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xxx L. Degola, I. Jansons and V. Šterna
Effect of replacement of coated barley grain with hulless barley in diet on growth, carcass and meat quality traits of fattening pigs
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Effect of replacement of coated barley grain with hulless barley in diet on growth, carcass and meat quality traits of fattening pigs

L. Degola¹*, I. Jansons² and V. Šterna²

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Institute of Animal Sciences, Liela street 2, LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, Dizstende, Libagi parish, LV 3258 Talsi County, Latvia
*Correspondence: lilija.degola@llu.lv

Abstract:

A amount of experimental pigs were 40 crossbred pigs (Yorkshire × Landrace). The initial body weight of pigs were average 27.0 kg. The goal of research was to assess the effect of replacement of coated barley grain with hulless barley in diet on pig growth, carcass and pork quality indices. Experimental groups of pigs on the holding were conducted according to age and sex. For trial group of pigs, a compound feed with hulless barley (38.9–45.4%) was prepared, for the control with coated barley (39.3–43.3%). The feed recipes made according the pigs age. The other feed ingredients were not changed and were wheat, soybean meal and oil, premivit, and from 20 till 70 kg liveweight also fish meal. Diets were formulated with the same of metabolizable energy and crude protein content. During the study the live weight of pigs was monitored and the feed consumption was counted. At the end of the study all pigs slaughtered, determined carcasses traits and took samples of loin muscle for chemical analyses. The results showed that pig fattening indices (daily liveweight gain were in control pig group 0.686 ± 0.183 and trial 0.716 ± 0.174) did not differ significantly between groups (P > 0.05), although its were slightly lower in the control group pigs by 4.37%. Feed consumption for live weight gain in both groups ranged from 3.14 to 3.25 kg. Carcasses scores showed significant differences in lean meat and chops (P < 0.05). There were also differences in the backfat thickness. The thickness of backfat was 2.62 mm less in the control pig group, which indicates that when feeding coated barley to fattening pigs, the carcasses have a higher proportion of lean meat (62.1 ± 0.7%). Pigs were slaughtered reaching a live weight of 110 to 114 kg. The meat yield 71.7% and moisture level (70.2–75.2%), as well as protein (22.3–22.9%) indicators showed that fattening pigs are sold at the optimal age. In conclusion, results from this study suggest that feeding hulless barley to fattening pigs results in higher live weight gain. Carcass indicators showed a significantly higher proportion of lean meat and weight of chops when pigs eating coated barley. Chemical composition of pork in groups without significant differences.

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xxx L. Lepse, S. Zeipiņa, I. Missa and A. Osvalde
The effect of cultivation technology on the plant development of organically grown garlic
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The effect of cultivation technology on the plant development of organically grown garlic

L. Lepse¹*, S. Zeipiņa¹, I. Missa¹ and A. Osvalde²

¹Institute of Horticulture, Graudu iela 1, LV–3701 Dobele, Latvia
²Institute of Biology, University of Latvia, Ojāra Vācieša iela 4–201, LV–1004 Rīga, Latvia
*Correspondence: liga.lepse@llu.lv

Abstract:

The new technological solutions for the hardneck garlic production were tested to prevent the influence of unfavourable soil and climatic conditions on the rooting, sprouting and wintering ability of hardneck garlic – factors that affect significantly the hardneck garlic production in Latvia. Field studies were carried out at the experimental field of the organic farm, located at the Koknese district, Latvia, during the seasons of 2018/2019 and 2019/2020, on sandy loam soil using hardneck garlic cultivar `Liubasha` and local clones. Two variants of garlic growing were compared – traditional planting in the autumn in the field as control, and planting in the trays as an innovative solution. Results indicated that low temperature treatment (below +7 °C) for the period of at least 50 days initiates cloves primordia development. The using of trays is effective technology to prevent unfavourable agroecological conditions on the field in the case if controlled conditions are available and technically feasible in the farm.

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xxx V.P. Aravani, K. Tsigkou, M. Kornaros and V.G. Papadakis
Laboratory analyses for assessing the potential for biogas production of various agricultural residues in Greece
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Laboratory analyses for assessing the potential for biogas production of various agricultural residues in Greece

V.P. Aravani¹, K. Tsigkou², M. Kornaros²* and V.G. Papadakis¹*

¹Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Patras, 2 Seferi Str., GR30100 Agrinio, Greece
²Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 1 Karatheodori Str., University Campus- Rio, GR26504 Patras, Greece
*Correspondence: kornaros@chemeng.upatras.gr; vgpapadakis@upatras.gr

Abstract:

Greece produces significant amounts of agricultural and livestock waste. For the needs of this study, Greece was divided into a Northern and a Southern part and relevant proposals were made for residues that can be used for energy production, through anaerobic digestion. For Northern Greece, this study concluded that the most abundant residues and potential substrates for anaerobic digestion valorisation are those of maize, inedible vegetables (including greenhouse vegetables), cattle manure, as well as the residues of beer and wine industry. For Southern Greece, the corresponding substrates are those of maize, inedible vegetables, sheep/goat manure and residues of wine, tomato, orange and olive processing, respectively. Based on the physicochemical characterization of individual feedstocks, corn silage, tomato husks, watermelon, malt, cattle manure, orange, and olive processing residues (olive pomace) were considered as the most suitable feedstocks for anaerobic digestion. Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) assays for Northern Greece were also performed, testing the most abundant and appropriate residues for anaerobic digestion (of this area), namely corn silage, cattle manure and malt, in order to define their BMP yield as well as their prospective optimum mixtures. It was concluded that the BMP of the mono-substrates is in accordance with literature, while there were no statistically significant differences in the methane yield of all tested mixtures. The residual biomass originating from the three main categories of the agricultural sector (crop residues, agro-industrial residues, and animal manure) in Northern Greece can be efficiently valorised via anaerobic co-digestion, without observing, though, any synergistic effects on methane production.

 

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xxx M.V. Radchenko, V.I. Trotsenko, Z.I. Hlupak, E.A. Zakharchenko, O.M. Osmachko, V.V. Moisiienko, V.Z. Panchуshуn and S.V. Stotska
Influence of mineral fertilizers on yielding capacity and quality of soft spring wheat grain
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Influence of mineral fertilizers on yielding capacity and quality of soft spring wheat grain

M.V. Radchenko¹*, V.I. Trotsenko¹, Z.I. Hlupak¹, E.A. Zakharchenko², O.M. Osmachko³, V.V. Moisiienko⁴, V.Z. Panchуshуn⁴ and S.V. Stotska⁴

¹1Sumy National Agrarian University, Faculty of Agrotechnology and Nature Management, Plant Growing Department, 160 G. Kondratieva street, UA40021 Sumy, Ukraine
²Sumy National Agrarian University, Faculty of Agrotechnology and Nature Management, Department of Arable farming, soil science and agrochemistry, 160 G. Kondratieva street, UA40021 Sumy, Ukraine
³Sumy National Agrarian University, Faculty of Agrotechnology and Nature Management, Department of Plant Protection named after Associate Professor Mishnev A.K., 160 G. Kondratieva street, UA40021 Sumy, Ukraine
⁴Polissia National University, Agronomy Faculty, Plant Growing Department, 7 Staryi Buljvar street, UA10008 Zhytomyr, Ukraine
*Correspondence: radchenkonikolay@ukr.net

Abstract:

The aim of the study is optimization of nutrition system for soft spring wheat plants through the use of mineral fertilizers in order to obtain high quality grain with simultaneous yield increase. Different doses of mineral fertilizers were tested in the study. The object of study was a variety of soft spring wheat ‘Uliublena’. The structure of the crop was determined by the method of selecting sheaf samples from each accounting area. The leaf surface area was determined by calculation method. According to the results of research, yield capacity of soft spring wheat on average ranged from 2.43 to 4.51 t ha-1. The highest index of gluten amount was obtained in the variant with fertilizers dose N64P64K64 – 28.19%, which is higher than in the variants with fertilizer doses N16P16K16 and N32P32K32 by 6.11 and 0.15%. The highest increase in the yield of soft spring wheat grain (2.08 t ha-1) was obtained with application of N64P64K64, slightly lower yield increase was obtained with application of N32P32K32 – 1.64 t ha-1, and N16P16K16 – 0.99 t ha-1 comparing with the control. With fertilizer dose of N64P64K64 soft spring wheat provided the maximum yield – 4.51 t ha-1, gluten content – 28.19% and protein content – 14.21%.

 

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xxx P.R.L. Pascual, D.E. Carabio, N.F.H. Abello, E.A. Remedios and V.U. Pascual
Enhanced assimilation rate due to seaweed biostimulant improves growth and yield of rice bean (Vigna umbellata)
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Enhanced assimilation rate due to seaweed biostimulant improves growth and yield of rice bean (Vigna umbellata)

P.R.L. Pascual¹²*, D.E. Carabio¹, N.F.H. Abello², E.A. Remedios¹ and V.U. Pascual³

¹Cebu Technological University, Crop Science Department, College of Agriculture, - Barili Campus, Cagay, Barili 6036, Cebu, Philippines
²Cebu Technological University, Crop Biotechnology Unit, Center for Studies in Biotechnology, - Barili Campus, Cagay, Barili 6036, Cebu, Philippines
³Cebu Technological University, Department of Agricultural Economics and Development Studies, - Barili Campus, Cagay, Barili 6036, Cebu, Philippines
*Correspondence: petroey.pascual@ctu.edu.ph

Abstract:

