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xxx E.P. Shanina and G.A. Likhodeyevsky
Evaluation of interspecific potato breeding material with a complex of genes of immunity to Potato virus Y using molecular markers
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Evaluation of interspecific potato breeding material with a complex of genes of immunity to Potato virus Y using molecular markers

E.P. Shanina* and G.A. Likhodeyevsky

Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution «Ural Federal Agrarian Research Center Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences», 112A Belinskogo Str., RU620142 Yekaterinburg, Russia
*Correspondence: shanina08@yandex.ru

Abstract:

The article presents the results of research on potato culture, the presence of Ryadg, Rysto, and Rychc genes in complex interspecific potato hybrids, and based on the use of the DNA markers for selection of resistant forms to Potato virus Y (PVY). These genes are derived from different genetic sources of the species Solanum andigenum, S. stoloniferum and S. chacoense, respectively. The selected potato forms with a complex of agronomic characters are recommended for inclusion in the selection process, for creation of new varieties, as well as as a valuable source material for interspecific hybridization.

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xxx Y. Bani Khalaf, A. Aldahadha, N. Samarah, O. Migdadi and I. Musallam
Effect of zero tillage and different weeding methods on grain yield of durum wheat in semi-arid regions
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Effect of zero tillage and different weeding methods on grain yield of durum wheat in semi-arid regions

Y. Bani Khalaf¹, A. Aldahadha¹*, N. Samarah², O. Migdadi¹ and I. Musallam¹

¹Field Crops Directorate, National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), P.O. Box 19831, Baqa’, Jordan
²Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), P.O. Box 3030, 22110 Irbid, Jordan.
*Correspondence: abdallah.aldahadha@narc.gov.jo

Abstract:

The high grain yield of wheat is limited by the dominance of weeds, particularly wild oat. Therefore, to improve wheat yield under these conditions, a field experiment was carried out in Maru Agricultural Research Station, Jordan during 2015–2016 and 2016–2017 to investigate yield response of two wheat varieties (Triticum durum L.) to different tillage and weeding treatments. The experimental design used was a split-split arrangement in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Two-tillage treatments (conventional vs. zero tillage) were applied to the main plot, two wheat varieties to sub-plot, and five weeding methods (hand weeding, broadleaf + narrow leaf herbicide, broadleaf herbicide, narrow leaf herbicide, and controls) as a sub-sub-plot. The variety ‘Umqais’ had higher plant height, biological, grain, and straw yield than the variety ‘Sham’. Hand weeding slightly increased grain yield compared with mixed herbicides (the 2,4-D plus Antelope Clodinatop- propagyl). Furthermore, mixed herbicides presented a higher grain yield than using either single herbicide. The interaction between tillage systems and weeding methods was significant in both years. The highest (P < 0.05) straw yield (5,990 kg ha-1) was obtained by hand weeding under conventional tillage in the first season while the highest grain yield (2,005 kg ha-1) was obtained by hand weeding under zero tillage in the second season. Under all weed control treatments, the variety ‘Umqais’ had higher biological, grain, and straw yields than the variety ‘Sham’ in the second season indicating that variety ‘Umqais’ performed better under dry conditions. Our results confirmed the superior of zero tillage for increasing the grain yield of the variety ‘Umqais’, and for increasing the biological and straw yields of the variety ‘Sham’ under semi-arid rainfed conditions of Jordan.

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xxx M.Yu. Karpukhin and A.V. Abramchuk
Introduced assessment of agrestic legumes in the middle Urals
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Introduced assessment of agrestic legumes in the middle Urals

M.Yu. Karpukhin* and A.V. Abramchuk

Ural State Agrarian University, Karla Libknekhta Str., 42, 620075 Yekaterinburg, Russia *Correspondence: mkarpukhin@yandex.ru

Abstract:

Currently, in fodder production industry, there is an acute problem of finding legumes that are well adapted to the natural and climatic conditions of the Middle Urals, possessing great longevity, as well as high fodder values. In the Middle Urals, as well as in the Russian Federation, as a whole, legumes valuable for forage from wild vicia and peavine species are still not used in culture. Both of these genuses are of great practical interest for their introduction into culture. They significantly differ from legumes traditionally used in fodder production in a number of parameters: long longevity (7–10 years in natural phytocenoses), resistance to a complex of natural and climatic conditions (rather high winter hardiness), early regrowth in spring. The purpose of the experiment is to reveal the characteristics of the growth and development of perennial wild legumes under conditions of introduction. The tasks of the study included the determination of the height and average daily growth dynamics, the timing of the passage of phenological phases, and the productivity of aboveground biomass.
Research methods. The study on the introduction of agrestic legumes was carried out in the ‘Uralets’ educational and experimental farm (2005–2012), located in the Beloyarsky district of the Sverdlovsk region on the educational and experimental field of the crop production and breeding department. The experimental design includes 3 options: 1 opt. – Vicia sylvatica L. (forest vicia – control); 2 opt. – Lathyrus pisiformis L. (pea-shaped peavine); 3 opt. – Lathyrus pratensis L. (meadow peavine). The use of grass stand is single-cut, mowing carried out in the phase of mass flowering of the plants studied. To identify the floristic composition dynamics, a complete geobotanical description of vegetation was carried out. The following botanical composition was distinguished: introduced (cenose-forming) species: Vicia sylvatica L., Lathyrus pisiformis L., Lathyrus pratensis L.; non-seeded species – this group includes all wild-growing species (grasses and forbs) that have invaded the vegetation cover.
Results. During the study it was established that the earliest regrowth is characteristic of pea-shaped peavine, it significantly outpaced other types of legumes in its development. The different phyto-cenotic stability of the cenose-forming species in the grass stand was discovered, the highest observed in the meadow peavine.
The productivity of aboveground biomass in meadow peavine (by year of study) was significantly higher than in other studied species; on average for 2006–2012 it amounted to 15.3 t ha-1, which is 1.9 t ha-1 higher than forest vicia and 4.6 t ha-1 more than pea-shaped peavine. Scientific novelty. For the first time, in the conditions of the Middle Urals, the growth and development features of wild perennial species from the family Fabaceae: Vicia sylvatica L., Lathyrus pisiformis L., Lathyrus pratensis L., were studied.

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xxx L. Pavliuk, K. Udovychenko, I. Riaba and M. Bublyk
Detection of sour and sweet cherry viruses in Ukraine
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Detection of sour and sweet cherry viruses in Ukraine

L. Pavliuk*, K. Udovychenko, I. Riaba and M. Bublyk

National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Horticulture, Sadova Str., 23, UA03027 Novosilky, Kyiv region, Ukraine
*Correspondence: pavliukl.92@ukr.net

Abstract:

One of the main obstacles on the way to successful cultivation of orchards and planting material of sour and sweet cherry is infection with viral pathogens. They can adversely affect yields, reduce plant resistance to abiotic factors and cause losses in the nursery. Therefore, it is important to determine the spread of viruses in plantations and the selection of virus-free plants for the establishment of nuclear stock collections. In order to study phytovirological state of the orchards, tests for the presence of five viral pathogens were performed: Tomato black ring nepovirus (TBRV), Cherry leaf roll nepovirus (CLRV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Petunia asteroid mosaic tombusvirus (PеAMV), Plum pox virus (PPV). The level of infection with these pathogens reaches 19.2% for sour cherry, 5.8% – for sweet cherry, and 7.4% – for rootstocks. PPV prevailed in sour cherry material – 7%, in sweet cherry material – ACLSV (3.6%), while the rootstock samples were most infected by PeAMV – 5.6%. Until now, this virus has not been reported in Ukraine. TBRV and ACLSV viruses have been known in other crops so far, while not yet been detected in sour and sweet cherry. It was determined that PPV isolates (Mahaleb 1, Mahaleb 2) which were detected in sour cherry, belong to strain D.

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xxx V. Kuvachоv, V. Bulgakov, V. Adamchuk, V. Kaminskiy, V. Melnik and J. Olt
Experimental research into new harrowing unit based on gantry agricultural implement carrier
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Experimental research into new harrowing unit based on gantry agricultural implement carrier

V. Kuvachоv¹, V. Bulgakov², V. Adamchuk³, V. Kaminskiy⁴, V. Melnik⁵ and J. Olt⁶*

¹Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B Khmelnytsky Avenue, UA72310 Melitopol, Zaporozhye Region, Ukraine
²National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
³National Scientific Centre, Institute of Mechanization and Electrification of Agriculture, 11 Vokzalna Str., Glevakha stl, Vasylkivsky Dist., UA08631 Kyiv Region, Ukraine
⁴National Scientific Centre, Institute of Agriculture of NAAS of Ukraine, 2b, Mashinobudivnikiv Str., Chabany vil., Kyiv-Svyatoshin Dist., UA08162 Kyiv Region, Ukraine
⁵Kharkiv Petro Vasylenko National Technical University of Agriculture, 44, Alchevskih Str., Kharkiv, UA 61002, Ukraine
⁶Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

From the point of view of energy saving, research into agricultural gantry units equipped with new implements specially adapted for operation in such systems and capable of efficiently functioning in controlled traffic (permanent lane) and wide span (gantry) systems is an important and topical issue in soil tillage science. The range of wide span systems includes harrowing units for fallow land tillage. This paper describes the experimental determination of the operating characteristics of the harrowing unit, in which a gantry implement carrier propels harrows for fallow land tillage, for the purpose of establishing the compliance of their parameters with the fundamental principles of the effective implementation of the controlled traffic and wide span soil management. The experimental investigations were done using strain-gauge and control-and-measuring equipment with analogue-to-digital conversion of the signals received from the sensing elements. An agricultural wide span unit with a track width of 3.5 m and harrows for fallow land tillage were investigated. The results show the harrowing unit is well adapted to operation in controlled traffic and wide span soil tillage systems and delivers high quality performance of the harrowing process. The latter effect is also due to the fact that the gantry travels on the compacted tracks which have a few surface irregularities compared to cultivated soil. The coefficient of variation of the draught force applied to the hook of the gantry during harrowing operations did not exceed 10%. This is evidence of the high stability (low variability) of the harrowing process, which has a positive effect on the motion stability of the harrowing unit based on the gantry tractor.

