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xxx J. Wolko, A. Dobrzycka, J. Bocianowski, L. Szala, T. Cegielska-Taras, I. Bartkowiak-Broda and K. Gacek
Genetic Variation of Traits Affecting Meal Quality in Black × Yellow Seeded Doubled Haploid Population of Winter Oilseed Rape
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Genetic Variation of Traits Affecting Meal Quality in Black × Yellow Seeded Doubled Haploid Population of Winter Oilseed Rape

J. Wolko¹, A. Dobrzycka¹, J. Bocianowski², L. Szala¹, T. Cegielska-Taras¹, I. Bartkowiak-Broda¹ and K. Gacek¹*

¹Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute - National Research Institute (PBAI-NRI), Oilseed Crops Research Center, Strzeszynska 36, PL60-479 Poznan, Poland
²Poznan University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 28, PL60-637 Poznan, Poland
*Correspondence: k.gacek@ihar.edu.pl

Abstract:

The by-product of oil production from oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is protein rich rapeseed meal. It is of great interest to improve the quality of rapeseed meal for poultry feed by reducing the level of anti-nutritional factors, mainly fibre and glucosinolates. The aim of the study was to assess genetic variation of traits affecting rapeseed meal quality in seeds from the M305 (black-seeded) × Z114 (yellow seeded) population of winter oilseed rape doubled haploid (DH) plants. The influence of weather conditions on these traits was tested under two-year field growing conditions in Poland. Significant effect of genotypes and the year of experiment was found for all of the studied traits, apart from neutral detergent fibre (NDF). The significant phenotypic variation in all of these traits makes future selection to improve quality of rapeseed meal possible. It was also found that all of the traits, apart from neutral detergent fibre, are regulated in a complex genetic manner involving additive and epistatic gene action. NDF is regulated by the additive gene action indicating that this trait might be easier for selection. Low heritability found for seed colour, fibre and glucobrassicin indicates great environmental effect on these traits. Large phenotypic variation for protein, oil, acid detergent fibre, neutral detergent fibre and glucosinolates found in this study will allow future genetic mapping analysis to identify key genes regulating these traits. The application of such genetic markers could enhance breeding programs aiming to improve oilseed rape which could be successfully introduced as poultry feed.

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xxx H. Klikocka
Boron content and some quality features of potato tubers under the conditions of using sulphur fertilizer
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Boron content and some quality features of potato tubers under the conditions of using sulphur fertilizer

H. Klikocka

University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Department of Economics and Agribusiness, Akademicka 13, PL20-950 Lublin, Poland
Correspondence: hanna.klikocka@up.lublin.pl

Abstract:

The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of sulphur application on the content and uptake of boron (B) with the yield of potato tubers. A field experiment with potato was conducted in 2009–2011, with S applied in different forms (elemental and K2SO4) and at different rates (0, 25, and 50 kg ha-1).
The content of B in tubers depended significantly on each fertilizer S rate and form. The uptake of boron with dry mass of tubers was equally advantageous in the application of each rate and form with sulphur fertilization compared to controls. No significant effect of weather on the content and uptake of boron tubers was found. The tuber yield and starch content were significantly increased by both the fertilizer S rate and form. A positive correlation was found between B content and B uptake of the yield of tubers. B uptake positively correlated with tuber yield and with a yield of DM and with the yield of starch.
Sulphur applied as sulphate increased the content of SO4-S in the soil. Application of elemental S at a rate of 50 kg ha-1 decreased the pH of the soil. Soil content of total C depended on each rate and form of S applied. No correlation was found between B content and B uptake between the analysed soil parameters. The content of total C in the soil was positively correlated with tuber yield. The pH of soil negatively correlated with tuber yield.

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xxx B. Kulishov, K. Kulishova, N. Rudometova, A. Fedorov and A. Novoselov
Advantages of electric resistance method for baking bread and flour confectionery products of functional purpose
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Advantages of electric resistance method for baking bread and flour confectionery products of functional purpose

B. Kulishov¹*, K. Kulishova¹², N. Rudometova¹², A. Fedorov¹ and A. Novoselov¹

¹ITMO University, Saint-Petersburg, Faculty of Food Biotechnologies and Engineering, School of Biotechnology and Cryogenic Systems, Kronverkskiy ave. 49, RU 197101 St. Petersburg, Russia
²All-Russian Research Institute for Food Additives – Branch of V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS, Liteyniy ave. 55, RU 191014 St. Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: kulishov.b@list.ru

Abstract:

In this paper we studied the effect of the baking method on the preservation of beta-carotene in two types of products: pan wheat bread and sponge cake. Five sources of beta-carotene were used in the study, three of which are commercially available samples, and the two others are experimental samples of supramolecular complexes of beta-carotene with alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins in powder form (molecular ratio 1: 1). Bread and sponge cake were baked by convective and electric resistance methods. The values of temperature and current flowing through the dough were monitored during electric resistance baking. The beta-carotene content was measured in the dough after kneading, in the cake batter after mixing and in the finished products after baking and cooling. The beta-carotene content was evaluated by spectrophotometry after extraction. The control samples of bread and sponge cake were baked without adding beta-carotene. Different sources of beta-carotene exhibited varying stability in bread and sponge cake. Bread samples baked by the electric resistance method with addition of supramolecular complexes had minimum losses of beta-carotene. Electric resistance baking ensured lower losses of beta-carotene in bread and sponge cake samples.

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xxx T. Ahmadi, C.A. Casas, N. Escobar and Y.E. García
Municipal organic solid waste composting: development of a tele-monitoring and automation control system
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Municipal organic solid waste composting: development of a tele-monitoring and automation control system

T. Ahmadi¹*, C.A. Casas¹, N. Escobar² and Y.E. García¹

¹University of Cundinamarca, Faculty of Engineering, 18th Diagonal 20-29, Fusagasugá, Colombia
²University of Cundinamarca, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, 18th Diagonal 20-29, Fusagasugá, Colombia
*Correspondence: tahmadi@ucundinamarca.edu.co

Abstract:

The Organic Solid Waste (OSW) generation have experienced high growth in the last decades. Moreover, the treatment and management of them have become a priority in the environmental policy of many cities, due to the sanitary and environmental problems related to the OSW elimination. Between 2 and 3 metric tons per day of organic residues are generated in the local market square of Fusagasugá-Colombia, without having any transformation program or technological alternatives for their decomposition. This paper presents the design and implementation of an experimental reactor for composting that includes a measurement stage, signal conditioning, data acquisition (DAQ), and data storage, together with a control and telemetric supervision system through a Human-Machine Interface (HMI), which allows manipulation of some key variables of the composting process remotely via the Internet.