Rice beans are traditionally planted as intercrop to corn or as the main crop during dry season when corn production is difficult. The use of biostimulants is widely studied to ameliorate the adverse effects of biotic and abiotic stresses. Three possible fermented biostimulants: seaweed, bamboo shoot, and Japanese snail were compared to a commercial organic liquid fertilizer (10 mL L-1) based on morphological, photosynthetic, and yield responses. Fermented seaweed-treated rice bean registered the greatest average vapor pressure deficit (VPD) at 4.33 KPa on the first month and is comparable to the highest average VPD of 4.39 KPa registered by plants applied with fermented Japanese snail on the second month. This interestingly, did not result in difference of transpiration rate (μmol H2O m-2 s-1). Such could be attributed to the plants reduced stomatal aperture when applied with fermented seaweed at 406.80 μmol CO2 mol stomatal conductance and 38.59 Pa total conductance on the second month. Despite this, the average carbon dioxide assimilation rate of rice beans still increased in both the first (15.26 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) and second (16.51 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) month. This increased assimilation rate of fermented seaweed-treated rice beans resulted to about 12 cm increase in height at 128.53 cm (R2 = 0.894), 0.02 g pod-1 (R2 = 0.978) heavier and 0.90 seeds pod-1 (R2 = 0.978) more when compared to those applied with the commercial liquid organic fertilizer. Thus, by limiting stomatal conductance, despite the differences in VPD, transpiration rate was not affected while significantly increasing assimilation rate to improve production of rice beans, thereby taking full advantage of available seaweed by-products.

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xxx B. Kulishov, D. Minkin, A. Fedorov and A. Novoselov
Development of the mathematical model of the electric resistance baking process
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Development of the mathematical model of the electric resistance baking process

B. Kulishov¹*, D. Minkin², A. Fedorov¹ and A. Novoselov¹

¹ITMO University, Saint Petersburg, Faculty of Food Biotechnologies and Engineering, School of Biotechnology and Cryogenic Systems, Kronverkskiy ave.49, RU197101 St. Petersburg, Russia
²Saint Petersburg University of State Fire Service of Emercom of Russia, Department of Physical and Technical Fundamentals of Fire Safety, Moskovskiy ave.149, RU 196105 St. Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: kulishov.b@list.ru

Abstract:

The work is dedicated to the development of the mathematical model of the electric resistance baking process for the purpose of predicting temperature changes during baking of dough pieces of arbitrary sizes. The equation for the non-stationary thermal regime of a body with an internal heat source was used with a number of assumptions. The dynamics of the dough temperature changes was determined by numerical solution of the equation in Comsol Multiphysics.
Due to the complexity of the dough baking process and the impossibility of solving the equation by analytical method only, a number of values included in the energy balance of ER baking were determined experimentally. A dough piece with dimensions of 100×50×80 mm was baked during the experiment. After the adjustment, the adequacy of the model was checked by comparing the data on the dough temperature changes during baking dough pieces of the same recipe, but of different sizes (150×49×80, 80×62×80, and 65×75×80). Statistical analysis using Fisher’s criterion confirmed the adequacy of the model.

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xxx L. Buša, M. Bērtiņš, A. Vīksna, L. Legzdiņa and D. Kobzarevs
Evaluation of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope ratio measurement data for characterization of organically and conventionally cultivated spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain
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Evaluation of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope ratio measurement data for characterization of organically and conventionally cultivated spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain

L. Buša¹*, M. Bērtiņš¹, A. Vīksna¹, L. Legzdiņa² and D. Kobzarevs¹

¹University of Latvia, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Jelgavas street 1, LV-1004 Riga, Latvia
²Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, Priekuli Research Centre, 2 Zinatnes street, LV-4126 Priekuli, Latvia
*Correspondence: lauma.busa@lu.lv

Abstract:

With the growing interest of public in the quality of their consumed food, organic produce has been steadily gaining an important place in everyday menus of our society. The growing demand has boosted organic farming and we have also seen the price difference between organic products and their conventional counterparts. It is important to the public to have security, that the food labelled ‘organic’ has really been grown according to the good practices of organic farming and that it has not received any chemical pesticides, herbicides, and synthetic fertilizers. Stable isotope ratios of crops from different crop management systems can help to answer these questions, as these values depend on the growing conditions, fertilizers used etc. In this study, 10 barley grain samples from conventional and organic crop management systems have been studied. Carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios have been determined and the element content in the samples has been calculated. Student’s t-test has been performed to evaluate whether the differences between various parameters are significant. For potential clustering and discrimination of organic and conventional grains principal component analysis has been carried out. The PCA showed that no significant clustering can be observed, however the Student’s t-test for δ15N values confirmed that barley grown with green-manure fertilizers are significantly (p < 0.01) enriched with the heavier nitrogen isotope. Furthermore, it has been concluded that the total element content of carbon and nitrogen in barley grains does not correlate with the stable isotope ratios and cannot help with discriminating of these samples.