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xxx G. Mokrikov, T. Minnikova, K. Kazeev and S. Kolesnikov
Use of soil enzyme activity in assessing the effect of No-Till in the South of Russia
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Use of soil enzyme activity in assessing the effect of No-Till in the South of Russia

G. Mokrikov, T. Minnikova*, K. Kazeev and S. Kolesnikov

Southern Federal University, Academy of Biology and Biotechnology by D.I. Ivanovsky’s, Department of Ecology and Nature Management, av. Stachki 194/1, RU344090 Rostov on Done, Russia
*Correspondence: loko261008@yandex.ru

Abstract:

The activity of 11 enzymes (catalase, dehydrogenases, peroxydases, polyphenoloxidases, ascorbateoxidase, ferrireductase, β-fructofuranosidase, amylase, urease, phosphatase and protease) was assessed under conditions of steppe zone in the south of Russia when using different tillages. Winter wheat and sunflower are main crops in these soils. Moreover, chickpea, coriander, lint, barley, corn and some other crop are cultivated here in the crop rotation duration 6 years. Enzyme activity was compared in soils of 15 fields with long-term no-till (NT) versus to 15 fields with conventional tillage (CT). The researches were held along the whole Haplic Chernozem Loamic at a depth of 0–65 cm. Special attention was paid to top soil (0–10 cm), which is directly subject to the mechanical effect. The carbon cycle enzyme (β-fructofuranosidase) activity was the most sensitive indication for NT use. In top soil the enzyme activity was greater by 16–35% at NT versus to СТ. Activity of this enzyme reduces by 28–293% when soil depth increasing in both the tillages. Enzymes of different classes had different behaviours in soils depending on season, crops and tillage thanks to biochemical nature. Hydrolases and oxidoreductases were assessed by the indices characterizing soil condition and health. For this purpose geometric mean by hydrolase activity (GMEhd) and geometric mean by oxidoreductase (GMEox), as well as integral index of biological soil condition (IIBC) were used. Index GMEox in soil under sunflower reduced by 16% in summer versus to spring. Thereby, hydrolase index GMEhd reduced by 60%. At NT activity of oxidoreductase was lower by 10 and 13%, and activity of hydrolase was increased by 12 and 14% versus to СТ. Soil IIBS values at NT increased by 18–35% at average within three years (2016–2018). The use of NT technology contributes to an increase in the activity of hydrolases and soil quality due to the conservation of moisture in the soil.

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xxx L.Yu. Novikova, N.A. Chalaya, M.N. Sitnikov, L.M. Gorlova, S.D. Kiru and E.V. Rogozina
Dynamics of tuber weight in early potato varieties in the contrasting weather conditions of the Northwestern Russia
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Dynamics of tuber weight in early potato varieties in the contrasting weather conditions of the Northwestern Russia

L.Yu. Novikova¹*, N.A. Chalaya¹, M.N. Sitnikov¹, L.M. Gorlova¹, S.D. Kiru² and E.V. Rogozina¹

¹N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (VIR), 42, 44, Bolshaya Morskaya Str., RU190000 St. Petersburg, Russia
²St. Petersburg State Agrarian University, Building A, 2, Peterburgskoe shosse, Pushkin, RU196601 St. Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: l.novikova@vir.nw.ru

Abstract:

Under climate changes, it is particularly important to search for characteristics of varieties that are steady in contrasting weather conditions. The aim of the present research was to study the relationship between the growth of tubers and haulms in early potato varieties in the Northwestern Russia. Fourteen early potato varieties were studied in the field experiments conducted in 2017–2019 in the vicinities of St. Petersburg. The results of three intermediate digs on the 45th, 60th and 75th day from the planting date were analyzed. The correlation analysis, ANOVA, and regression were used. The average haulm and tubers weight significantly differed in the years of the study, while the number of tubers per plant and the haulm to tubers weight ratio did not differ. The relative growth rate of tubers weight from day 45 to 60 and from 60 to 75 did not differ significantly between 2018 and 2019, the years contrasting in terms of weather conditions. On the average, the tubers weight increased 2.6–2.8 times from day 45 to 60, and 1.4 times from day 60 to 75. It has been established that the early prediction of productivity in early potato varieties can be based on the haulm weight on the 60th day after planting; its coefficient of correlation with productivity was 0.72–0.79. Every 100 grams of the haulm weight on day 60 ensures a 100–200 g increment in the tubers weight by the time of harvest on day 80. The obtained results can be used in the development of a morphometric indicator-based automated system for monitoring the growth of potato plants.

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xxx S. Skuja, V. Antāne and I. Lūsis
Effects of retained fetal membranes treatments and dry period length on the subsequent lactation in cows – milk yield and somatic cell count
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Effects of retained fetal membranes treatments and dry period length on the subsequent lactation in cows – milk yield and somatic cell count

S. Skuja*, V. Antāne and I. Lūsis

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kr. Helmaņa 8, LV3004 Jelgava, Latvia *Correspondence: santa.skuja0@gmail.com

Abstract:

Different treatment strategies in cows with retained fetal membranes (RFM) may affect subsequent lactation in various ways. Also, excessively short or long dry periods (DP) can decrease milk yield (MY), increase the risk of poor udder health, and increase the risk of RFM. This study aimed to evaluate how different treatment strategies of RFM affect subsequent lactation in cows, i.e., MY and udder health determined on the somatic cell count (SCC) bases in milk, expressed as somatic cell score (SCS). A secondary but equally important objective was to analyse the dry period length (DPL) effect on the subsequent lactation in cows. The cows from two herds were divided into three groups: group 1–healthy control; group 2–cows with RFM, removed manually and treated with intrauterine (IU) antibiotics (AB); group 3–cows with RFM, not removed, but treated IU with AB. The DP of cows was divided post factum into shortened (up to 46 days), traditional (47 to 70 days), or prolonged (over 70 days). Statistical analyses were performed using linear multiple regression and multivariate analyses. Differences were statistically significant when P <0.05. The effect of different RFM treatment strategies on MY and SCS was evaluated. There were no statistically significant effects of RFM treatments on the MY in the subsequent lactation. However, there was a tendency (P = 0.07) for SCS in standard lactation to be higher in cows in group 2. The highest economic losses, calculated from the decrease in MY, were detected in the same group. Significantly lower MY was observed in cows with a shortened DPL during the first 30 days PP (P <0.05). The DPL did not affect the SCS.

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xxx E.S. Gandrabur and A.B. Vereschagina
Features of bird-cherry that inhibits the breeding of the population Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae)
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Features of bird-cherry that inhibits the breeding of the population Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae)

E.S. Gandrabur* and A.B. Vereschagina

All-Russian Research Institute for Plant Protection, Podbelskogo highway, 3, RU196608 St. Petersburg-Pushkin, Russia
*Correspondence:helenagandrabur@gmail.com

Abstract:

Long-term studies (2012–2018) of the formation of the Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) heteroecious population (number of remigrants, oviparae and eggs in autumn, number of perished eggs, fundatrices larvae, timing of flight of emigrants in spring) on the two samples of primary host Padus avium Mill. and P. avium x P. virginiana (L.) characterized by various morpho-physiological features have been carried out. By the methods of mathematical statistics, it has been proved that this formation occurs under the significant influence of the year conditions (A), host plant characteristics (B) and these factors interaction (AB). The most visible was their highly significant impact on the number of wintering aphid eggs (A = 200.42; B = 142.6; AB = 25.612). Plant characteristics such as significantly larger leaf area from the middle part of the shoot on P. avium x P. virginiana, than on P. avium (t = 8.37; р0.01 = 2.85) was important for attracting remigrants and the prone buds on P. avium x P. virginiana – for oviposition and survival of eggs. Correlation between the period of leaf fall and number of aphid eggs on both bird-cherry samples is presented. The effect of weather conditions on R. padi and primary hosts relationships is discussed. Correlation (r = 0.76; p = 0.0048) between average temperature of October and eggs number on P. avium is given. R. fundatrices.

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xxx D.C. Silveira, M. Pelissoni, C.R. Buzatto, S.M. Scheffer-Basso, L.A. Ebone, J.M. Machado and N.C. Lângaro
Anatomical traits and structural components of peduncle associated with lodging in Avena sativa L.
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Anatomical traits and structural components of peduncle associated with lodging in Avena sativa L.

