A Hall sensor indicates the absolute start position of one full turn. The absolute time marks of the measurement and the time synchronization of the microprocessor based on Pulse Per Second (‘PPS’) were obtained from the standard GNNS receiver. This study provides information about a proposal solution of the MRA reference system in terms of the frame construction description, the design of electronic equipment and the design of a software solution for processing and logging of messages. This paper also presents the results of three tests performed to verify the functionality and reliability of the MRA system: PPS time accuracy verification, the quantity and correctness of sent messages according to the arm instantaneous speed, and a real RTK verification test. The MRA also can be used to verify the dynamic properties of other localization devices.

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xxx V. Strizhevskaya, М. Pavlenkova, S. Nemkova, N. Nosachyova, I. Simakova and E. Wolf
Possibility and prospects of preservation of minor components in technology of fruit raw materials conservation
Abstract |
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Possibility and prospects of preservation of minor components in technology of fruit raw materials conservation

V. Strizhevskaya, М. Pavlenkova, S. Nemkova, N. Nosachyova, I. Simakova* and E. Wolf

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Saratov State
Agrarian University named after N.I. Vavilov, Department of Veterinary Medicine,
Biotechnology and Food Technology, Sokolovaya street, 335, RU410000 Saratov,
Russian
Correspondence: simakovaiv@yandex.ru

Abstract:

According to modern research, traditional methods of preserving fruits and vegetables do not allow obtaining products identical to natural products for biological value. At the same time, there is a need to provide the population with minor components of food, including concentrated form. The aim of the study was to preserve the minor components in canned fruit raw materials for a long time. The study was carried out comparing the data of bioflavonoids and vitamin C in fresh oranges and dehydrated oranges (immediately after dehydration and storage for 12 months). The analysis was performed by reversed-phase HPLC on Dionex Ultimate 3,000 chromatograph (‘Thermo Scientific’, USA) using Luna 5U C18(2) 100A, 5 μm 4.6 mm × 150 mm column (‘Phenomenex’, USA), system number 125617-12. The identification of components was performed by comparison of retention times of standard flavonoid samples. Dehydration was done by means of resonant IR drying, gradually lowering the temperature from intense (67–75 °C) to soft (32–35 °C) temperature regimes. Analysis of chromatograms of fresh and dehydrated oranges shows that they all have a similar profile, but differ significantly in the content of certain components. The presence of vitamin C 1,926.9 mg per 1 g of dehydrated oranges was noted, which is identical to the content of 10 g of fresh orange. The following flavonoids have been found: prunus and a component related to the polymer form of naringin, the content in 1 g of dehydrated oranges is approximately seven times more than that for 1 g of fresh orange. The loss of vitamin C by 8% during storage of dehydrated orange for 12 months was noted, the amount of flavonoids varies insignificantly by 2–3%. Studies have shown that the technology of dehydration with the help of resonance IR drying allows to keep the minor components in the native state for a long time.

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xxx J.O. Castro, T. Yanagi Junior, A.L. Abreu, P.F.P. Ferraz, G.B. Moura, D. Cecchin and L. Conti
Use of thermography for the evaluation of the surface temperature of Japanese Quail submitted at different temperatures
Abstract |
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Use of thermography for the evaluation of the surface temperature of Japanese Quail submitted at different temperatures

J.O. Castro¹, T. Yanagi Junior¹, A.L. Abreu², P.F.P. Ferraz¹, G.B. Moura¹, D. Cecchin³* and L. Conti⁴

¹Federal University of Lavras, Agricultural Engineering Department, Campus Universitário, PO Box 3037 Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
²Federal University of Lavras, Agricultural Department, Campus Universitário, PO Box 3037 Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
³Federal University Fluminense, Department of Agricultural Engineering and Environment, Campus Praia Vermelha, São Domingos, Niterói, BR24.210-240 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
⁴University of Firenze, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and forestry (DAGR), Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
*Correspondence: patricia.ponciano@ufla.br

Abstract:

Thermography has been gaining more space in analyzes of the superficial thermal profile of birds since it is a non-invasive way of evaluating thermal comfort. This study aims to evaluate the influence of different air temperatures (tair) from 20 °C to 32 °C on the maximum, average and minimum surface temperature (STmax, STaverage and STmin) of Japanese laying quails. The experiment was performed in four wind tunnels, where the continuous air temperature within each tunnel, 20 °C, 22 °C, 24 °C, 26 °C, 28 °C, 30 °C and 32 °C represented treatment, with 20 °C being the control treatment. Two experiments, of 21 days each, were carried out. For each experiment, we used four replicates and eight quails in each repetition, in a completely randomized design. Thermographic images of each repetition were made weekly through the Fluke Ti55 camera and analyzed using SmartView® software. The STmax, STaverage and STmin of each repetition were obtained by delimiting the area of the quails within the cages. Significant differences were observed between ST as the room temperature increased. The ST of quails behaved similarly from 28 °C on. Both head and feet had higher temperatures. It was possible to verify that air temperatures above 22 °C promoted an increase in the maximum, average and minimum surface temperatures. The highest surface temperatures are found in the head and foot region.