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xxx Y. Olifir, A. Нabryel, T. Partyka, O. Havryshko and H. Konyk
Diagnosis of the functional state of transformed acid soils agroecosystems depending on long-term anthropogenic loads
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Diagnosis of the functional state of transformed acid soils agroecosystems depending on long-term anthropogenic loads

Y. Olifir*, A. Нabryel, T. Partyka, O. Havryshko and H. Konyk

Institute of Agriculture of Carpathian region NAAS, 5, Hrushevskoho Str., UA81115 Obroshyne, Pustomyty district, Lviv region, Ukraine

Abstract:

The main priority of agro industrial production has always been and remains to provide
the global population and its yearly increments with food food. The issue of soil fertility improvement is still the most important task of agricultural science. The assessment of the agroecological condition of Albic Stagnic Luvisol using carbon dioxide emission, redox potential, and biotic activity was carried out, based on modern methodological approaches, such as soil quality evaluation via ecologically-related biological parameters. Carbone dioxide emission, redox, and biological processes in long-term stationary experiment depend on the degree of soil acidity reduction. Soil acidification can be minimized through chemical melioration with the combined application of different doses of mineral fertilizers and manure. It was found that carbon dioxide emission is optimal in an organo-mineral fertilizing system with application of 10 t of manure per 1 ha and N65Р68K68 with lime dose (2.5 t ha-1) calculated according to pH buffering capacity. It is due to oxidative and moderately oxidative conditions created. This organo-mineral fertilizing system also increases the number of aerobic bacteria and overall biological activity. The mineral fertilization and the use of Albic Stagnic Luvisol without fertilizers are accompanied by increased mineralization, growth of reductive processes, and the number of moulds. Studies have shown that it is advisable to include CO2 emission, redox potential and biological activity along with physicochemical and agrochemical soil properties to assess the influence of different anthropogenic loads on soil formation.

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xxx A. Osvalde, A. Karlsons and G. Cekstere
Leaf nutrient status of tomatoes in coconut coir medium – differences in cultivars, impact on yield and quality
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Leaf nutrient status of tomatoes in coconut coir medium – differences in cultivars, impact on yield and quality

A. Osvalde*, A. Karlsons and G. Cekstere

University of Latvia, Institute of Biology, Laboratory of Plant Mineral Nutrition, O. Vaciesa street 4, LV-1004 Riga, Latvia

Abstract:

Coconut coir as an alternative to rockwool is increasingly used as a substrate for soilless hydroponic greenhouse production of tomatoes. However, little is known about the nutrient status of tomatoes in coconut coir, especially under intensive production conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the nutrient status of different tomato cultivars (orange plum ‘Organza F1’, red cherry ‘Daltary RZ F1’, red large fruit-sized ‘Securitas RZ F1’ and pink large fruit-sized ‘Fujimaru F1’) under industrial greenhouse production, using coconut coir as a substrate to reveal nutrient imbalances, their impact on tomato yield and quality, and cultivar differences. Essential nutrient and leaf SPAD value was detected for the youngest fully developed leaves and the old still vital leaves twice per month from April to August 2020. The total yield, marketable and non-marketable yield was regularly determined. During the crop cycle, the content of most of the nutrients in tomato leaves corresponded to the standard range reported for tomatoes. Only some imbalances were found: all cultivars were characterized by low Zn and high S levels in both young and old leaves. The obtained results identified several differences between the cultivars: cherry tomatoes ‘Daltary’ had significantly higher N, K, Fe and Zn in leaves compared to other cultivars. The lowest N, Fe and Cu were determined for large fruit-sized ‘Securitas’. Regardless of the nutrient status and microclimate conditions, the marketable yield of ‘Daltary’, ‘Organza’ and ‘Securitas’ was almost 100%, indicating on high suitability of these cultivars for hydroponic cultivation in coconut coir.

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xxx J. Olt, V. Bulgakov, V. Bonchik, Z. Ruzhylo, V. Volskiy, V. Melnik, Ye. Ihnatiev and H. Kaletnik
Theoretical research into operation of rotary potato harvester
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Theoretical research into operation of rotary potato harvester

J. Olt¹*, V. Bulgakov², V. Bonchik³, Z. Ruzhylo², V. Volskiy⁴, V. Melnik⁵, Ye. Ihnatiev⁶ and H. Kaletnik⁷

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE 51006 Tartu, Estonia
²National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
³State Agrarian and Engineering University in Podilia, 13 Shevchenko Str., UA 32300 Kamenets-Podilsky, Ukraine
⁴National Scientific Centre, “Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification”, 11 Vokzalna Str., Glevakcha 1, Vasylkiv District, UA 08631 Kyiv Region, Ukraine
⁵Kharkiv Petro Vasylenko National Technical University of Agriculture, 44 Alchevskih Str., UA 61002 Kharkiv, Ukraine
⁶Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B Khmelnytsky Ave, UA 72310, Melitopol, Zaporozhye Region, Ukraine
⁷Vinnytsia National Agrarian University of Ukraine, 3 Soniacha Str., UA21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