D.C. Silveira¹*, M. Pelissoni², C.R. Buzatto³, S.M. Scheffer-Basso², L.A. Ebone², J.M. Machado⁴ and N.C. Lângaro²

¹Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Faculty of Agronomy, Departament of Forage Plant and Agrometeorology, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 7712 Bairro Agronomia, CEP 91540-000 Porto Alegre RS, Brazil
²University of Passo Fundo, Faculty of Agronomy, Agronomy Post-Graduate Program, BR 285, Bairro São José, CEP 99052-900 Passo Fundo, Brazil
³University of Passo Fundo, Institute of Biological Sciences, Environmental Sciences Post-Graduate Program, BR 285, Bairro São José, CEP 99052-900 Passo Fundo, Brazil
⁴University of Cruz Alta, Faculty of Medicine veterinary, Center for Health and Agrarian Sciences, Rod. Jacob Della Méa, km 5.6, ZIP98005-972 Cruz Alta, Brazil
*Correspondence: diogenessilveira@hotmail.com

Abstract:

Lodging dramatically reduces the yield of cereals and increases the difficulty of mechanical harvesting. Because it is a complex phenomenon, new cultivars with genetic resistance to lodging is a sustainable alternative in agricultural production systems. This resistance is associated with a combination of factors, such as stem thickness and stiffness, being closely linked to anatomical traits and structural carbohydrates present in the stem. In the present study we compared, under field conditions, eight contrasting oat cultivars in terms of lodging resistance. Our aim in this study was to investigate the association of anatomical traits and structural components of the peduncle with resistance to lodging, aiming to assist in the plant selection process. In addition, a second objective was to understand the genetic dissimilarity among oat cultivars according to the characters studied. Some characteristics for potential indirect selection were studied in this work and if correlated with lodging can be used to identify superior genotypes. From the anatomical point of view, the correlation obtained between the internal vascular bundle and the lodging resistance factor allowed us to confirm that this trait can be used in indirect selection to lodging resistance. The structural components of peduncle, in the two ways explored in the present study, comparison of mean and correlation, did not demonstrate the potential to be used exclusively as plant selection characters traits for lodging resistance. There is noticeable variability in oat cultivars for most stem traits.

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xxx Ya.H. Tsytsiura
Matrix quality variability of oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiformis Pers.) and features of its formation in technologically different construction of its agrophytocenosis
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Matrix quality variability of oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiformis Pers.) and features of its formation in technologically different construction of its agrophytocenosis

Ya.H. Tsytsiura

Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, Faculty of Agronomy and Forestry, Sunny street, 3, UA21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine
Correspondence:yaroslavtsytsyura@ukr.net

Abstract:

Overview of the formation of matrix variability of oilseed radish seeds at two levels: within a single pod and within the generative part of the plant, given the presence of vertical layering in the placement of fruit elements. The peculiarities of formation of variation component of morphological parameters of seeds from different zones of inflorescence were estimated, basing on their electrical scanning for oilseed radish agrophytoconosises of different technological construction and sowing rate against the background of four options of mineral nutrition (without fertilizer to the level 90 kg ha-1 with an equal interval of 30 kg ha-1 of the primary material). The results of the value of matrix variability in morphological and weight characteristics were grounded on the basis of the analysis of the structure of selected seed fractions and their intra-group variation. The main features of formation of morphometric variability of seeds from different zones of inflorescence depending on different technological construction were formulated.

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xxx I. Ivanova, M. Serdyuk, V. Malkina, О. Priss, T. Herasko and Т. Тymoshchuk
Investigation into sugars accumulation in sweet cherry fruits under abiotic factors effects
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Investigation into sugars accumulation in sweet cherry fruits under abiotic factors effects

I. Ivanova¹*, M. Serdyuk¹, V. Malkina, О. Priss¹, T. Herasko¹ and Т. Тymoshchuk²

¹Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18, B. Khmelnytsky Ave, UA72312 Melitopol, Zaporizhzhia region, Ukraine
²Polissya National University, 7, Staryi Blvd, UA10008 Zhytomyr, Ukraine
*Correspondence: irynaivanova2017@gmail.com

Abstract:

The level of sugars content in sweet cherry fruit depends on many factors. However, the decisive influence of weather factors is noted. In view of this, the issue of predicting the sugars content in sweet cherry fruit depending on the share of weather factors is relevant for further improvement of transportation technology, storage and processing.
It has been established that according to sugars content and to the variability of their formation the most perspective from the technological point of view were varieties: Zabuta (12.47%), Dachnytsia (15.60%), Krupnoplidna (14.35%). Low and medium variabilities of the selected varieties according to the investigation years were established ( = 8.6%–13.0%). It has been shown that weather conditions had dominating effects on sugars accumulation for all varieties groups irrespective of the ripening period. According to the results of a two-factors dispersion analysis it is expedient to prognosticate the sugars content in sweet cherry fruits by medium values for a particular group of sorts but not for each pomological sort.
In the course of the work the average and strong correlation dependence between 14 weather factors (Хі, i = 1..14) and the sugars content for sweet cherries of early, medium, and late ripening period (|𝑟𝑌𝑗𝑋𝑖|≥0.55, 𝑖=1..14, 𝑗=1..3) were defined. The ranges of share of weather factors participation that have the maximum influence on sugars fund formation in sweet cherry fruit are established (Δ𝑖 9.50% to 30.99%) .
Based on regression analysis, it is substantiated that the sugars accumulation in sweet cherry fruit, regardless of the ripening period, is most influenced by weather conditions of the blossoming period, the last month of fruit formation and thermal parameters and humidity index at the stage of fruit picking.

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xxx M. Sulg, A. Konist and O. Järvik
Characterization of different wood species as potential feedstocks for gasification
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Characterization of different wood species as potential feedstocks for gasification

M. Sulg*, A. Konist and O. Järvik

Tallinn University of Technology, Department of Energy Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, UU19086 Tallinn, Estonia
*Correspondence: mari.sulg@taltech.ee

Abstract:

This paper provides an extended overview of the chemical characteristics of 19 different wood species originating from Estonia. The variation of chemical composition in wood and bark was investigated using a variety of analytical techniques including WD-XRF, ICP-MS, and elemental analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to observe clustering in the sample set. It revealed a clear data clustering in terms of the wood and bark samples. Wood characteristics exhibit quite narrow ranges, on the other hand the composition of wood bark samples is significantly different and more distributed. The correlations and associations among 27 chemical parameters, including 16 ash-forming elements, were studied. Several significant positive correlations between Cr-Ni-Fe, Ca-Sr, Al-Na-Si-Ti, K-Mg-P, Fe-Zn-Cr-Ni-Cu, Ash-Ca, N-S-P and O-volatile matter were found. Most of the metallic components are negatively correlated with volatile matter, C, H, O and heating value and are positively related to each other, or no significant correlation was identified. Results are compared to literature data and technical quality standards for biomass. Biomass feedstocks availability and composition for gasification process was discussed. Wood samples had higher volatiles content than in bark which is an indication that higher conversion rate and lower gasification temperature can be used. Spruce, pine and black alder barks have higher fixed carbon content than other common species that may increase biochar yield. Commonly available woods like Scots pine, Norway spruce, aspen, birch, black alder and grey alder may considered as suitable feedstocks for gasification because of their low N, S, Cl, and ash content together with high volatile matter, however, relatively high total heavy metals content were found from birch and grey alder barks compared to other hardwoods.

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xxx N.A. Kashirina, N.A. Bagrikova, S.N. Zhaldak, V.S. Pashtetsky and E.N. Drobotova
Morphological and morphometric characteristics of Cornelian Сherry (Cornus mas L.) in natural conditions of the Crimean Peninsula
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Morphological and morphometric characteristics of Cornelian Сherry (Cornus mas L.) in natural conditions of the Crimean Peninsula

N.A. Kashirina¹*, N.A. Bagrikova², S.N. Zhaldak³, V.S. Pashtetsky¹ and E.N. Drobotova¹

¹Research Institute of Agriculture of Crimea, 150 Kievskaya Str., RU295493 Simferopol, Republic of Crimea, Russian Federation
²Nikita Botanical Gardens – National Scientific Center of RAS, 52 Nikitsky spusk, Nikita Vil., RU298648, Yalta, Republic of Crimea, Russian Federation
³V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, 4 Prospekt Vernadskogo, RU295007 Simferopol, Republic of Crimea, Russian Federation
*Correspondence: natalia.kashirina.96@mail.ru

Abstract:

Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) is a valuable fruit and ornamental plant in the Cornaceae family. This is a promising frost- and drought-resistant crop, undemanding to growing conditions. Fruits and leaves of plants are rich with biologically active substances which allows them to be used in pharmaceutical, food, liquor, and other industries. In the natural non-cultivated communities on the Crimean Peninsula the species is represented by a wide variety of forms that are promising for study from the point of view of botanical and breeding research. There is practically no information in the scientific literature about the characteristics of cornelian cherry for the most common places of its growth on the Crimean Peninsula, regarding the morpho-biological features and patterns of development of cornelian cherry plants, which determines the relevance of research. The purpose of this work was to study the intraspecific variability of cornelian cherry plants within natural coenopopulations under varying ecological conditions in the foothill, mountain, and South Coast of the Crimea in order to identify the most promising forms for further breeding research. The results of a three-year study (2017 to 2019) revealed differences in the life form of plants, in the timing of fruit maturation, in the shape and color of the leaf and fruit, and in their metric parameters. Promising forms of plants with the largest fruits (an average weight from 1.65 g to 1.81 g) and a low percentage of endocarp – from 10% to15% (Form 1 – CP I, CP II, CP V, Form 2 a – CP IV) can be recommended for further breeding research.