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xxx K. Kokamägi, K. Türk and N. Liba
UAV photogrammetry for volume calculations
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UAV photogrammetry for volume calculations

K. Kokamägi¹*, K. Türk² and N. Liba²

¹University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Chair of Environmental Protection and Landscape Management, Kreutzwaldi 5, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Chair of Geomatics, Kreutzwaldi 5, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: kaupo.kokamagi@student.emu.ee

Abstract:

This research assesses the suitability of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) photogrammetry for calculating stockpile volumes and analyses the compliance of the accuracy of results to current laws. In addition two different UAV’s and two different objects are compared and the necessity of using GCP’s (Ground Control Points) is investigated. The time spent on each work stage is also evaluated. Data used in this study was collected in two sites, where the objects differed in shape, colour and texture. The investigated objects were a regularly shaped peat stockpile and an irregularly shaped gravel stockpile. Data was collected with a terrestrial laser scanner, a GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) device and two different UAVs. Volume of the models calculated from different data was compared to the volume of the models based on laser scanning data for accuracy assessment. Relative errors of all of the photogrammetric models compared to the laser scanning based model were under 4%. It was concluded that the advantages of UAV based photogrammetry become apparent as the complexity and size of the measured objects grow. Results of the study show that using UAV photogrammetry to determine stockpile volumes is sufficiently accurate with both of the tested UAVs. The results show that without using GCPs (Ground Control Points), sufficient accuracy was still achieved. Nevertheless accuracy was increased by using GCP’s. It was concluded that using UAV’s can significantly reduce the time spent on collecting data for volume calculations, especially when GCP’s are not necessary.

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xxx V. Sterna, S. Zute, I. Jansone, E. Ence and E. Strausa
Evaluation of various legume species and varieties grown in Latvia as a raw material of plant-based protein products
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Evaluation of various legume species and varieties grown in Latvia as a raw material of plant-based protein products

V. Sterna¹*, S. Zute¹, I. Jansone¹, E. Ence² and E. Strausa²

¹Department of Plant breeding and Agroecology, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics ‘Dižzemes’, Dižstende, LV-3258 Talsi district, Latvia
²Riga Technical University, Faculty of Engineering Economics and Management, 6 Kalnciema street, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: vita.sterna@arei.lv

Abstract:

Nutrition value of legumes has been traditionally attributed to its high protein content. Protein content of legumes is variable dependent on different species and varieties, and highly affected by environmental factors. Usually protein quality is characterized by its owns amino acid profile in nutritional point of view. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the protein contents and amino acid profiles of pea (Pisum sativum L), faba beans (Vicia faba L) and soya (Glycine max L) grown in Latvia and evaluate their potential for food production. Overall results of a five-year analysis (2013–2017) showed that the protein content of peas, faba beans and soybean ranged from 20.0 to 26.1%, 26.6 to 30.5% and 35.9 to 40.9%, respectively. The corresponding values of total crude fat ranged from 0.8 to 1.2%, 0.7–1.3% and 16.6 to 19.3%, respectively. Results of study showed that the protein content of peas, faba beans and soybean was not differed by growing system (p < 0.05). The percentage of essential amino acids for pea, faba bean and soya were 34 to 38%, 57 to 59% and 62 to 64% respectively. The composition of pea flakes was preserved protein content of raw material. The pea flakes has high content of lysine of 10.1 g kg-1, phenylalanine+thyrosine of 11.6 g kg-1 and the sum of essential amino acids of 66.4 g kg-1. In nutritional point of view, pea flakes could be product with high-quality protein composition.

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xxx O.V. Tryhub, А.V. Bahan, S.M. Shakaliy, Yu.M. Barat and S.О. Yurchenko
Ecological plasticity of buckwheat varieties (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) Of different geographical origin according to productivity
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Ecological plasticity of buckwheat varieties (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) Of different geographical origin according to productivity

O.V. Tryhub¹, А.V. Bahan², S.M. Shakaliy³*, Yu.M. Barat² and S.О. Yurchenko²

¹Ustymivska Experimental Station of Plant Production of Plant Production Institute nd.a. V.Ya. Yuryev of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, Ustymivka village, Hlobynskyi district, UA36003 Poltava region, Ukraine
²Poltava State Agrarian Academy, Faculty of Agro-Technology and Ecology, Department of Selection, Seed Science and Genetics, 1/3, Skovorody str., UA36003 Poltava, Ukraine
³Poltava State Agrarian Academy, Faculty of Agro-Technology and Ecology, Department of Plant Production, 1/3, Skovorody str., UA36003 Poltava, Ukraine
*Correspondence: shakaliysveta@gmail.com

Abstract:

To determine the ecological plasticity of crop varieties, there are a number of methods that are based on the analysis of the variability of the trait by contrasting years under the conditions. The stability and plasticity of the studied traits of varieties are due to the ability of genetic mechanisms of plants to minimize the consequences of the negative impact of the environment, that is, to resist them. The researches on establishing regularities of manifestation of plasticity, stability and homeostaticity of buckwheat varieties of different ecological and geographical origin were carried out in the conditions of the central part of Ukraine during the period of 2016–2018. The low adaptability of modern buckwheat varieties is a determining factor for low production yields of potentially high-yielding varieties in the sharply contrasting (climatic factors) cultivation conditions. The level of yield (as a complex characteristic) and its main component, the individual productivity of the plant have been determined as the differentiative indicators of modern varieties and new promising breeding material consisting of 35 samples from 5 countries of the world. The analysis of research data has identified a group of varieties (SYN 3/02, Sofiia, Selianochka, Slobozhanka, Yelena, Roksolana, Populiatsiia 7/07, P-330, P-455, P-620, Ametist, Feniks, Ilishevskaia, Batyr and Arno), which have a value as a highly adaptable varietal material for the cultivation conditions and have an increased selective value according to abiotic adaptability indicators and can be used to create a more adaptable material as a potentially more productive as well as more plastic and stable resource for selection.