The topic of the paper is the determination and justification of the rational design and kinematic parameters of clod breaking tools in rotary potato harvesters with the aim of improving their separating efficiency. A new mathematical model has been developed for the motion of a soil particle on the working surfaces of the cone-shaped and cylindrical vanes in the rotary tool of the new design developed by the authors. Differential equations have been generated for the motion of a soil clod as a material particle from the moment of its arrival to the surface of the vane until the moment of its departure from the said surface. As a result of the completed investigations, relations have been established between the time of contact and absolute
displacement of the soil particle and the velocity of its departure from the rotor vane surface, on the one hand, and the kinematic and design parameters of the rotor, on the other hand. For example, when the machine translation velocity increases, the absolute displacement of the soil
particle within the interval from the time zero to the moment of its departure from the vane surface increases from 0.59 m to 0.65 m, the velocity of soil particle departure from the vane surface – from 1.61 m s–1 to 1.81 m s–1. The highest values of the absolute displacement of the soil particle and the velocity of its departure from the vane surface are achieved at a machine translation velocity of 2.0 m s–1. The time of the contact between the material particle and the vane surface decreases with the rise of the translation velocity. When the rotor rotation frequency varies within the range from 20 min–1 to 100 min–1, the absolute velocity, with which the soil particle leaves the vane surface, rises to 4 m s–1. The duration of the contact between the material particle and the vane reaches its maximum value of 0.33 s, when the rotor rotation frequency varies within the range of 30–40 min–1.

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xxx I. Plūduma-Pauniņa, Z. Gaile and G. Bimšteine
Sowing time effect on yield and quality of field beans in a changing meteorological situation in the Baltic region
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Sowing time effect on yield and quality of field beans in a changing meteorological situation in the Baltic region

I. Plūduma-Pauniņa¹²*, Z. Gaile¹ and G. Bimšteine¹

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies (LLU), Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Soil and Plant Science, Liela street 2, Jelgava LV–3001, Latvia
²LLU, Faculty of Agriculture, Research and Study Farm “Pēterlauki”, Platone parish, LV–3021, Latvia

Abstract:

As field beans (Vicia faba L.) need a lot of moisture to germinate, growers believe that they should be sown as early as possible in the spring. Field trial was carried out at the LLU RSF “Pēterlauki”, from 2018 to 2020. Following factors were researched: A) sowing time (early, medium and late), B) variety (‘Laura’, ‘Boxer’, ‘Isabell’), C) sowing rate (30, 40, 50 germinable seeds m-2), D) fungicide application (without and with application of fungicide at the GS 61-65). Meteorological conditions during the study had the greatest impact on the results as they were contrasting. Adverse meteorological conditions for field bean growing were observed in 2018 and in spring and early summer of 2019. The best year for bean yield formation was 2020, when temperature and precipitation was moderate. The highest average three year been yield was obtained sowing beans at the medium sowing time, however, equivalent yield was obtained sowing beans also in early sowing time. Fungicide application increased average three year yield significantly (p = 0.007) and independently of the sowing time. Influence of variety and sowing rate on average three year yield was insignificant, and it was not proved that any variety or sowing rate could be more suitable in a specific sowing time. Average three-year values of crude protein content, thousand seed weight and volume weight were affected by sowing time significantly (p < 0.001). Trial year, variety and fungicide application also affected all quality parameters significantly (p < 0.05), but the effect of sowing rate was insignificant (p > 0.05).

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xxx O.V. Shelepova, L.S. Olekhnovich, L.N. Konovalova, T.I. Khusnetdinova3, A.A. Gulevich and E.N. Baranova
Assessment of essential oil yield in three mint species in the climatic conditions of Central Russia
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Assessment of essential oil yield in three mint species in the climatic conditions of Central Russia

O.V. Shelepova¹*, L.S. Olekhnovich¹, L.N. Konovalova¹², T.I. Khusnetdinova3, A.A. Gulevich² and E.N. Baranova¹²*

¹N.V. Tsitsin Main Botanical Garden of Russian Academy of Sciences, RU127276 Moscow, Russia
²All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology, RU127550 Moscow, Russia ³Faculty of Soil Science, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1/12, RU119234 Moscow, Russia
*Correspondence: shov_gbsad@mail.ru; greenpro2007@rambler.ru