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xxx Kh.H.M. Ibrahim, L, Wang, Q. Wu, Y. Duan, Ch. Ma and S. Zhang
Soil Phosphorus management based on changes in Olsen P and P budget under long- term fertilization experiment in fluvo-aquic soil
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Soil Phosphorus management based on changes in Olsen P and P budget under long- term fertilization experiment in fluvo-aquic soil

Kh.H.M. Ibrahim¹², L, Wang¹, Q. Wu¹, Y. Duan¹, Ch. Ma³ and S. Zhang¹*

¹Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/ National Engineering Laboratory for Improving Quality of Arable Land, Beijing, 100081, P.R. China
²Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC), Wad Medani 126, Sudan
³The Center of Extending and Service of Agricultural Technique in China, Beijing 100026, China
*Correspondence: zhangshuxiang@caas.cn

Abstract:

Excessive input of phosphorus (P) in agricultural production and its finite resources is becoming a global concern for sustainable P management. In this study, the annual P input and output were calculated in 27 Fluvo-aquic soil sites of wheat and maize agriculture cropping system in Henan province central-east of China during the period from 1998 to 2016, to quantify soil Olsen P (OP) levels and P budget at the experimental sites and calculate the optimum P fertilizer application. The maize and wheat (Triticum aestivum) recorded 14.2 and 13.6 mg kg-1 respectively. The change in soil OP was positively linearly correlated with the P budget (P < 0.01), and an increase of 2.8 mg kg-1 in soil Olsen P for each 100 kg ha-1  of P budget in the 0–20 cm soil layer. Based on ACV of soil OP with P budget and the critical level of soil OP to ACV in the study area for the next five years, the recommended rate model of soil OP for maize and wheat in the study area was determined. The application amount of P fertilizer ought to be in the range of 64–85 kg P ha-1. This information can help to optimize crop yield, reduce the accumulation of P in soil, and reduce the potential risk of water pollution. More research is needed about the main factors influence on P available (OP).

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xxx A. Arne and A. Ilgaza
The effect of synbiotic inulin and enterococcus bacteria on digestive health and weight gain in calves
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The effect of synbiotic inulin and enterococcus bacteria on digestive health and weight gain in calves

A. Arne* and A. Ilgaza

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, K. Helmaņa street 8, LV-3004 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: arne.astra@gmail.com

Abstract:

The aim of study was to investigate the effect of a synbiotic containing Enterococcus bacteria and 3 different concentrations of inulin on the performance and health status of calves. Forty randomly selected healthy male Holstein crossbreed calves 23 (+/- 5) days old and weighing 50 kg (+/- 5 kg) were randomly allocated to 4 groups: control group (CoG n = 10) fed only whole milk, and 3 synbiotic supplemented groups: 1) SynG6 n = 10, 2) SynG12 n = 10, 3) SynG24 n = 10, in which calves received various amounts of prebiotic inulin (artichoke powder 6 g, 12 g, and 24 g) with 0.25 g of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium (2×109 CFU g-1). At the end of this study all three synbiotic group weight gains were significantly greater than the control group (p < 0.01). SynG12 (12 g artichoke powder) group’s weight gain was significantly greater than control and the 6 g and 24 g synbiotic groups (p < 0.05). The average cold carcass weight results were similar to the live weight results: SynG12 was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than SynG6 and SynG24. Supplementing feedings with this combination of the synbiotic containing 6 g of inulin (produce in Latvia) mixed with Enterococcus (Protexin, UK) bacteria (SynG12) was most effective in achieving the greatest daily weight gain and cold carcass weight.

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xxx C.G. Comar, M. dos S. Queiroz, M.M. de Andrade, J.R. Trettel and H.M. Magalhães
Copper modulates the biochemical and enzymatic activity and growth of tomato cultivars grown in vitro
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Copper modulates the biochemical and enzymatic activity and growth of tomato cultivars grown in vitro

C.G. Comar¹, M. dos S. Queiroz², M.M. de Andrade², J.R. Trettel¹ and H.M. Magalhães¹*

¹Paranaense University – UNIPAR, Graduate Program in Biotechnology Applied to Agriculture, 87502-210, Umuarama, Paraná, Brazil
²Paranaense University – UNIPAR, Agronomy, 87502-210, Umuarama, Paraná, Brazil
*Correspondence: helidamara@prof.unipar.br

Abstract:

Copper (Cu) is a micronutrient that is neglected for tomato growth. This study sought to identify the effects of exposure to Cu on the growth and biochemical activity of two tomato cultivars. Tomato seeds of ‘Carolina’ and ‘Cereja’ cultivars were disinfected and inoculated in MS medium plus copper sulfate concentrations (CuSO4) (default MS, 25, 50, and 100 μm) and had their growth monitored for 30 days. It was estimated that the growth and biomass accumulation of tomato plants ‘Carolina’ and ‘Cereja’, both from the aerial part and the roots, were benefited by 25 e 50 μm of CuSO4. However, it was observed that these concentrations were inefficient in controlling hyperhydricity and leaf deformation. There was a reduction of these phenomena in the treatment with 100 μm, in both cultivars. Tomato of ‘Carolina’ cultivar subjected to 100 μm showed an increase in anthocyanins and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the root system. There was a reduction of catalase (CAT) activity in shoots exposed to Cu. ‘Cereja’ tomatoes subjected to 100 μm showed an increase in CAT and SOD activity in shoots and roots, respectively. It was concluded that the ‘Carolina’ and ‘Cereja’ tomatoes have their growth impaired when exposed to 100 μm CuSO4. Concentrations higher than 50 μm of CuSO4 cause an increase in the antioxidant activity in the shoot of tomato plants from the ‘Carolina’ cultivar. Concentrations higher than 50 μm CuSO4 increase SOD activity in the root system of tomato plants from the ‘Cereja’ cultivar.

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xxx V. Bisters, J. Kalviss, J. Burlakovs and M. Klavins
Algae processing for energy production: development of waste pyrolysis technology
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Algae processing for energy production: development of waste pyrolysis technology

V. Bisters, J. Kalviss, J. Burlakovs and M. Klavins*

Department of Environmental Science, University of Latvia, Raina bulv. 19, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: maris.klavins@lu.lv

Abstract:

Waste processing accordingly to waste-to-energy concept remains a major challenge to deal with growing amounts of different waste types. The aim of the study is to expand the knowledge base for biomass waste thermochemical processing into syngas and biochar on example of algae waste treatment. In accordance to this concept, waste pyrolysis technology is further advanced by evaluating, studying and adapting the most technologically and economically feasible approach and by developing a pilot scale facility with the aim to demonstrate its potential to offer the industry an innovative solution for solid waste processing. The study includes theoretical background for thermal recovery of organic waste, with application of specifics of algae waste (beach wrack). Algae waste thermochemical processing and gas analysis are tested both for process of torrefied material and with full ash content characterisation. Additional algae waste proximate/ultimate analysis were done. The synthesis gas produced by the pyrolysis process contain 30–60% CH4, 5–12% H2, 20–40% CO (remaining CO2, N2) and thus can be used for heating purposes. The another algae waste pyrolysis product – biochar is enriched with mineral components thus increasing its application potential in agriculture, however in can be used also for energy production purposes. Thermal analytics of beach wreck undertaken on different type of samples to be common for the Baltic Sea area and projections on application of gasification technology for upscale at municipality level is analysed with a view to application for municipality larger amount material.

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xxx Z. Magyar, P. Pepó and E. Gyimes
Comprehensive study on wheat flour quality attributes as influence by different agrotechnical factors
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Comprehensive study on wheat flour quality attributes as influence by different agrotechnical factors

Z. Magyar¹*, P. Pepó¹ and E. Gyimes²

¹University of Debrecen, Kerpely Kálmán Doctoral School, Böszörményi street 138, HU4032 Debrecen, Hungary
²University of Szeged, Faculty of Engineering, Mars square 7, HU6724, Szeged Hungary
*Corresponding author. magyarzoltan93@gmail.com

Abstract:

The present polyfactorial long-term experiment was conducted to determine the role of different agrotechnical factors, like fertilization, forecrop, year and cultivar on the quality and yield attributes of a classical and a modern winter wheat genotypes. The research gives a complex view of the alteration of the most quality parameters (32) that are rarely done together in a single experiment (n = 96). All the studied factors had a significant effect on some tested properties. First growing season with fair water supply was beneficial for yield (+21.7%) however, the 2nd one with mild weather in spring and average annual precipitation was favourable for quality parameters (HFN: +3%, GI: +19%, GS: -51%, DDT: +22.4%, ST: +24.6%, DS: -14%, PDR: +37.6%, PD: +6%, PMR: +51.5%, PE: +52.7%, W: +25.8%, LV: +16.3%, HI: +13.3%). The optimal fertilizer demand of the different parameters varied to realize the potential of the varieties (N90P68K80 for Y, VWA, PWA, PMR, PE, LV, Mavg, KW and HI; meanwhile N150P113K133 for CP, WGC, ZI, VQN, ST, W and P/L). In the case of suboptimal nutrient supply, the effect of fore crops was significant (Y, CP, DGC, ZI, FE, VQN, DDT, ST, DS, PDR, PMR, PE, Mavg and all alveographic values). Comparing the varieties, GK Öthalom had better fertilizer response attribute (NUECP) and quality parameters, till then Mv Ispán possessed significantly better natural nutrient utilizing property (+22.9%), NUEY and yield (+31.7% in 2019). Summarizing the results, there is a need to put great emphasis on the selection of adapted cultivar and variety-specific agrotechnology practices, also these data contribute to a better understanding of the relationships between the quality parameters.