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xxx M. Miljan, M.-J. Miljan, K. Keskküla (Leiten) and J. Miljan
The combined impact of energy efficiency and embodied energy of external wall over 30 years of life cycle
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The combined impact of energy efficiency and embodied energy of external wall over 30 years of life cycle

M. Miljan, M.-J. Miljan*, K. Keskküla (Leiten) and J. Miljan†

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Chair of Rural Building and Water Management, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 5, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: martti-jaan.miljan@emu.ee

Abstract:

Decreasing the energy consumption in production and building activity is the main aim nowadays as well as in the future. Taking into account that almost 50% of European Union’s final energy consumption is used for heating and cooling, of which 80% is used in buildings it is essential to minimize this amount beforehand. Looking at the energy losses we see that the main heat losses are caused due to the transmission through the envelope and ventilation system.
EU energy efficiency target for buildings to 2030 is at least 32.5%. According to this, national energy efficiency action plans were done, which mean that existing building stock need renovation and new buildings will be constructed according to the energy efficiency requirements. One important factor to improve energy efficiency is to modify thermal transmittance of the envelope. In 2017 minimum energy efficiency requirements were validated in Estonia and determined that the thermal conductance of outer wall must be less than 0.22 W m-2 K-1 (recommended range of U = 0.12–0.22 W m-2 K-1). According to this the energy loss through the envelope was calculated over the year taking degree-days as bases. In our area this number is 4,933 degree days per year, what gives us the calculated heat loss through the envelope 10.22 kWh m-2 if the thermal conductance of the wall is 0.092 W m-2 K-1. This required value of thermal conductance we can achieve using good insulation materials. Still there are possibilities to choose between insulations.
Done tests and calculations allow to conclude that energy consumption during building life cycle together with embodied energy of building materials gives us more realistic overview of the energy efficiency of the building. Our results confirm that the use of local natural insulation materials is 1.67 times more sustainable and energy saving than using industrial materials.

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xxx E.F. Myagkikh, S.S. Babanina, V.S. Pashtetsky and M.Yu. Karpukhin
Morphological variability of phenotypic traits in of oregano samples
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Morphological variability of phenotypic traits in of oregano samples

E.F. Myagkikh¹*, S.S. Babanina¹, V.S. Pashtetsky¹ and M.Yu. Karpukhin²

¹Research Institute of Agriculture of Crimea, Kievskaya Str., 150, RU295453 Simferopol, Republic of Crimea, Russia
²Ural State Agrarian University, Karla Libknekhta Str., 42, RU620075 Yekaterinburg, Russia
*Correspondence: myagkih_e@niishk.ru

Abstract:

The purpose of the research was to study the morphological variability of collection samples of oregano of the Crimean Peninsula. The experiments were carried out in 2016–2018 in the Foothill Zone of Crimea. The plant material consisted of 41 samples of origanum collected on the Crimean Peninsula territory. The degree of identification reliability of oregano collection samples by morphological traits was checked. The construction of relationship dendrograms was carried out by the Ward’s method based on the Manhattan distances. It was found that qualitative traits (coloration of corolla, leaf, bract, stalk and male fertility) showed themselves more consistently than quantitative ones. It was recommended to use the most polymorphic traits (entropy, H > 1.50 bits) for reliable identification of oregano samples from the Crimean peninsula: coloration of bract, stem, leaf and corolla, as well as the number of shoots and mass fraction of essential oil. The structure of the association differed by the years of study when constructing dendrograms (r = 0.58).Nevertheless, a fairly clear correspondence of the clusters of different years’ clusters to each other was established (78% of the samples). The established correspondence indicates the reliability of the genotypes combination into separate groups (clusters) and their similar reaction to environmental conditions. The most interesting combinations of samples for further breeding work were identified – these are clusters 2 and 5 (according to the 2018 data). In 42.7% of genotypes from the second cluster, the mass fraction of essential oil was at the level of 0.25–0.55% of the absolute dry mass (4–6 points). The samples from the second cluster could be used as high-oil sources, whereas samples from fifth cluster – as sources of high productivity of ‘green’ raw materials (up to 1,200 g plant-1). It is advisable to select parental forms from these two clusters for hybridization. The grouping of origanum samples used in the work divides the samples quite accurately separated them not only on qualitative, but also on economically valuable traits.

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xxx V.A. Zubarev, Yu.A. Mazhaysky and T.M. Guseva
The impact of drainage reclamation on the components of agricultural landscapes of small rivers
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The impact of drainage reclamation on the components of agricultural landscapes of small rivers

V.A. Zubarev¹, Yu.A. Mazhaysky² and T.M. Guseva³*

¹Institute of complex analysis of regional problems of the far Eastern branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 4 Sholom Aleichem Str., RU607016 Birobidzhan, Russia
²Meshchersky branch of the all-Russian research Institute of hydraulic engineering and land reclamation n. A.N. Kostyakova, 1A Meshcherskaya Str., RU390021 Ryazan, Russia
³Ryazan state medical University n. I. P. Pavlova, 22 Lenina str., RU 390000 Ryazan, Russia
*Correspondence: guseva.tm@yandex.ru

Abstract:

The traditional use of agricultural landscapes of small rivers is agricultural arable land, which requires a number of reclamations and agricultural work. Land drainage has a significant impact on the environment, but these activities were carried out almost without taking into account the requirements of environmental protection. Heavy metals have one of the most significant negative effects on the components of floodplain-channel complexes (floodplain soil, surface water, bottom sediments, macrophytes, hydrobionts). Studies have shown that drainage reclamation leads to a decrease in the content of humus in floodplain soil, collector-drainage runoff, changing the chemical composition of natural water, affects the processes of transit-accumulation of heavy metals from sediments to water. The integrated chemical and ecological assessment of the influence of drainage reclamation on the state of the floodplain soil – water-bottom sediments system showed a critical situation of pollution of agricultural landscapes of water basins with heavy metals. Drainage melioration also negatively affects the state of hydrobionts-aquatic vegetation and fish, heavy metals accumulate in their organisms, which leads to disruption of aquatic flora and fauna life processes.

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xxx Y. Tsytsiura
Formation and determination of the individual area of oilseed radish leaves in agrophytocenosises of different technological construction
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Formation and determination of the individual area of oilseed radish leaves in agrophytocenosises of different technological construction

Y. Tsytsiura

Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, Faculty of Agronomy and Forestry, Sonyachna street 3, UA21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine
Correspondence: yaroslavtsytsyura@ukr.net

Abstract:

For the successful control of the production process, determining the leaf area is a basic requirement. In this context, it is important to determine the regularities of leaf formation within the plant, considering technological parameters of agrophytocenosis construction. These are the important issues covered in this paper based on the years of research conducted between 2013 and 2018 on three cultivars of oilseed radish: one of the poorly explored members of the cruciferous family of multipurpose use. The conducted researches allowed to distinguish features of longline leaf formation of oilseed radish cultivars and mathematically describe features of formation of their area, length and width at the early flowering phase according to the Richards growth curve. The peculiarities of formation of individual leaf area depending on the combination of the variations of the stand density and fertilization in the context of the recommended process regulation of oilseed radish cultivation are also determined. It has been proved possible to use a non–destructive method of determining the individual leaf area of oilseed radish, basing on the evaluation of 29 models, using the following formula S = 7.9316–2.3613L + 0.6897 (LW)+0.0458L2–0.0005 (LW)2 (under the following test parameters of the model: R2 0.9106; RMSE 9.75; d 0.956; BIAS –0.1523).