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xxx G.A.S. Ferraz, R.C. Avelar, N.L. Bento, F.R. Souza, P.F.P. Ferraz, F.A. Damasceno and M. Barbari
Spatial variability of soil fertility attributes and productivity in a coffee crop farm
Abstract |
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Spatial variability of soil fertility attributes and productivity in a coffee crop farm

G.A.S. Ferraz¹*, R.C. Avelar², N.L. Bento¹, F.R. Souza³, P.F.P. Ferraz¹, F.A. Damasceno¹ and M. Barbari⁴

¹Federal University of Lavras – UFLA, Departament of Agricultural Engineering, University Campus, Postal Code 37200-000 Lavras-MG, Brazil
²AVELAR ASSESSORIA LTDA - Consultoria em Cafeicultura – Monte Carmelo – MG, Brazil
³Rural University of Rio de Janeiro – UFRJ, BR-465, Km 7, Postal Code 23.897000 Seropédica-RJ, Brazil
⁴Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry (DAGRI), Università degli Studi di Firenze, Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Itália
*Correspondence: gabriel.ferraz@ufla.br

Abstract:

Coffee cultivation is of great importance to Brazilian agribusiness, as coffee occupies extensive production areas and is one of the most exported Brazilian products. To maintain coffee production numbers, productive techniques must be adopted that optimize productive system use. The objective of this work was to apply geostatistical techniques in the evaluation of soil fertility attributes to construct maps of variability in soil fertility parameters and the productivity of a coffee crop in the municipality of Monte Carmelo, Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil. The work was developed with coffee of the cultivar Mundo Novo 379/19, and 19 sample points were georeferenced in Universal Transverse Mercator coordinates. Spatial dependence of the fertility and productivity parameters was analysed via classic semivariogram fitting and interpolation by ordinary kriging using the statistical computer system, R. All parameters evaluated showed high degrees of spatial dependence. The attribute values varied along the sampling points, except for the sodium (Na) contents, which had similar values in all samplings. The studied parameters ranged from 80 to 200 metres. It is conclusion, the use of productivity maps linked to soil chemical attributes can be useful for determining the occurrence of variable productivity rates throughout the area, allowing the adoption of corrective practices for subsequent crops and thus making the maps very useful tools for producers.

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xxx M.G. Morerira, G.A.S. Ferraz, B.D.S. Barbosa, E.M. Iwasaki, P.F.P Ferraz, F.A. Damasceno and G. Rossi
Design and construction of a low-cost remotely piloted aircraft for precision agriculture applications
Abstract |
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Design and construction of a low-cost remotely piloted aircraft for precision agriculture applications

M.G. Morerira¹, G.A.S. Ferraz¹*, B.D.S. Barbosa¹, E.M. Iwasaki¹, P.F.P Ferraz¹, F.A. Damasceno² and G. Rossi³

¹Federal University of Lavras, Department of Agricultural Engineering, University Campus, BR37.200-000, Lavras, Brazil
²Federal University of Lavras, Department of Engineering, University Campus, BR37.200-000, Lavras, Brazil
³University of Florence, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry (DAGRI), Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Florence, Italy
*Correspondence: gabriel.ferraz@ufla.br

Abstract:

This study aimed to construct a low cost RPA capable of recording georeferenced images. For the construction of the prototype of a quadcopter type RPA, only essential materials were used to allow stable flight. A maximum total weight of 2 kg was stipulated, including frame weight, electronic components, motors and cameras. The aircraft was programmed using a low-cost microcontroller widely used in prototyping and automation research. An electronic circuit board is designed to facilitate the connection of the microcontroller with the other components of the design. Specific software was used for flight control. The prototype was built successfully, being able to lift stable and controllable flight. However, we still need to acquire equipment and programming components capable of enabling autonomous images and flights. The final cost of the RPA was on average $ 427.00 on average 50% lower than the values found in the Brazilian ARP market ($ 772.81 to $ 1,288.00)

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xxx M. Kiviste, H. Lille, L. Linnus and R. Halgma
Evaluation of retention stresses of prestressing bars of a concrete ribbed panel from agricultural building after 20 years of service
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Evaluation of retention stresses of prestressing bars of a concrete ribbed panel from agricultural building after 20 years of service