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xxx L.M. Shevchuk, I.V. Grynyk, L.M. Levchuk, O.M. Yareshcenko, Ya.Yu. Tereshcenko and S.M. Babenko
Biochemical contents of highbush blueberry fruits grown in the Western Forest-Steppe of Ukraine
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Biochemical contents of highbush blueberry fruits grown in the Western Forest-Steppe of Ukraine

L.M. Shevchuk*, I.V. Grynyk, L.M. Levchuk, O.M. Yareshcenko, Ya.Yu. Tereshcenko and S.M. Babenko

National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Horticulture, Sadova Str., 23, UA03027 Novosilky, Kyiv region, Ukraine
*Correspondence: zberig@ukr.net

Abstract:

The study of the physical and consumption qualitative indices of the highbush blueberries (the cultivars ‘Reca’, ‘Elizabeth’ and ‘Bluegold’) in the Western Lisosteppe of Ukraine has shown that the biggest fruit mass was accumulated by the berries of two last mentioned vs (1.54–1.50 g respectively). ‘Bluegold’ has this indicator as the least variable (V = 10.6%). The accumulation of fruit mass of all studied cultivars was facilitated by a moderately humid period of their development in 2018 with a hydrothermal coefficient of 1.1–1.2. The favorable year for the intensive synthesis of the dry matter and soluble solids was 2017 when the precipitation amount did not exceed 44 mm. The biggest number of the mentioned substances during the research period was accumulated by fruits of ‘Reca’ – 17.48 and 13.24%, respectively. It was established that the dry matter content had high level of stability (V = 8.2%), and middle was for soluble solids (V = 19.5%). The amount of monosaccharides from which glucose and fructose were investigated in fruits varied from 6.11 (‘Bluegold’) to 7.85 (‘Reca’), it was slightly lower in ‘Elizabeth’ berries – 7.78%. ‘Bluegold’ fruits were characterized by high stability (B = 9.6%) of the biggest content of titrated acids among the studied cultivars (2.42%). The dry weather with low number of precipitation in 2017 (hydrothermal coefficient 0.3–0.4) was favourable for the accumulation of both the mentioned acids and vitamin C in fruits of highbush blueberries in the period of their formation and growth. The amount of ascorbic acid in fruits in the specified year varied from 20.00 mg 100 g-1 WM (‘Reca’) to 27.00 mg 100 g-1 WM (‘Elizabeth’) with an intermediate value of 22.50 mg 100 g-1 WM (‘Bluegold’). The latest of the mentioned varieties had the most constant index (V = 7.0%). The content of polyphenolic substances was slightly dependent on weather conditions during the period of fruit growth, the coefficients of variation were 6.2% (‘Reca’), 7.0% (‘Elizabeth’) and 5.8% (‘Bluegold’). The fruits of the last mentioned cultivars were characterized with the biggest anthocyanins and chalcones content (68 and 13 mg 100 g-1 WM, respectively). The substantial indirect dependence of the content of the nutritive substances and anthocyanins on the berry mass was revealed in the ‘Reca’ fruits.

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xxx B. Yameogo, R.R. Andrade, C.G.S. Teles Júnior, G.S. Laud, V. Becciolini, L. Leso, G. Rossi and M. Barbari
Behavioural patterns of cows housed in two different typologies of compost-bedded pack barns
Abstract |

Behavioural patterns of cows housed in two different typologies of compost-bedded pack barns

B. Yameogo¹, R.R. Andrade², C.G.S. Teles Júnior³, G.S. Laud⁴, V. Becciolini¹, L. Leso¹, G. Rossi¹ and M. Barbari¹*

¹University of Florence, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry, Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
²Federal University of Viçosa, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n Campus University of Viçosa, BR 36570-900, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil
³Federal Rural University of the Amazon, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Av. Perimetral, Terra Firme, BR 66077830, Belém, Pará, Brazil
⁴Federal University of Viçosa, Department of Animal Science, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n Campus University of Viçosa, BR 36570-900, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil
*Correspondence: matteo.barbari@unifi.it

Abstract:

The compost-bedded pack barn (CBP) is an innovative housing technique which has the improvement of animal welfare as main objective. A comparative study of the behaviour of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows housed in two different compost-bedded pack barns located in the State of Minas Gerais (Brazil) was carried out during the winter season. One barn (CBP A) is closed and applies a wind tunnel ventilation (negative pressure). A second barn (CBP B) is open with natural ventilation, without curtains on the sides, and has fans placed in the resting area. Infrared video cameras were installed in the two barns to allow continuous and simultaneous monitoring of cows’ behaviour. Air temperature and relative humidity inside the barns were monitored continuously and Temperature-Humidity Index was consequently calculated. The results show that the cows housed in the closed barn, with forced ventilation (CBP A), were in good thermal conditions, which were fairly constant, while in the open barn (CBP B) the internal microclimatic conditions were more subject to outside climatic conditions. A close relationship was found between the trend of air temperature and relative humidity inside the facilities and the behaviour of the cows. The number of cows at rest, in CBP B, decreased as the THI value rose. In CBP A, the behaviour of the cows in relation to THI was much more constant.

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xxx T. Penev, D. Dimov, I. Marinov and T. Angelova
Study of influence of heat stress on some physiological and productive traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows
Abstract |
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Study of influence of heat stress on some physiological and productive traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows

T. Penev¹*, D. Dimov¹, I. Marinov² and T. Angelova³

¹Trakia University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Applied Ecology and Animal Hygiene, BG6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
²Trakia University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Husbandry – Ruminants and Dairy Farming, BG6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
³Institute of Agriculture, BG6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
*Correspondence: tonchopenev@abv.bg

Abstract:

The aim of the research was to study the effect of heat stress (HS) on some physiological and productive traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. The study included 22 cows on different parities. In the building where the cows were housed, the temperature-humidity index (THI) was reported at 10:00 and 15:00 h, at the same time the rectal temperature (RT) and respiratory rate (RR) were reported for each of the examined cows. The daily rumen activity was taken from the SCR system by Allflex. The average THI values in May were 71, in June – 75, in July – 74, and in August – 77, from which it follows that in the summer months the cows were in conditions of mild to moderate heat stress throughout the day. The average daily milk yield of the cows increased from May to June and reached 41.44 kg day-1, then decreased in July and August to 37.2 and 32.48 kg day-1, respectively. With an increase in the THI values, an increase in the RR and RT was registered, as in THI above 79 the RR was 56.54 per min, and the RT was 39.33 °C. With increasing the THI values, the rumination of the cows decreased from 563 per day at THI < 72 to 542.5 at THI > 79. In cows with high daily milk yield, a higher RT was registered, and in cows with more than 50 kg per day, the RT was 39.09 °С. A more intense rumination was found in cows with higher daily milk yield. In cows with an average daily milk yield of 33.26 kg, an average of 450 ruminations per day were reported, and in those with an average milk yield of up to 42.89 kg – 650 ruminations per day. From the research conducted it was found that the studied physiological traits – rectal temperature, respiration rate and rumination are influenced by HS and the intensity of this effect depend on the daily milk yield of cows and THI levels.

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xxx Y. Chenene, D. Blavet, M. Belalmi, G. Kaci, M. Teffahi and S.M. Ounane
Variation of chickpea nodulation in a Mediterranean agroecosystem: relationship with soil characteristics and thresholds for significant contribution to plant growth
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Variation of chickpea nodulation in a Mediterranean agroecosystem: relationship with soil characteristics and thresholds for significant contribution to plant growth

Y. Chenene¹*, D. Blavet², M. Belalmi¹, G. Kaci¹³, M. Teffahi¹ and S.M. Ounane¹

¹High National School of Agronomy, Plant Production Department, Laboratory for Vegetal Production, El Harrach, Algiers, Algeria
²Research Institute for Development-IRD, UMR Eco&Sols, Functional Ecology and Biogeochemistry of Soils and Agro-Ecosystems, INRA-IRD-CIRAD-SupAgro, University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France
³University M’Hamed Bougara of Boumerdes, Department of Agronomic Sciences, Avenue de l’indépendance, Boumerdes, Algeria
*Correspondence: cheneneyacine@gmail.com

Abstract:

This study was designed to investigate the influence of some environmental constraints on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) growth and nodulation in a reference agroecosystem. This multi-local field experiment, realized in the agroecosystem of Chlef in northern Algeria, involved 24 sites where the local well-adapted genotype Ain temouchent is grown. Determination of soil properties allowed the identification of three clusters of sites. Plant biomass (SDW) varied significantly among sites from 6.7 to 39.4 g SDW plant-1 and was highly correlated with nodule biomass (NDW). The slope of the regression function between NDW and SDW, defined as the efficiency in use of the rhizobial symbiosis (EURS) inside clusters ranged from 67 to 200 g SDW g-1 NDW. Analysis of the EURS highlighted the existence of a low nodulation threshold of 0.1 g NDW plant-1 below which the contribution of nodulation to the host plant growth was not significant and a high threshold above which the nodule biomass increase was not linked with an increase in shoot biomass. Thus, the significant regression of shoot growth as a function of nodulation ranged from 0.10 to 0.35 g NDW plant-1 (R2 = 0.54, P < 0.001). Moreover, nodule biomass was positively correlated with soil Olsen-P, more particularly in cluster A (R2 = 0.50, P < 0.05) and B (R2 = 0.61, P < 0.01). This approach proved to be a rapid and efficient way to identify the major factors affecting nodulation in order to develop strategies to optimize nodule contribution to chickpea growth and yield.