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xxx E. Sermyagina, K. Murashko, D. Nevstrueva, A. Pihlajamäki and E. Vakkilainen
Conversion of cellulose to activated carbons for high-performance supercapacitors
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Conversion of cellulose to activated carbons for high-performance supercapacitors

E. Sermyagina¹*, K. Murashko², D. Nevstrueva¹, A. Pihlajamäki¹ and E. Vakkilainen¹

¹LUT University, Energy Technology, Laboratory of Sustainable Energy Systems, Skinnarilankatu 34, FI53850 Lappeenranta, Finland
²University of Eastern Finland, Fine Particle and Aerosol Technology Laboratory, Yliopistonranta 1 C, FI70210 Kuopio, Finland
*Correspondence: ekaterina.sermyagina@lut.fi

Abstract:

Biomass-derived activated carbons are promising materials that can be used in various applications. Current work investigates the possibilities of the cellulose-derived activated carbons in substituting the commercial alternatives for the supercapacitors’ electrodes with high efficiency, stable performance and relatively low cost. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) followed by chemical activation with KOH is used to convert cellulose into highly porous activated carbons. The effect of HTC parameters on the material porosity development and electrochemical properties of the electrodes is evaluated with several variations of the residence time and the weight ratio between cellulose and water during the pretreatment. The analysis shows that intensification of the HTC process (longer residence time and higher water/cellulose ratio) results in increase of the surface area of both hydrochar samples and subsequent activated carbons: with the highest surface area for the sample produced after 2 h HTC treatment with water/cellulose ratio of 6/1 – 2,645 m2 g-1. As for the electrochemical analysis, the highest values of the specific capacitance are found for the samples produced from 2 h HTC treatment: 110.3 F g-1 (water/cellulose ratio of 3/1) and 102.5 F g-1 (water/cellulose ratio of 6/1). Additionally, it is noted that electrodes produced from the samples treated during 4 h have higher impedance at low operation frequency. The present study proves the possibility to substitute commercial activated carbons with cellulose-derived materials, the porosity of which can be tuned accordingly already during the pretreatment step.

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xxx J.L. Paes, B.C. Vargas, J.P.B. Cunha, D.S.C. Silva, G.A.S. Ferraz, M.R.S. Braz, P.F.P. Ferraz, L. Conti and G. Rossi
Thermal performance of a solar hybrid dryer for Conilon coffee (Coffea canephora)
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Thermal performance of a solar hybrid dryer for Conilon coffee (Coffea canephora)

J.L. Paes¹*, B.C. Vargas¹, J.P.B. Cunha¹, D.S.C. Silva¹, G.A.S. Ferraz², M.R.S. Braz¹, P.F.P. Ferraz², L. Conti³ and G. Rossi³

¹Rural Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Engineering Department, Campus Seropédica, ZIP Code BR23890000, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
²Federal University of Lavras, Agricultural Engineering Department, ZIP Code BR37200000, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
³University of Florence, Department of Agricultural, Food, Environment and Forestry (DAGRI), Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145, Florence, Italy *Correspondence: juliana.lobop@gmail.com

Abstract:

The study was aimed at design and development of an energy efficient hybrid solar dryer suitable for drying of organic Conilon coffee placed in the town of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The energy efficiency and the drying efficiency were the evaluation criteria for thermal performance of the hybrid solar dryer during the coffee drying. Temperature and relative humidity (RH) of the drying and ambient air, solar radiation intensity and coffee weight loss were monitored during the drying process. The process occurred over six consecutive days; the drying time was from 07:00 to 17:00 h, totalling 120 h of operation with an intermittent period (at night) of 14 h. During intermittence, the exhaust system kept off and solar collector and drying chamber sealed. The effective drying period took 60 h, with temperature and RH, respectively, of 38.3 °C and 60.6% outlet of the solar collector, 32.7 °C and 72.2% outlet drying chamber and 27.8 °C and 74.5% ambient air. The maximum temperature in the solar collector and drying chamber reached 54 and 47.7 °C, respectively, with an ambient air temperature of 32 °C at 12:00 h. These values showing temperature increase 22.2 °C in solar collector and 10 ºC drying chamber. The mean variation for the reduction in RH between the drying air inside the solar collector and the ambient air was 28%, while in the chamber obtained in a range of 10.5% at 13:00 h. The solar collector and dryer chamber efficiency were 29.1 and 40.8%, respectively, while the overall dryer efficiency 39.7%.

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xxx M. Hissa, S. Niemi and A. Niemi
Combustion and emission studies of a common-rail direct injection diesel engine with various injector nozzles
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Combustion and emission studies of a common-rail direct injection diesel engine with various injector nozzles

M. Hissa*, S. Niemi and A. Niemi

University of Vaasa, School of Technology and Innovations, P.O. Box 700, FI-65101 Vaasa Finland
*Correspondence: Michaela.Hissa@univaasa.fi

Abstract:

Fuel injection has a critical role in an internal combustion engine and a significant effect on the quality of the fuel spray. In turn, fuel spray directly affects an engine´s combustion, efficiency, power and emissions. This study evaluated three different injector nozzles in a high-speed, non-road diesel engine. It was run on diesel fuel oil (DFO) and testing was conducted at three different engine loads (100%, 75% and 50%) and at two engine speeds (2,200 rpm and 1,500 rpm). The nozzles had 6, 8 and 10 holes and a relatively high mass flow rate (HF). The study investigated and compared injection and combustion characteristics, together with gaseous emissions. The combustion parameters seemed to be very similar with all studied injector nozzles. The emission measurements indicated general reductions in hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) at most load/speed points when using the 6- and 10-hole nozzles instead of the reference 8-hole nozzles. However, smoke number increased when the alternative nozzles were used.

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xxx S. Palisoc, A.J. Gallardo, C.B. Laurito and M. Natividad
Determination of heavy metals in corn (Zea Mays L.) using silver nanoparticles/graphene/nafion modified glassy carbon electrode
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Determination of heavy metals in corn (Zea Mays L.) using silver nanoparticles/graphene/nafion modified glassy carbon electrode

S. Palisoc¹², A.J. Gallardo¹, C.B. Laurito¹ and M. Natividad¹²*

¹De La Salle University, Condensed Matter Research Laboratory, Physics Department, 2401 Taft Avenue, Manila, 922, Philippines
²De La Salle University, Condensed Matter Research Unit, CENSER, 2401 Taft Avenue, Manila, 922, Philippines
*Correspondence: michelle.natividad@dlsu.edu.ph

Abstract:

Silver nanoparticles (AgNP)/graphene/Nafion modified glassy carbon electrodes were fabricated for the determination of trace amounts of cadmium (Cd2+) and lead (Pb2+) via anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The electrode modifiers and the ASV parameters were optimized. The fabricated electrode was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. A linear relationship between anodic peak current and heavy metal concentration was obtained in the range of 25 parts per billion (ppb) to 250 ppb. The limit of detection of the modified electrode is 25 ppb for both Cd2+ and Pb2+, while the limits of quantitation are 155.7 ppb for Cd2+ and 159.5 ppb for Pb2+. Real sample analysis using corn plant and soil samples was performed to show the utility of the fabricated electrode in sensing applications. Trace amounts of Cd2+ and Pb2+ were found in the said samples.