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to study the harvest time for the essential oil yield and its qualitative composition in three species of mint Mentha piperita L. (Peppermint), M. spicata L. (Spearmint) and M. arvensis var. piperascens Malinv. ex. Holmes (Sakhalinmint). In 2018, the research was performed with plants of second year of vegetation in the Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Immunity of the NV Tsitsin Main Botanical Garden of the RAS. As a result, it was found that the optimal harvest period for Sakhalinmint and Peppermint should be recommended in a phase of mass flowering: the yield of fresh raw materials was 509–479 g m-2, air-dry raw materials – 110–107 g m-2; the content of essential oil in the aboveground part (a mixture of leaves and inflorescences) of plants – 3.24–4.01%; the proportion of the main component of essential oil (menthol) – 57.3–50.2%. In Spearmint, the optimum time for harvesting is the phase of budding. The content of the main component of essential oil (carvon) was maximum – 67.9%, and the yield of essential oil was 2.6%, while the yield was 381 g m-2 of fresh raw materials (81.9 g m-2 of air-dry raw materials) at harvesting in this ontogenesis stage. Analysis of the secretory apparatus parameters on a surface of some green tissues in three mint species showed that the maximum density of secretory glands on both sides of the leaf is characteristic of peppermint, which provides a higher yield of essential oil in this type of mint. The study allowed determining the optimal harvesting time for highly productive mint species when they are grown in the conditions of Central Russia. The raw materials of these mint species can be used for the production of essential oils and are of interest for pharmacology and the perfume and cosmetics industry.

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xxx V.Yu. Chernova and B.A. Kheyfets
China food security assessment
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China food security assessment

V.Yu. Chernova¹²* and B.A. Kheyfets³⁴

¹People’s Friendships University of Russia, Moscow, Russia, Faculty of Economics, Department of International Economic Relations, 6 Miklukho-Maklaya Str., RU117198 Moscow, Russia
²2State University of Management, Institute of Marketing, 99 Ryazanskiy Prospect, RU109542 Moscow, Russia
³Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 32 Nakhimovskiy Prospect, RU117218 Moscow, Russia
⁴Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, 49 Leningradsky Prospekt, RU125993 Moscow, Russia
*Correspondence: veronika.urievna@mail.ru

Abstract:

Ensuring food security is a strategic goal of any state, especially in the face of population growth. A review of the academic literature showed the presence of problems in ensuring a high level of food security in China: the rigidity of demand for food, limited land resources, structural contradictions between supply and demand. This study proposes an approach to assessing the level of food security, based on the calculation of an integral index consisting of four units of indicators: the sub-index of provision of crop products, the sub-index of productivity, the sub-index of provision of livestock products, and the sub-index of food import dependence. The results show that, in general, the level of food security in China has increased over the period under review, but there are problems in self-sufficiency in crop and dairy products, as well as in an increase in food import dependence. A forecast of the dynamics of the integral index of the food security level and its sub-indices was constructed, which showed that a decrease in the integral index might occur due to a decrease in self-sufficiency in livestock products and import dependence, while the availability of crop products and yields will increase. The study showed that the measures taken by the Chinese government led to some positive changes, but it is necessary to take a comprehensive approach to this problem, to solve which it is necessary to use the potential of all sectors of the food industry.

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xxx O.M. Savchenko, S.A. Totskaya and M.Yu. Gryaznov
Micromorphological features of the leaf epidermis of the evening primrose cultivars of the VILAR biocollection
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Micromorphological features of the leaf epidermis of the evening primrose cultivars of the VILAR biocollection

O.M. Savchenko*, S.A. Totskaya and M.Yu. Gryaznov

All-Russian scientific research institute of medicinal and aromatic plants, agrobiology laboratory, 7 Grina Str., RU 117216 Moscow, Russia
*Correspondence: nordfenugreek@gmail.com

Abstract:

Novelty of the work. For the first time, a comparative study of the epidermis of the leaf plates of four cultivars of Oenothera biennis L. was carried out. The aim of the work. Study and comparison of morpho-anatomical signs of the epidermis of the leaf plate of the cultivars of evening primrose to reveal their potential ecological plasticity. Materials and methods. There were used leaves of plants of the second year of life in the phase of mass flowering. Micromorphological study of the epidermis of leaf plates included: determination of the shape of the main cells of the epidermis, the size and number of stomata per 1 mm2, the type of stomatal apparatus, the presence and parameters of trichomes. The number of trichomes was calculated per 1 mm2. Results. In the Genoteros cultivar, the stomata were smaller; their number on the lower epidermis was the lowest. Two types of trichomes were classified. At cultivar Genoteros unicellular covering trichomes were mainly located in the upper epidermis of the leaf. No covering trichomes were found in the Svetlyachok cultivar. The Tverskoj cultivar differs in the length of the hairs: from 774 to 790 microns. Papillary single-celled trichomes on the leaves of the studied cultivar of evening primrose are concentrated on both sides of the epidermis, mostly in the middle part of the leaf, less often – in the mesophyll space. Conclusion. Based on the obtained data, the authors established the potential ecological plasticity of the studied varieties of evening primrose for the subsequent study of the influence of stress factors on the described cultivars. The results obtained may be important taxonomic for the correct identification of problematic Onagraceae taxa and in further breeding work.