M. Kiviste*, H. Lille, L. Linnus and R. Halgma

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Chair of Rural Building and Water Management, F.R. Kreutzwaldi 5, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: mihkel.kiviste@emu.ee

Abstract:

In Estonian agricultural buildings there exist a lot of precast concrete load-bearing structures, which were manufactured in the 1970s and 80s. By now, some of these are rather near for reaching their designed service life. 20 years old prestressed concrete ribbed ceiling panels (type PNS-12) with the dimensions of 6 m (length) by 1.5 m (width) from an existing agricultural building (pigsty) are the subject of current study. The objective of current study was to evaluate the retention stress of prestressing bars (PSBs) of a ribbed panel PNS-12. In other words the purpose was to find out how much of the factory-issued initial prestress was left at the PSBs after 20 years of service.
As a novel application in civil engineering strain gauges were applied in the evaluation of retention stress of PSBs in current study. The active strain gauges were glued to the opposite sides of PSBs at the middle-span of the ribbed panel, dummy gauges were glued to the unloaded steel slab. Strain gauges were connected to the half-bridge and measured with strain indicator and recorded. Retention stresses were calculated using the Hooke’s law through the measured strains and elastic modulus of steel. Elastic modulus of PSBs was also measured using the universal testing machine Instron 3369 and software Bluehill 2, based on two standards.
The results demonstrated about 20.8% and 10.0% of retention stress of PSBs, respectively. The possible errors created by different aspects in experiment are also discussed.

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xxx A. Melicharová, J. Mašek and P. Novák
Impacts of some cultivated crops on water erosion in the Central Bohemia Region
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Impacts of some cultivated crops on water erosion in the Central Bohemia Region

A. Melicharová*, J. Mašek and P. Novák

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: melicharovaa@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This paper aims at assessing the impact of crops on water erosion parameters. Water erosion is the most common cause of damaging agricultural land in the Czech Republic. This is due to the large average slope of land and the prevailing soil types. The field trial was based on a site with an average slope of 5.4°. The primary objective was to assess the effect of the crop on the surface runoff and soil loss. The crops cultivated in the experiment were winter wheat, rape, potatoes, corn and oats (conventional tillage for all variants). Black fallow was used as the comparative variant (without vegetation). There is a light cambisol on the experimental field. To assess erosion, the method of microplots was used. The physical properties of the soil were also evaluated. The results show the risk of growing wide-rows crops (potatoes, corn). The soil loss in these crops was similar to the variant without vegetation.

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xxx M. Stehlík, A. Czako, M. Mayerová and M. Madaras
Influence of organic and inorganic fertilization on soil properties and water infiltration
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Influence of organic and inorganic fertilization on soil properties and water infiltration

M. Stehlík¹²*, A. Czako¹, M. Mayerová¹ and M. Madaras¹

¹Division of Crop Management Systems, Crop Research Institute, Drnovská 507, CZ 16106 Prague, Czech Republic
²Department of Agricultural Machines, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamýcká 129, CZ 16521 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: martin.stehlik@vurv.cz

Abstract:

Soil aggregate stability (SAS) belongs to the most important parameters determining the quality of soil and fertilizer influence on soil aggregation. We evaluated the relationship between SAS, hydro–physical soil properties and infiltration rates in three long–term field experiments founded in 1956 on different soils. Soil properties under three fertilization regimes–no fertilization, farmyard manure, farmyard manure and mineral fertilization–were evaluated at silty loam Chernozem, silty loam Phaeozem and sandy loam–loam Cambisol. A significant impact of fertilization on SAS was found, even though the differences in SAS were rather low. The lowest SAS was recorded at plots with manure and mineral fertilization (25.1%) compared with plots without fertilization (28.7%) and plots with manure–only fertilization (28.2%). The highest SAS (36.5%) and the highest semi–capillary porosity (SP; 11%) were observed at sandy loam–loam soil. Hydro–physical soil properties were more favourable at fertilized plots (SP 9.6% and bulk density ρb 1.31 g cm-3) compared with unfertilized ones (SP 8.8% and ρb 1.35 g cm-3). The lowest SP (8.32%) and the highest ρb (1.37 g cm-3) were recorded at Phaeozem, which corresponded with the lowest SAS (19.4%). Chernozem had similar soil texture to Phaeozem, but SAS (24.7%), SP (9%) and ρb (1.27 g cm-3) were more favourable. Despite the low level of statistical significance due to the large variation of infiltration measurements, a higher infiltration rate was recorded at fertilized plots (45 mm hour-1) compared to unfertilized ones (35 mm hour-1).

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