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xxx P. Stankevics, V. Mironovs and N. Muracova
Manufacturing technologies for slide bushings from powder materials for lever brake systems of vehicles
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Manufacturing technologies for slide bushings from powder materials for lever brake systems of vehicles

P. Stankevics¹*, V. Mironovs² and N. Muracova³

¹Riga Technical University, Transport Institute, 12 Azenes street, LV–1048 Riga, Latvia
²Riga Technical University, Laboratory of Powder Materials, 12 Azenes street, LV–1048 Riga, Latvia
³ICFSD, Riga Technical University, 1 Kalku street, LV–1050 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: pavels.stankevics@rtu.lv

Abstract:

Slide bushings made of metal powder materials are used in many parts of vehicles. The current trend is to reduce the unit cost of products, increase the durability of components and assemblies, and reduce the harmful effects on the environment. One of these solutions is the use of powder materials. In this article, we consider some manufacturing techniques for sliding bushings of a lever brake system of a rolling stock using one-sided and two-sided pressing, pulse and combined sealing. The areas of their rational use are demonstrated as well.

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xxx S.M. Viyugin, A.V. Kuchumov, G.V. Viyugina, S.E. Terentyev and I.A. Karamulina
Influence of regional technologies of varying intensity on the bioproductivity of sod-podzolic medium loamy soil in the Central region of the Russian Federation
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Influence of regional technologies of varying intensity on the bioproductivity of sod-podzolic medium loamy soil in the Central region of the Russian Federation

S.M. Viyugin¹*, A.V. Kuchumov², G.V. Viyugina³, S.E. Terentyev⁴ and I.A. Karamulina¹

¹Smolensk State Agricultural Academy, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Department of Agronomy, Land Management and Ecology, 10/2 B. Sovetskaya Str., RU214000 Smolensk, Russia
²Smolensk State Agricultural Academy, Faculty of Economics, Department of Production Management, 10/2 B. Sovetskaya Str., RU214000 Smolensk, Russia
³Smolensk State University, Faculty of Natural Geography, Department of Biology and Ornamental Crop Production, 4 Przhevalskogo Str., RU214000 Smolensk, Russia
⁴Smolensk State Agricultural Academy, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Department of Agricultural Processing Technology, 10/2 B. Sovetskaya Str., RU214000 Smolensk, Russia
*Correspondence: vyugin_sm@mail.ru

Abstract:

This study is oriented to elucidating the role of the basic elements of regional farming systems in soil-crop complex using agricultural technologies of different levels of cultivation of field crops in the Smolensk Region.
As a result of monitoring carried out in 1991–2008 on a reference site located in the Smolensk Region, negative changes of soil profile were revealed. Degree of soil podzolization increased what contributed to its degradation. All genetic horizons demonstrated deterioration in the basic parameters of soil fertility.
Many years of experience showed a significant influence of the elements of studied technologies on soil acidity parameters, on the level of available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium; the amount of humic compounds was, however, characterized by relative stability.
According to the total grain harvest of winter rye, spring soft wheat and barley, as well as of the green mass of perennial and annual herbs, studied variants were ranged in the following order: intensive, organic, adaptive, and extensive. Organic technology is suitable for getting environmentally friendly products.
Obtained results are recommended to be used in the development of regional technologies of various intensity for the bio-productivity of sod-podzolic medium loamy soil in the Central region of the Russian Federation, as well as in regions with similar soil and climatic conditions. Choice of particular variant is in each case determined by the baseline characteristics of soil, planned level of productivity and harvest quality, availability of material and monetary resources in the economy.

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xxx K. Starý, Z. Jelínek, J. Kumhálová, J. Chyba and K. Balážová
Comparing RGB – based vegetation indices from UAV imageries to estimate hops canopy area
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Comparing RGB – based vegetation indices from UAV imageries to estimate hops canopy area

K. Starý¹*, Z. Jelínek¹, J. Kumhálová¹, J. Chyba² and K. Balážová²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilization, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: staryk@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Remote estimation of hops plants in hop gardens is imperative in field of precision agriculture, because of precise imaging of hop garden structure. Monitoring of hop plant volume and area can help to predict the condition and yield of hops. In this study, two unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) – eBee X senseFly UAV equipped with Red Green Blue (RGB) S.O.D.A. camera and Vertical Take-Off Landing (VTOL) UAV FireFly6 Pro by BirdsEyeView Aerobotics equipped with MicaSense RedEdge MX camera were used to acquire images of hop garden at phenology stage maturity of cones (24 th July) before harvest. Seven commonly used RGB vegetation indices (VI) were derived from these RGB and multispectral (MS) images after photogrammetric pre-processing and orthophoto mosaic extraction using Pix4Dmapper software. Vegetation Indices as the Green Percentage Index (G%), Excess of Green Index (ExGreen), Green Leaf Index (GLI), Visible Atmospherically Resistant Index (VARI), Red Green Blue Vegetation Index (RGBVI), Normalised Green Red Difference Index (NGRDI) and Triangular Greenness Index (TGI) were derived from both data sets. Binary model from each of VI was derived and threshold value for green vegetation was set. The results showed significant differences in hop plant area based on the specifications of cameras, especially wavelengths centres, and design and flight parameters of both UAV types. The comparison of various indices showed, that ExG and TGI indices has the highest congruity of estimated vegetation indices in hop garden canopy area for both used cameras. Further processing by Fuzzy Overlay tool proved high accuracy in green canopy area estimation for ExG and TGI vegetation indices.