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xxx N. Nik Bakhsh and I. Riivits-Arkonsuo
Joint Business-to-Business recovery management: the moderating role of locus of failure
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Joint Business-to-Business recovery management: the moderating role of locus of failure

N. Nik Bakhsh¹* and I. Riivits-Arkonsuo²

¹Tallinn University of Technology, School of Business and Governance, Department of Business Administration, Akadeemia Tee 3, EE19086 Tallinn, Estonia
²Tallinn University of Technology, School of Business and Governance, Department of Business Administration, Akadeemia Tee 3, EE19086 Tallinn, Estonia
*Correspondence: Naghmeh.nikbakhsh@yahoo.com

Abstract:

Agricultural machinery manufacturers and services providers increasingly experience failure in core products and service deliveries. Despite the importance of recovery management in context, scant research exists on studying recovery management, collaborative recovery activities, and the impact of joint recovery management on post-recovery relationship quality. More pressing is the lack of research on the impact of relationship quality on the customer’s intention of future co-recovery activities. Using an experimental design with data from 30 agronomy machinery and equipment manufacturers and service providers in Iran, we investigate how customers’ perception of relationship quality is influenced by the interplay of locus of failure and supplier recovery tactics (non-co-creation of recovery vs co-creation of recovery). The results reveal the locus of failure, interacts with the supplier recovery tactics to impact the customers’ perceptions of relationship quality. Finally, all three dimensions of relationship quality (satisfaction, trust, and commitment) positively impact the customers’ intention for future co-recovery activities.

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xxx I. Karandušovská, P. Hlinka, D. Páleš and T. Szabóová
Concentrations of CO2 from composting under different treatments
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Concentrations of CO2 from composting under different treatments

I. Karandušovská¹, P. Hlinka², D. Páleš³ and T. Szabóová¹

¹Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Building Equipment and Technology Safety, Tr.A. Hlinku 2, SK94976 Nitra, Slovakia
²Local Union of Ponitrie villages for separation and management of waste, Korytovská 20, SK95141 Lužianky, Slovakia
³Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machine Design, Tr.A. Hlinku 2, SK 94976 Nitra, Slovakia
*Correspondence: ingrid.karandusovska@uniag.sk

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to analyse the production of CO2 concentrations in relation to the composting technology used. Three loose piles of bio-waste (V1, V2, V3) were created with the same volume. V1 reference pile was without any treatment. The biological preparation containing probiotic bacteria was added to the pile V2. The pile V3 was treated once a week by turning and watering. The degassing shafts were installed in each pile and the Multigas Monitor 1312 gas analyser with the Multipoint Sampler 1309 were used to measure of gas concentrations during the degradation process. Continuous 24-hour measurements of carbon dioxide concentrations from each pile were performed in the first, fourth, and seventh week of the degradation process to compare the amount of concentrations between piles in those weeks. At the beginning of the process, there were no significant differences in the production of CO2 concentrations from the monitored piles V1, V2 and V3. In the fourth week, significantly higher values of CO2 concentrations were recorded from the pile V3 (P < 0.05), which was turned and irrigated, than from V1 and V2. At week 7, significant differences were found between all treatments at the significance level (P < 0.05), with the highest values from the V3 pile. It has been shown that turning and humidifying results in the highest release of CO2 into the air, but in a more rapid decomposition of the microorganisms, that reducing the time required to achieve a stable compost product and increasing the efficiency of the composting plant.

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xxx O. Zavadska, І. Bobos, I. Fedosiy, H. Podpriatov, O. Komar, B. Mazur and J. Olt
Suitability of various onion (allium cepa) varieties for drying and long-term storage
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Suitability of various onion (allium cepa) varieties for drying and long-term storage

O. Zavadska¹, І. Bobos¹, I. Fedosiy¹, H. Podpriatov¹, O. Komar¹, B. Mazur¹ and J. Olt²*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE 51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