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xxx E.E. Golia, A. Angelaki, K.D. Giannoulis, E. Skoufogianni, D. Bartzialis, Ch. Cavalaris and S. Vleioras
Evaluation of soil properties, irrigation and solid waste application levels on Cu and Zn uptake by industrial hemp
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Evaluation of soil properties, irrigation and solid waste application levels on Cu and Zn uptake by industrial hemp

E.E. Golia¹*, A. Angelaki¹, K.D. Giannoulis¹, E. Skoufogianni¹, D. Bartzialis¹, Ch. Cavalaris¹ and S. Vleioras²

¹University of Thessaly, School of Agriculture Crop Production and Agricultural Environment, Fytokou Street, N. Ionia, GR38 446 Magnesia, Greece
²Regional Centre of Quality Control and Plant Protection of Magnesia, Laboratory of Quality Control, Torousia & Nikolaidi, Pedion Areos, GR38334, Volos, Greece
*Correspondence: egol@uth.gr

Abstract:

Α three-year experiment was performed to study the alteration of copper and zinc levels in industrial hemp grown in different soils using elevated sewage slurry solid waste applications. Two soil samples, an acidic and an alkaline one, with different soil properties, such as percentage of CaCO3 and cation exchange capacity values, were used. Three treatments of waste solid with provided elevated concentrations of Cu and Zn were combined with two irrigation levels. The application of high doses of the solid residue as well as high irrigation level lead to an increase of the mobility of metals in hemp leaves in acidic soil in contrast to alkaline. On the contrary, in alkaline soil along with a reduced irrigation level, there is a decrease in the mobility of Cu and therefore its accumulation in the roots or stems was observed. Concluding, hemp seem to be a promising plant remediator, after the application of the proper irrigation level and taking into account the physico-chemical soil properties of moderately contaminated (with copper and zinc) soils.

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xxx S. Kalenska, N. Novytska, T. Stolyarchuk, V. Kalenskyi, L. Garbar, M. Sadko, O. Shutiy and R. Sonko
Nanopreparations in technologies of plants growing
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Nanopreparations in technologies of plants growing

S. Kalenska¹*, N. Novytska¹, T. Stolyarchuk¹, V. Kalenskyi², L. Garbar¹, M. Sadko³, O. Shutiy¹ and R. Sonko¹

¹National University of Life and Environmental Science, Department of Plant Science, Heroiv Oborony str., no 15, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²National University of Life and Environmental Science, Department of Agrochemistry and Quality of Plant Production, Heroiv Oborony str., no 15, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
³National University of Life and Environmental Science, Department of Information Systems and Technologies, Heroiv Oborony str., no 15, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
*Correspondence: svitlana.kalenska@gmail.com

Abstract:

The use of engineered nanomaterials in sustainable agriculture has demonstrated a completely new way of food production that can potentially overcome uncertainty in the agricultural sector with limited available resources. Nanoparticle engineering is one of the latest technological innovations which demonstrate unique target characteristics.
During 2013–2020, research on the directions and effectiveness of nanopreparations in plant growing: nutrient source, activation of photosynthesis, immunocorrectors, stimulators of seed germination, plant growth and development, multivalent drugs for increasing plant resistance to stress was conducted. Monoparticles, nanoparticle combinations, and chelate complex of nano fertilizers on crops of soybean were tested. Field research was conducted in a stationary field experiment of the Plant Science Department of the National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine. The soil of the stationary experiment is typical chernozem. In research was used soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) of early-ripening variety Horol. Over the years of research, weather conditions varied, but were within the typical for zone of research. Average monthly temperatures were close or higher the perennial average indicators.
The purpose of the research is to find out the influence of pre-sowing seed treatment and fertilizing of crops by nano-preparations Avatar (microfertilizer of carboxylates of natural acids), Iodis-concentrate (immunomodulator – stimulator of growth processes), and Super Micro Plus (nanochelate fertilizer) on leaf formation – rate, the activity of symbiotic nitrogen fixation and yield of soybean variety Horol.
Nanopreparations were used for pre-sowing seed treatment and fertilizing – spraying during the growing season in several doses. The use of nanopreparations, as seed treatment in combination with inoculation and as fertilizer, intensified formation of the leaf surface area, symbiotic apparatus activity of soybean plants. The introduction of nanofertilizers complex in the top-dressing helped to increase yields and change the functional quality of crop products which indicates their unconditional effectiveness. Soybean yield significantly depended on weather conditions, varying from 1.23 to 3.48 t ha-1 depending on the weather conditions and the combination of seed inoculation and nanofertilizer. Soybean yield under favourable weather conditions in 2016, depending on the use of preparation combination ranged from 2.27 to 3.48 t ha-1.
As a result of the research, it was found that the use of nanopreparations Avatar, Jodis-concentrate and Super Micro Plus for seed treatment and fertilizing intensified leaf surface formation and symbiotic apparatus activity of soybean plants. The obtained results confirm that application of nanofertilizers complex Jodis-concentrate, Avatar and nano chelate fertilizer Super Micro Plus in the soybean fertilizing helped to increase the yield, which testifies to their unconditional effectiveness. The highest efficiency of nanofertilizers was shown by inoculation and seed treatment by Avatar and fertilizing by Avatar + nano chelate fertilizer Super Micro Plus, providing the formation of 52.4 thousand m2 ha-1 of leaf surface area of soybean varieties Horol, 69.7 pcs per plant of root nodules, 785 mg per plant of their weight and yield at the level of 2.79 t ha-1 an average of five years.

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xxx V. Komasilovs, N. Bumanis, A. Kviesis, J. Anhorn and A. Zacepins
Development of the Digital Matchmaking Platform for international cooperation in the biogas sector
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Development of the Digital Matchmaking Platform for international cooperation in the biogas sector

V. Komasilovs¹, N. Bumanis¹, A. Kviesis¹, J. Anhorn² and A. Zacepins¹*

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Information Technologies, Department of Computer Systems, Lielā iela 2, LV-3001, Jelgava, Latvia
²Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Friedrich-Ebert-Allee 32 + 36, DE 53113 Bonn, Germany
*Correspondence: aleksejs.zacepins@llu.lv

Abstract:

The demand for sustainable, renewable and clean energy sources has been increasing in the past decade in order to combat global warming by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Biogas has proven to be a versatile energy carrier which can be used for heating purposes, power and fuel. Having acknowledged the high potential for the use of biogas energy and having researched the demand and supply markets, the Digital Global Biogas Cooperation (DiBiCoo) project aims to link European biogas and biomethane technology providers with emerging and developing markets. To achieve this goal the development and application of innovative digital support tools is necessary – a digital matchmaking platform (DMP) with bi-directional partnership architecture. DMP can be used as means to build trust-based business relationships, share information on available European technologies and serve as an additional marketing option for EU and non-EU companies and industries. This article presents the developed platform prototype and demonstrates its basic functionality and the development process. Basic business and functional requirements were defined and then refined into functional, user-interface and performance requirements for implementation. User requirements were defined using user centred design approach in collaboration with potential platform end-users, considering their specific needs. During the development process Agile methodology was used. In the future digital platform functionality will be extended based on discussions and feedback of the stakeholders and end-users during local workshops and other events, where the DiBiCoo platform will be presented.

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xxx S. Polyanskikh, I. Arinicheva, I. Arinichev and G. Volkova
Autoencoders for semantic segmentation of rice fungal diseases
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Autoencoders for semantic segmentation of rice fungal diseases

S. Polyanskikh¹, I. Arinicheva², I. Arinichev³* and G. Volkova⁴

¹Plarium Inc., 75/1 Uralskaya Str., RU350001 Krasnodar, Russia
²Kuban State Agrarian University named after I.T. Trubilin, 13 Kalinina Str., RU350044 Krasnodar, Russia
³Kuban State University, 149 Stavropolskaya Str., RU350040 Krasnodar, Russia
⁴All-Russian Research Institute of Biological Plant Protection, 1 VNIIBZR Str., RU350039, Krasnodar, Russia
*Correspondence: iarinichev@gmail.com

Abstract:

In the article, the authors examine the possibility of automatic localization of rice fungal infections using modern methods of computer vision. The authors consider a new approach based on the use of autoencoders – special neural network architectures. This approach makes it possible to detect areas on rice leaves affected by a particular disease. The authors demonstrate that the autoencoder can be trained to remove affected areas from the image. In some cases, this allows one to clearly highlight the affected area by comparing the resulting image with the original one. Therefore, modern architectures of convolutional autoencoders provide quite acceptable visual quality of detection.