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xxx I.M. Donnik, A.S. Krivonogova, A.G. Isaeva, I.A. Shkuratova, K.V. Moiseeva and N.B. Musikhina
Special features of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in animal and poultry farms in the regions with various levels of man-made pollution
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Special features of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in animal and poultry farms in the regions with various levels of man-made pollution

I.M. Donnik¹, A.S. Krivonogova², A.G. Isaeva¹²*, I.A. Shkuratova², K.V. Moiseeva¹² and N.B. Musikhina¹

¹‘Ural State Agrarian University’ (FSBEI HE Ural SAU), Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education, 42, K. Liebknechta Str., RU620000 Ekaterinburg, Russia
²‘Ural Federal Agrarian Scientific Research Centre, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences’ (FSBSI UrFASRC, UrB of RAS), Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution, 112 А, Belinskogo Str., RU620000 Еkaterinburg, Russia
*Correspondence: isaeva.05@bk.ru

Abstract:

The research on the P. aeruginosa strains in animal and poultry farms located in the areas with various levels of technogenic pollution were done. The content of P. aeruginosa in composition of opportunistic pathogenic microflora in dairy, pig-breeding and poultry farms was stated. Susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to fluoroquinolone antibiotics and carbapenems was defined. The enterprises were located in the areas with various levels of contamination of agrobiocenosis with Zn, Fe, Cd, Cu, As, Pb, 90Sr, 137Cs of technogenic origin. It was stated that content of P. aeruginosa in opportunistic pathogenic microbiota was the most in poultry farms. In man-made polluted areas P. aeruginosa was most often found in samples from oral cavity and cloaca of laying hens and broiler chickens, and in ‘clean’ areas’ – mostly in wash-offs from cages and drinking pans. In dairy farms content of P. aeruginosa was higher in environmentally friendly areas, as compared to the areas with technogenic pollution. Analysis of antibiotic susceptibility has shown that in dairy farms average level of resistance of P. aeruginosa strains to carbapenems and fluoroquinolone was 12% and 6%, in pig-breeding farms – 9% and 13%, and in poultry farms – 6% and 18% correspondingly. At the same time, in environmentally neglected areas significant content of the strains with low susceptibility to the above-mentioned antibiotics was stated. The research is executed at the expense of a grant of the Russian scientific fund (project No. 18-16-00040).

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xxx S.V. Nikitin, К.S. Shatokhin, V.I. Zaporozhets, N.N. Кochnev, D.S. Bashur, A.V. Khodakovа and V.I. Ermolaev
‘GENETIC LOAD’ and changes in the chronology of early mortality in mini-pigs of ICG SB RAS
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‘GENETIC LOAD’ and changes in the chronology of early mortality in mini-pigs of ICG SB RAS

S.V. Nikitin¹, К.S. Shatokhin²*, V.I. Zaporozhets¹, N.N. Кochnev², D.S. Bashur¹, A.V. Khodakovа² and V.I. Ermolaev¹

¹Institute of Cytology and Genetics of Siberian Department of Russian Academy of Sciences, RU630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
²Novosibirsk State Agrarian University, RU630039 Novosibirsk, Russia
*Correspondence: true_genetic@mail.ru

Abstract:

This paper describes the study of the common factors of mortality of suckling piglets. It is assumed that this parameter is influenced by recessive lethal factors of the genetic load in population. An immediate subject of study was the chronological analysis of mortality in piglets from the breeding group of mini-pigs of ICG SB RAS (Institute of Cytology and Genetics Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences) for the period from 2013 through 2019. The results revealed increased number of dead piglets in the early postnatal period (first five days after farrowing) over this time period. This observation was confirmed by a statistically significant correlation coefficient between the year of birth and the number of animals that died during the first five days of life. Mortality in the period from the 6th day to weaning, on the contrary, decreased to probable accidental death which was non-related to genetic causes. Observed redistribution of mortality may be associated with increased general homozygosity in population and, in part, with the optimization of the excessive for mini-pigs multiple fertility. It is possible that the consequence of the second cause is an increase in mortality and a decrease in multiple pregnancy. It is assumed that in the breeding group of mini-pigs of the ICG SB RAS, there is the process of eliminating excessive lethal ‘genetic load’ and optimizing homozygosity to a level ensuring maximum survival of piglets on the 6th day after birth. Results of regression analysis showed that the mortality of piglets in 2018 reached its maximum level and in future a decrease to the optimum level which is typical for domestic pigs is possible. In general, results of this study suggest that newborn piglets are represented by two types. The first type includes animals whose viability potential determined by recessive lethal ‘genetic load’ is zero – they cannot live outside mother’s body. The second type is represented by animals with a genetic viability potential equal to one –they can die only from accidental death.

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xxx O. Ulianych, V. Yatsenko, P. Kondratenko, O. Lazariev, L. Voievoda, O. Lukianets and D. Adamenko
The influence of amino acids on the activity of antioxidant enzimes, malonic dialdehyde content and productivity of garlic (Allium Sativum L.)
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The influence of amino acids on the activity of antioxidant enzimes, malonic dialdehyde content and productivity of garlic (Allium Sativum L.)

O. Ulianych¹, V. Yatsenko¹*, P. Kondratenko², O. Lazariev¹, L. Voievoda¹, O. Lukianets¹ and D. Adamenko¹

¹Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Horticulture, Ecology and Plants Protection, Department of Vegetable Growing, Department of Plant Protection and Quarantine, Faculty of Management, Department of Ukrainian and Foreign Languages, Instytutska street, 1, UA20300 Uman, Ukraine
²The National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, Mykhayla Omelyanovycha-Pavlenka street, 9, UA01010 Kyiv, Ukraine
*Correspondence: slaviksklavin16@gmail.com

Abstract:

The research was carried out in 2017–2019 in the conditions of the Right-Bank Forest Steppe of Ukraine. The results of study, the effect of spraying by certain amino acids; salicylic (300 ppm), gibberellin (150 ppm) and ascorbic acids (200 ppm) on garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants are presented in the article. It was found that amino acid solutions improves the antioxidant state: the activities of SOD, CAT, POD, GR, GST in treated leaves tended to increase, the activity of SOD was higher than the control of 7.5–15.0%; CAT (27.4–45.9%); POD (7.0–83.0%); GR (5.4–49.9%); and GST (14.8–41.3%). It was noted that the content of chlorophyll a+b in the leaves significantly increased (2.6–10.8%), The use of amino acids increased the accumulation of dry matter by 1.4–4.0%. The yield increase was 1.14–2.27 t ha-1 (7.7–15.3% compared to control). The content of B vitamins in the garlic cloves was greatly influenced by gibberellic acid, where increasing the amount of B vitamins reached to 21.9% relative to control The use of salicylic and ascorbic acids increased the amount of B vitamins by 7.6 and 8.2%, respectively. The most significant increasing of C vitamin content was observed by spraying of plants with ascorbic acid (+12.5%), whereas by spraying with salicylic and gibberellic acids its content increased by 6.0 and 7.5%, respectively. In the future, the data obtained can be used to reduce the impact of abiotic factors on the physiological state and productivity of garlic plants. Also, the obtained data will serve as a theoretical basis for producers in view of the purposes for which the products are grown (for sale in fresh form, processing or storage).