In the paper, the results are presented obtained in the research into the fresh bulbs and the dried products of 9 onion varieties cultivated in the conditions of the Ukrainian Forest Steppe area with regard to their economical biology, biochemical, marketability and organoleptic indices. The varieties that are most suitable for convection drying and long-term storage have been identified. It has been established that the marketability of both the fresh bulbs and dried products depends on the masses of the bulbs. The Bronze d’Amposta and Harmony varieties deliver the greatest amount of marketable output (94.0 and 93.2%) featuring marketable bulbs with masses of 67.4 g and 70.4 g, respectively (r = 0.82). As the bulb mass increases, the amount of non-standard (r = 0.81) and small (r = 0.76) particles in the dried product decreases substantially. It has been found that the content of solid matter and sugars in fresh bulbs has effect on the yield and quality of the dried and reconstituted products. The Harmony and Skvirskaya varieties, the bulbs of which during the vegetation season build up 12.9% and 13.8% of solid matter, respectively, are distinguished by the highest dry product yield – 17.1 and 16.8%, respectively. Correlation has been established between the contents of solid matter and sugars in fresh bulbs (r = + 0.58). During the tasting of reconstituted onion products, the highest scores were awarded to the samples produced from the Skvirskaya and Harmony varieties – 7.0 points each on the 9-point scale, as their bulbs had accumulated over 7.0% of sugars (total). Judging by the aggregate of the researched indices, the Harmony and Skvirskaya varieties of onions are the most suitable for convection drying. It has been established that the preservation of onions in the conditions of stationary buried storage without artificial cooling depends on the duration of storage and the specific varietal features. Within the five months of the test storage, the preservation of bulbs of all the varieties was high and varied within the range of 80–93%. Longer storage is expedient only in case of the Harmony, Skvirskaya and Gospodinya, for which the bulb preservation rates for a seven month storage period has been shown to be equal to 90.2, 88.4 and 87.2%, respectively. It has been proved that the quantity of healthy bulbs depends to a significant extent on the solid matter content in the bulbs (r = 0.93).

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xxx V. Bisters, J. Kalviss, J. Burlakovs and M. Klavins
Algae processing for energy production: development of waste pyrolysis technology
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Algae processing for energy production: development of waste pyrolysis technology

V. Bisters, J. Kalviss, J. Burlakovs and M. Klavins*

Department of Environmental Science, University of Latvia, Raina bulv. 19, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: maris.klavins@lu.lv

Abstract:

Waste processing accordingly to waste-to-energy concept remains a major challenge to deal with growing amounts of different waste types. The aim of the study is to expand the knowledge base for biomass waste thermochemical processing into syngas and biochar on example of algae waste treatment. In accordance to this concept, waste pyrolysis technology is further advanced by evaluating, studying and adapting the most technologically and economically feasible approach and by developing a pilot scale facility with the aim to demonstrate its potential to offer the industry an innovative solution for solid waste processing. The study includes theoretical background for thermal recovery of organic waste, with application of specifics of algae waste (beach wrack). Algae waste thermochemical processing and gas analysis are tested both for process of torrefied material and with full ash content characterisation. Additional algae waste proximate/ultimate analysis were done. The synthesis gas produced by the pyrolysis process contain 30–60% CH4, 5–12% H2, 20–40% CO (remaining CO2, N2) and thus can be used for heating purposes. The another algae waste pyrolysis product – biochar is enriched with mineral components thus increasing its application potential in agriculture, however in can be used also for energy production purposes. Thermal analytics of beach wreck undertaken on different type of samples to be common for the Baltic Sea area and projections on application of gasification technology for upscale at municipality level is analysed with a view to application for municipality larger amount material.

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xxx S.M.P. Teixeira, C.S.A.M. Maduro Dias, C.F.M. Vouzela, J.S Madruga and A.E.S. Borba
Nutritive characterization of Musa spp and its effects on in vitro Rumen fermentation characteristics
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Nutritive characterization of Musa spp and its effects on in vitro Rumen fermentation characteristics

S.M.P. Teixeira*, C.S.A.M. Maduro Dias, C.F.M. Vouzela, J.S Madruga and A.E.S. Borba

University of the Azores, FCAA, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Research and Technology, Rua Capitão João d’Ávila, 9700-042 Angra do Heroísmo, Açores, Portugal
*Correspondence: sofia.mp.teixeira@uac.pt

Abstract:

This research aims to study the effect of nutritive value of Musa spp on animal feed. Residues of banana culture, leaves and stems, could be used as a fibre source for animal feeding, especially in Banana producing areas, such as Macaronesia Archipelagos, avoiding wastes and supplementing periods of scarcity of food.
Musa spp were collected and dried at 65 °C in an oven with controlled air circulation. The pseudostems were divided in three different portions and chemical composition, in vitro digestibility, and in vitro gas production were determined. Regarding dry matter results, they were low (16.54% in leaves and 6.54% DM% in pseudostem), crude protein raging 11.25 DM% in leaves and 7.25% in pseudostem. Concerning fiber values, NDF is higher in leaves (70.07 DM%) than in pseudostems (52.11 DM%) and ADL is higher in leaves (9.90 DM%) comparing with pseudostems (6.21 DM%). In vitro DM digestibility is low, (24.42% in leaves and 42.69% in pseudostem), corroborating the NDF values. Cumulative gas production was recorded at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of incubation. The results showed that the gas production in leaves was lower (11.36 mL 200 mg˗1 DM) when compared to pseudostem (23.81 mL 200 mg˗1 DM), being so in accordance with the digestibility results.
The current study suggested that this by-product can be used in animal feed, however, it will be necessary to carry out tests to improve its nutritional value, namely with NaOH and/or with Urea, being a promising strategy for improving ruminant feed efficiency.

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