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xxx A. Leola, J. Priekulis, J. Česna and M. Gaworski
Trend of cow herd size in Baltic states
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Trend of cow herd size in Baltic states

A. Leola¹, J. Priekulis², J. Česna³ and M. Gaworski⁴*

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 56, EE 51014 Tartu, Estonia
²Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Engineering, J. Cakstes bulv. 5, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
³Vytautas Magnus University Agriculture Academy, Institute of Energy and Biotechnology Engineering, Studentų Str. 15, LT 53362 Academy, Kaunas district, Lithuania
⁴Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Nowoursynowska Str. 164, PL 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
*Correspondence: marek_gaworski@sggw.edu.pl

Abstract:

The article analyses trend of cow herd size from 2000 to 2019 in four Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland. It has been stated that during this period of time the average size of cow herds has increased 3–4 times, except in Estonia, where it has increased 8 times. Nevertheless, the number of cows in the herds is different in individual countries. In the herds with up to 5 cows in Estonia there are about 2% of cows, but in the other Baltic states it is 10–18% of the total number of cows. In turn, in the herds with 50 or more cows, what corresponds to implementation of modern milk production technologies and machinery, in Latvia and Lithuania there are about 50% of cows, in Poland 30%, but in Estonia 90% of the total number of cows in the country. It has influenced the specific labour intensity of the people working in milk production. In Estonia, this indicator in 2019 was about 100 man-h per cow per year, but in the other Baltic states it was 300–350 man-h calculating per cow per year. Still, with robotization and automation of all basic work operations the specific labour intensity in milk production can be decreased to 30–50 man-h calculating per cow per year. Therefore, there are still great development possibilities in all Baltic countries.

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xxx L. Honchar, B. Mazurenko, O. Shutyi, V. Pylypenko, D. Rakhmetov
Effect of pre-seed and foliar treatment with nano-particle solutions on seedling development of tiger nut (Cyperus Esculentus L.) plants
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Effect of pre-seed and foliar treatment with nano-particle solutions on seedling development of tiger nut (Cyperus Esculentus L.) plants

L. Honchar¹, B. Mazurenko¹*, O. Shutyi¹, V. Pylypenko¹, D. Rakhmetov²

¹National University of Life and Environmental Science, Department of Plant Science, Heroiv Oborony street 15, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²National Botanic Garden, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Timiryazevska str., 1, UA01014 Kyiv, Ukraine
*Correspondence: mazurenko.bohdan@nubip.edu.ua

Abstract:

Micronutrients are part of enzymes and play an important role in plant germination. Purpose of our study was to establish the effect of pre-seed treatment of chufa tubers with metal nanoparticles on the growth of the root system and seedlings in the early stages of development. Laboratory tests were performed on seed of tiger nut cultivar Pharaoh. Experiment involved two methods of treatment: pre-sowing treatment of seeds with nano-particles solutions of manganese, zinc, copper and iron with a concentration of 60 ppm and re-application of these solutions after seedling emergence. The weight of seedlings and roots was determined at 3rd and 10th days after emergence in treated and untreated variants. Pre-sowing treatment of chufa tubers with all forms of micronutrients significantly increased the weight of the plant (excluding the weight of seeds), and the most effective were treatments with copper and iron. Treatment with copper colloidal solution increases in root weight at 3rd day on 156% compared to control without treatment and this dynamic stayed at 10th day. Most affective treatment is iron colloidal solution. This treatment gives +99% of root weight at 3rd day and 194% at 10th day after germination compared to control in same time. Colloidal forms of manganese, copper and iron also significantly increased the weight of the shoot. Increase in the mass of roots, shoots and plants is observed in plants with foliar fertilizing, but a few variants have an insignificant difference or inhibit the assimilation processes of plants. Pre-sowing treatment with zinc citrate at 60 ppm decreased root and shoot weight in chufa.

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xxx G. Tobi, Y.E. Bahloul, S. Oumouss, I. Rahmouni, A. Birouk and O. Benlhabib
Productivity, heritability and stability analysis of a Moroccan sugar beet germplasm
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Productivity, heritability and stability analysis of a Moroccan sugar beet germplasm

G. Tobi¹²*, Y.E. Bahloul¹, S. Oumouss¹, I. Rahmouni¹, A. Birouk² and O. Benlhabib²

¹Regional Center of Agricultural Research of Rabat, Research Unit of Plant Improvement Conservation and Development of Phytogenetic Resources, Avenue Mohamed Belarbi Alaoui B.P: 6356 – Instituts, 10101 – Rabat, Morocco
²Research Unit of Applied Biotechnologies in Agriculture, Agrobiodiversity and Local Products, Department of Plant Protection Production and Biotechnology, Hassan II Institute of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, Avenue Allal EL FASSI – Madinat Al Irfane – BP 6202 – 10101 Rabat, Morocco
*Correspondence: g.tobi@iav.ac.ma

Abstract:

Progeny testing is the second part of maternal recurrent selection scheme adopted by INRA-Morocco for the national sugar beet breeding programme. The objective of this study is sugar beet germplasm productivity, heritability and stability analysis. The studied material concern 18 half-sib families (HSF) preselected initially for their seed production potential. Trials were conducted using randomised complete blocks designs during, 2013/14, 2014/15, 2015/16, 2017/18 campaigns in two experimental fields of INRA-Morocco; Sidi Allal Tazi (34° 30′ N, 6° 19′ W) and Larache (35° 11’ N, 6° 09’ W). Evaluated parameters concern the vigour, root weight (RW), leaf biomass yield (LBY), and sugar content (Sc). Data analysis by comparative procedures explores different accordance degrees of HSF versus controls. Good vegetative growth was observed, 85.6% closer to the maximal indicated scale level. The RW was significantly influenced by the genotype and reached a maximum of 1.06 kg versus 1.08 kg average recorded by controls. Sugar content recorded mean was 20.97% in HSF versus 21.39% in the controls. Most of HSF revealed mean values close to Z-type variety. Estimated heritability was 0.5 for RW, 0.2 for the LBY, and 0.02 for Sc. Sugar content was influenced by the environment and explained by the AMMI model (73.6%) versus 53.9% and 44.4% for root weight and leaf biomass yield respectively. The AMMI stability values showed F11, F12, F16, and F17 families as the most performing and stable HSF. Results demonstrate the relevance of the maternal recurrent selection scheme of the on-going national breeding programme.

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xxx V. Bulgakov, I. Holovach, V. Adamchuk, S. Ivanovs, V. Melnik, Ye. Ihnatiev and J. Olt
Research into geometric parameters of digging shares used for lifting sugar beet roots from soil with assistance of vibration
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Research into geometric parameters of digging shares used for lifting sugar beet roots from soil with assistance of vibration

V. Bulgakov¹, I. Holovach¹, V. Adamchuk², S. Ivanovs³, V. Melnik⁴, Ye. Ihnatiev⁵ and J. Olt⁶*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²National Scientific Centre, Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification, 11 Vokzalna Str., Glevakcha 1, Vasylkiv District, UA 08631 Kyiv Region, Ukraine
³Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, 2 Liela Str., LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia
⁴Kharkiv Petro Vasylenko National Technical University of Agriculture, 44 Alchevskih Str., UA 61002 Kharkiv, Ukraine
⁵Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B, Khmelnytsky Ave, UA 72310, Melitopol, Zaporozhye Region, Ukraine
⁶Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE5 1006Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

One of the important conditions in securing the high quality, when performing the work process of vibrational root lifting, is to avoid damaging the roots. It is obvious that the greatest probability of damaging and even breaking the lifted root arises, when the tool interacts with the root body during their first contact and in the time of the root passing in the throat between the operating shares. The aim of the study is to substantiate the rational design length for the working throat of the vibrational root lifter in its interaction with the sugar beet root while lifting the latter from the soil. As a result of the completed research, the minimum permissible tool oscillation frequencies have been determined for the specific values of the lifter’s translational velocity and the working throat rear part length, at which the event of the vibrational lifting tool gripping the root will occur at least one time. For example, when the length of the lifter’s working throat rear part is equal to 0.1 m and the oscillation frequency is equal to ν = 20.3 Hz, the satisfactory quality of the vibrational root lifting process is ensured, when the velocity of the translational motion performed by the vibrational lifter stays within the range of 1.3–2.55 m s–1. In order to ensure the good quality of the vibrational root lifting process at the lifter’s translational velocity equal to V = 2.0 m s–1 and the frequency of its tool’s oscillations equal to ν = 10 Hz, it is necessary that the length of the lifter’s working throat rear part is equal to 0.2 m, at a tool oscillation frequency of 6.7 Hz – 0.3 m. As a result of the completed numerical calculations, the permissible values have been determined for the tool oscillation frequency, which can be recommended for the translational velocities within the range of 1.3–2.2 m s–1,
taking into account the limitation set for the tool oscillation frequency by the pre-condition of the guaranteed gripping of each root by the digging shares.