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xxx G. Argenti, F. Del Serra, N. Staglianò and I. Battaglini
Assessment of management effect on grasslands characteristics in an area of the Apennines (North Italy)
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Assessment of management effect on grasslands characteristics in an area of the Apennines (North Italy)

G. Argenti¹*, F. Del Serra¹, N. Staglianò¹ and I. Battaglini²

¹University of Florence, School of Agriculture, DAGRI, P.le delle Cascine 18, IT50144 Firenze, Italy
²Unione di Comuni Valdarno e Valdisieve, Via XXV Aprile, 10, IT50068 Rufina (FI), Italy
*Correspondence: giovanni.argenti@unifi.it

Abstract:

In many regions of Europe, semi-natural grasslands not properly utilized face different threats, concerning changes in botanical composition and structural evolution, which can lead to a reduction of the qualitative value of forage biomass or, in the mid-long term, forest recovery. The present paper assesses various semi-natural grasslands within a mountain public property located in Tuscany (North Apennines, Italy) subjected to different types of utilization. Some of them are managed through cattle grazing during summer, whereas some others are only periodically mowed and utilization is performed only by wildlife occurring in the area. The paper analyses the importance of resource management and its impact on botanical composition and on qualitative value of forage production. Data collection of studied areas was conducted by means of vegetation assessment performed with a fast procedure that simplifies the botanical composition sampling. Results show the relevance of some environmental factors on grasslands evolution and on their composition (such as altitude and slope) and the importance of management on grassland quality and on level of shrub encroachment.

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xxx W.R. Żelazny
Application of feature selection for predicting leaf chlorophyll content in oats (Avena sativa L.) from hyperspectral imagery
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Application of feature selection for predicting leaf chlorophyll content in oats (Avena sativa L.) from hyperspectral imagery

W.R. Żelazny¹²*

¹Crop Research Institute, Division of Crop Management Systems, Drnovská 507/73, CZ161 06 Praha 6 Ruzyně, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Praha 6 Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: wzelazny@vurv.cz

Abstract:

Feature selection can improve predictions generated by partial least squares models. In the context of hyperspectral imaging, it can also enable the development of affordable devices with specialized applications. The feasibility of feature selection for oat leaf chlorophyll estimation from hyperspectral imagery was assessed using a public domain dataset. A wrapper approach resulted in a simplistic model with poor predictive performance. The number of model inputs decreased from 94 to 3 bands when a filter approach based on the minimum redundancy, maximum relevance criterion was attempted. The filtering led to improved prediction quality, with the root mean square error decreasing from 0.17 to 0.16 g m-2 and R2 increasing from 0.57 to 0.62. Accurate predictions were obtained especially for low chlorophyll levels. The obtained model estimated leaf chlorophyll concentration from near infra-red reflectance, canopy darkness, and its blueness. The prediction robustness needs to be investigated, which can be done by employing an ensemble methodology and testing the model on a new dataset with improved ground-truth measurements and additional crop species.

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xxx J. Bazarnova, Т. Kuznetsova, E. Aronova, L. Popova and E. Pochkaeva
A method for obtaining plastid pigments from the biomass of Chlorella microalgae
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A method for obtaining plastid pigments from the biomass of Chlorella microalgae

J. Bazarnova*, Т. Kuznetsova, E. Aronova, L. Popova and E. Pochkaeva

Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Graduate School of Biotechnology and Food Science, Polytechnicheskaya, 29, RU195251, St. Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: j.bazarnova@spbstu.ru

Abstract:

Microalgae are distinguished from land plants by the high content of plastid pigments and the biodiversity of carotenoids. The aim of this study is to develop a technology for extracting a pigment complex from the biomass of the microalgae of the genus Chlorella and to determine the extracted pigments’ composition. To obtain biomass, a crude cell suspension of microalgae was used, which was obtained under laboratory conditions for pre-culture cultivation of C. sorokiniana (strain 211-8k). The extraction of plastid pigments from air-dry biomass after disintegration of cell membrane was performed in the 40 kHz mode. It was found that the highest pigment content in ethanol extracts was observed after 30 min (870.0 ± 27.1 mg L-1) at 45−50 °C. The pigments’ composition in the resulting total extracts was determined by spectrophotometry and the Reverse Phase HPLC method. The established content of chlorophyll a in the obtained extracts was 537.5 ± 10.0 mg L-1, the content of chlorophyll b was 182.5 ± 27.5 mg L-1; the maximum output of the amount of carotenoids in extracts was 150.0 ± 10.0 mg L-1. Thus, the main identified forms of carotenoids in extracts from the biomass of microalgae C. sorokiniana were xanthophylls: lutein and fucoxanthin (18.6 and 4.7% of the amount of pigment in extract, respectively) and β-carotene (1.8% of the amount of pigment). It is planned to further fractionate the obtained total extracts of the pigment complex to obtain various forms of chlorophylls and carotenoids to study the spectrum of physiological activity of plastid pigments.

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xxx Z. Jelínek, K. Starý, J. Kumhálová, J. Lukáš and J. Mašek
Winter wheat, winter rape and poppy crop growth evaluation with the help of remote and proximal sensing measurements
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Winter wheat, winter rape and poppy crop growth evaluation with the help of remote and proximal sensing measurements

Z. Jelínek¹*, K. Starý¹, J. Kumhálová¹, J. Lukáš² and J. Mašek³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilization, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
²Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Drnovská 507, CZ161 00 Prague, Czech Republic
³Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: jelinekzdenek@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Monitoring of agricultural crops with the help of remote and proximal sensors during the growing season plays important role for site-specific management decisions. Winter wheat, winter rape and poppy are representatives of typical agricultural crops from the family Poacea, Brassicaceae and Papaveraceae, growing in relative dry area of Rakovník district in the Czech Republic. Ten Sentinel 2 satellite images acquired during vegetation season of the crops were downloaded and processed. Crops were monitored with the help of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) equipped with consumer grade Red Green Blue (RGB) camera and multispectral (MS) MicaSense RedEdge MX camera. In-field variability was assessed by computing RGB-based vegetation indices Triangular Greenness Index (TGI), Green Leaf Index (GLI) and Visible Atmospherically Resistant Index (VARI) and commonly used vegetation indices as Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Green NDVI (GNDVI). The results derived from satellite and UAV images were supported with in-situ measurements of hand-held GreenSeeker and Chlorophyll Meter Content sensors. The study showed the usability of individual vegetation indices, especially the TGI index for chlorophyll content estimation, and VARI index for green vegetation fraction detection and leaf area index estimation, in comparison with selected hand-held devices. The results showed as well that leaf properties and canopy structure of typical characteristics of selected families can significantly influence the spectral response of the crops detected in different phenological stages.