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xxx E. Sermyagina, C. Mendoza and I. Deviatkin
Effect of hydrothermal carbonization and torrefaction on spent coffee grounds
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Effect of hydrothermal carbonization and torrefaction on spent coffee grounds

E. Sermyagina¹*, C. Mendoza¹² and I. Deviatkin³

¹LUT University, Department of Energy Technology, PL 20, 53851 Lappeenranta, Finland
²Federal University of Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG Brazil
³LUT University, Department of Sustainability Science, PL 20, 53851 Lappeenranta, Finland
*Correspondence: ekaterina.sermyagina@lut.fi

Abstract:

Coffee is one of the most tradable commodities worldwide with the current global consumption of over 10 billion kilograms of coffee beans annually. At the same time, a significant amount of solid residues, which are known as spent coffee grounds (SCG), is generated during instant coffee manufacturing and coffee brewing. Those residues have a high potential in various applications, yet they remain mostly unutilized. The current work presents the experimental comparison of two pretreatment technologies – hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) and torrefaction – for converting SCG into a valuable char. The results showed that low-temperature torrefaction (< 250 °C) has a negligible effect on feedstock properties due to initial pre-processing of coffee beans. However, the energy conversion efficiency of torrefaction at higher temperatures is comparable with that of HTC. The average energy yields for high-temperature torrefaction (> 250 °C) and HTC were on the level of 88%. Devolatilization and depolymerization reactions reduce oxygen and increase carbon contents during both processes: chars after torrefaction at 300 °C and HTC at 240 °C had 23–28% more carbon and 43–46% less oxygen than the feedstock. Both pretreatment methods led to a comparable increase in energy density: the highest HHV of 31.03 MJ kg-1 for torrefaction at 300 °C and 32.33 MJ kg-1 for HTC at 240 °C, which is similar to HHV of anthracite. The results showed that both processes can be effectively used to convert SCG into energy-dense char, even though HTC led to slightly higher energy densification rates.

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xxx V. Karpenko, Y. Boiko, R. Prytulіak, A. Datsenko, S. Shutko and T. Novikova
Anatomical changes in the epidermis of winter pea stipules and their area under usage of herbicide, stimulator of plant growth and microbial preparation
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Anatomical changes in the epidermis of winter pea stipules and their area under usage of herbicide, stimulator of plant growth and microbial preparation

V. Karpenko*, Y. Boiko, R. Prytulіak, A. Datsenko, S. Shutko and T. Novikova

Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of horticulture, Ecology and Plants Protectoin, Deparment of Biology, Instytutska street, 1, UA20300 Uman, Ukraine
*Correspondence: unuh1844@gmail.com

Abstract:

The use and search for new methods and ways to reduce negative herbicidal effect on crops is a key factor in increasing the level of yield and quality in modern agricultural conditions, including cultivation of crops such as winter peas. One of the factors that reflects the depth of the effect of herbicides on the plant organism may be the anatomical structure of the leaf, thus, the aim of the research was to study the characteristics of epidermis and size of stipules of winter peas with the complex use of stimulator of plant growth and microbial preparation in herbicide cultivation technology.
To determine the optimal combination of preparations and rates of their introduction, a field experiment was established in the Department of Biology of Uman National University of Horticulture (2018–2019), which included options: without herbicide, stimulator of plant growth and pre-sowing seed treatment with microbial preparation (control); treatment of plants with MaxiMox herbicide during the growing season in the rates of 0.8, 0.9, 1.0 and 1.1 L ha-1 separately and in mixtures with stimulator of plant growth Agriflex Amino in the rate of 1.0 kg ha-1 without and against the background of pre-sowing treatment of seeds with microbial preparation Optimize Pulse in the rate of 3.28 L t-1 (background). The experiment was repeated 3 times. Treatment of winter pea plants with preparations was carried out in the phase of 3–4 developed tendrils (BBCH 13–14). During the experiment it was found that treatment of winter pea plants with MaxiMox herbicide, especially with increasing level of the preparation to 1.1 L ha-1 led to anatomical and morphological changes in plant stipules and affected the stipule size of winter pea crops. The number of epidermal cells on average decreased by 14–53 pcs (6–22%) at LSD05 9.8 pcs, but their size increased by 28.42–394.52 μm2 (2–35%) at LSD05 71.7 μm2, while the size of the stipulate apparatus of crops increased on average by 2.7–4.6 thousand m2 ha-1 (13–22%) at LSD05 1.3 thousand m2 ha-1. The complex application of the herbicide with stimulator of plant growth, especially against the background of pre-sowing treatment of seeds with the microbial preparation Optimize Pulse in the rate of 3.28 L t-1, caused a decrease in the number of epidermal cells per unit of stipules surface on average by 50–84 pcs (21–35%) at LSD05 9.8 pcs and with an increase in the stipule size by 9–12 thousand m2 ha-1 (44–59%) at LSD05 1.3 thousand m2 ha-1, this may indicate the optimal effect of these mixtures of preparations on metabolic processes in plants against the background of reducing negative impact of the herbicide.

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xxx M. Hossain and J. Lellep
Thermo mechanical vibration of single wall carbon nanotube partially embedded into soil medium
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Thermo mechanical vibration of single wall carbon nanotube partially embedded into soil medium

M. Hossain* and J. Lellep

University of Tartu, Faculty of Science and Technology, Institute of mathematics and statistics, Narva mnt 18, EE51009 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: mainul.hossain@ut.ee

Abstract:

Single wall carbon nanotube is one of the promising forms of carbon nanocomposite. Due to its high strength and stiffness, carbon nanotube is potentially used in various nanoscale structures. In this paper, dynamic behaviour of single wall carbon nanotube partially embedded into elastic soil medium is modelled by the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and nonlocal theory of elasticity. Analytical solution technique is employed to solve these governing differential equations of nanotube. Analysing the effects of temperature, nonlocal parameter, coefficients of elastic medium on dynamic behaviour of nanotube are our main concern. The results reveal that the effects of temperature, nonlocal parameter and coefficients of elastic medium are very significant on the natural frequency of nanotube.

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xxx V. Bulgakov, O. Adamchuk, S. Pascuzzi, F. Santoro and J. Olt
Experimental research into uniformity in spreading mineral fertilizers with fertilizer spreader disc with tilted axis
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Experimental research into uniformity in spreading mineral fertilizers with fertilizer spreader disc with tilted axis

V. Bulgakov¹, O. Adamchuk², S. Pascuzzi³, F. Santoro³ and J. Olt⁴*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²National Scientific Centre, Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification, 11 Vokzalna Str., Glevakcha 1, Vasylkiv District, UA 08631 Kyiv Region, Ukraine
³University of Bari Aldo Moro, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Science, Via Amendola, 165/A, IT 70125 Bari, Italy
⁴Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE 51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

Improving the efficiency in the work process of mineral fertilizer dressing is a topical problem in today’s agricultural industry. The authors have developed a design of the fertilizer spreading tool with a tilted axis and carried out field experiment investigations on it. It has been established by the results of the investigations that the non-uniformity in the spreading of mineral fertilizers along the line of their departure from the fertilizer spreading tool with a tilted axis is most strongly affected by the disc rotation frequency. The obtained results provide for selecting the optimum parameters and modes of operation for the tool under consideration in the situation, when it is installed in fertilizer placing machines. Also, it has been established that increasing the spreading disc rotation frequency in such a tool from 600 to 800 rpm results in the growth of the effective range of mineral fertilizer spreading along the placing line at a level of 10.5 m. Increasing the disc’s angle of inclination to the horizontal plane to 20º results in the rise of the effective fertilizer spreading range at a level of the 48th tray (24 m) inclusive as well as the increase of the distance between the tool and the tray that contains the maximum share of the spread fertilizers (5.1%) to 24 trays (12 m). At a constant rotation frequency of the disc in the tilted-axis fertilizer spreading tool, in all its kinematic modes of operation, an increase in the angle of its disc’s inclination to the horizontal plane results in the rise of the indices representing the distribution of the mineral fertilizers over the trays along the line of their placing. The width of the mineral fertilizer spreading can be controlled by adjusting the rotation frequency of the disc in the tilted-axis fertilizer spreading tool, when it is set at an angle to the horizontal plane, similar to how it is done in state-of-the-art fertilizer placing machines with horizontally positioned discs in their centrifugal spreading tools. The rotation frequency of the disc in the tilted-axis fertilizer spreading tool has the most significant effect on the coefficient of variation incidental to the distribution of the mineral fertilizers along the line of their placing.

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xxx E. Timofeev and A. Erk
Perspectives for biogas generation from manure on the farms in the Leningrad Region of the Russian Federation
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Perspectives for biogas generation from manure on the farms in the Leningrad Region of the Russian Federation

E. Timofeev* and A. Erk

Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution ‘Federal Scientific Agroengineering Center VIM’, branch in Saint Petersburg, Filtrovskoje shosse, 3 p.o. Tiarlevo, RU 196625 Saint Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: timofeev_ev84@mail.ru

Abstract:

The interest in biogas in the Leningrad Region is consistently growing. Biogas can replace fossil fuels in different applications and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The study aimed to demonstrate the perspectives for its generation from livestock waste and further farm application. The farm energy audits identified the pattern of fuel and energy consumption. Computational and statistical methods were applied to estimate the biogas generation. First, the study considered a cattle farm with 1,800 head and manure output of 43,300 t year-1. According to calculations, the farm can fully meet its own needs for electricity or motor fuel by converting the manure into biogas. Meanwhile, the fuel use of biogas can reduce pollutant emissions by almost 30% against conventional fuel. Secondly, the study estimated the biogas production potential from the farm organic waste in the whole Leningrad Region with the total cattle stock of 165,000 head, pig stock of 184,000 head, and poultry stock of 29,180,000 head, producing about 8 million t year-1 of animal/poultry manure. According to calculations, the livestock waste processing will yield up to 500 million m3 of biogas. This is enough to fully cover the energy inputs of the farms in this region. However, the payback period for biogas plants is above eight years. The positive aspects of biogas application are introducing biogas in the farm energy balance as an energy resource; reducing the hazardous emissions owing to the improved processing of organic farm waste; obtaining high-quality fertilisers to consequently increase crop yields.

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