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xxx A. Miftakhutdinov, N. Zhuravel and I. Dikhtyaruk
Comparative economic efficiency of using pharmacological agents for the stress prevention in the course of immunization of birds against reovirus tenosynovitis
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Comparative economic efficiency of using pharmacological agents for the stress prevention in the course of immunization of birds against reovirus tenosynovitis

A. Miftakhutdinov, N. Zhuravel and I. Dikhtyaruk*

South Ural State Agrarian University, 13 Gagarina St., RU457100 Troitsk, Chelyabinsk Region, Russia
*Correspondence: nirugavm@mail.ru

Abstract:

This article describes the results of studies on the definition and comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of using SPAO-FA (stress protector antioxidant – feed additive) and SPAO-complex pharmacological preparation (stress protector antioxidant – complex preparation for birds) for the prevention of vaccine stress during immunization of birds against reovirus tenosynovitis. These preparations were used during 5 days (3 days before vaccination, on the day of vaccination and one day after vaccination) at the dose of 185 mg kg-1 body weight: SPAO-FA was given as a part of compound feed, SPAO-complex – with water. Stress prevention in chickens of the parent flock provides equally high level of protection of birds from a field virus, a causative agent of reovirus tenosynovitis: it reduces the development of a protective level of antibodies by 7 days. Using SPAO-complex contributed to the increase in antibody titers by a factor of 2.6, and to the decrease in the coefficient of variation by the term of monitoring immunity stress by 25.7%. Using SPAO-FA increased antibody titers by 1.6 times, but had no significant effect on vaccination homogeneity. Vaccination index that should be high in the case of successful vaccination was 3.5 times higher for SPAO-complex in comparison with the basic diet; this for SPAO-FA was 1.6 times higher. Positive effect of anti-stress therapy influences the livability of chickens which was 3.5% higher with SPAO-complex, 0.79% higher – with SPAO-FA; bird live weight and the yield of day-old chicks were also higher in comparison with the basic diet by 6.44 and 0.88%, and 4.22 and 0.55%, respectively. Cost-effectiveness of using SPAO-FA per RUR of costs amounted to 180.09 RUR, for SPAO-complex, this parameter amounted to 435.86 RUR.

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xxx I. Kakabouki, A. Folina, S. Karydogianni, Ch. Zisi and A. Efthimiadou
The effect of nitrogen fertilization on root characteristics of Camelina sativa L. in greenhouse pots
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The effect of nitrogen fertilization on root characteristics of Camelina sativa L. in greenhouse pots

I. Kakabouki¹*, A. Folina¹, S. Karydogianni¹, Ch. Zisi¹ and A. Efthimiadou²

¹Agricultural University of Athens, Department of Crop Science, Laboratory of Agronomy, 75 Iera Odos Str., GR11855 Athens, Greece
²Institute of Soil and Water Resources, Department of Soil Science of Athens, Hellenic Agricultural Organization-DEMETER, Sofokli Venizelou 1, GR14123 Lycovrissi, Attica, Greece
*Correspondence: i.kakabouki@gmail.com

Abstract:

Climate change has made mandatory the introduction of new crops in Greece, such as the cultivation of camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz]. Nitrogen (N) and the development of root system are two important factors affecting crop growth and yield. Camelina has been studied mainly for its composition and oil. In the present study, root development of camelina crop was thoroughly investigated; mainly in terms of Nitrogen fertilization. Therefore, a camelina greenhouse experiment was established in Western Greece, in the region of Agrinio, in March 2019 in completely randomized design with four treatments, (control 0 ppm N, 30 ppm N, 60, ppm N and 90 ppm N). The N rates had statistically significant affected root density and root surface from 40 to 120 days after treatment (DAT) with highest values at 100 DAT and 90 ppm N, 52.54 cm of root 100 cm-3 and 27.59 cm2 of root 100 cm-3, respectively. The root volume was significantly affected by N fertilizer from 40 to 100 DAT and highest value was 13.18 cm3 of root 100 cm-3 soil in the 90 ppm at 120 DAT. The plant leaf area was significantly affected by the highest rate of N. Yield per plant had not statistically significant difference with the 60 and with the 90 and highest weight per plant 292.25 g plant-1 in 90 ppm. In conclusion, Ν fertilization significantly affected growth or camelina’s root system after 40 DAT. Plant growth was significantly affected by fertilization and the highest yield and 1,000 seed weight were recorded with the highest amount of N.

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xxx A. Meija, I. Irbe, A. Morozovs and U. Spulle
Properties of Populus genus veneers thermally modified by two modification methods: wood treatment technology and vacuum-thermal treatment
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Properties of Populus genus veneers thermally modified by two modification methods: wood treatment technology and vacuum-thermal treatment

A. Meija¹*, I. Irbe², A. Morozovs¹ and U. Spulle¹

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Forest Faculty, Department of Wood Processing, Liela street 2, LV3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia State Institute of Wood Chemistry, Laboratory of Wood Biodegradation and Protection, Dzerbenes street 27, LV1006 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: meija.anete@gmail.com

Abstract:

Due to environmental concerns the use of wood materials is becoming more extensive and is causing wood supply shortage, therefore the use of Populus genus wood species with a short rotation period is vital. Populus genus species wood has several shortcomings – it is not durable, has low density and is hygroscopic. Thermal modification is a technology that can be used to improve the situation. In this study aspen (Populus tremula L.) was thermally treated using the Wood Treatment Technology (WTT) device for 50 min at 160 °C (50–160 WTT) and poplar (Populus x canadensis Moench) was vacuum-treated (VT) 120 min at 204 °C (120–204 VT), 120 min/ 214 °C (120–214 VT), 180 min 217 °C (180–217 VT) and 30 min 218 °C (30–218 VT). Mass loss (ML), colour change, density, tensile strength along the fibres, moisture exclusion efficiency and weight loss (WL) after brown rot fungus Coniophora puteana were determined and also light microscopy images were taken. Aspen veneers showed a ML of 5.3% between 120–214 VT (6.2%) and 30–218 VT (4.6%) treatment that coincided with the same mass loss in aspen boards cited in the literature. The highest ML was 8.7% calculated from 180–217 VT, while the lowest ML was 2.9% computed from 120–204 VT. The total colour change ΔE was 44, where lightness parameter L provided the greatest impact that was reduced twice after modification. Tensile strength reduced by 47% in the WTT process and had ~29% reduction in the VT process. The WL after fungus C. puteana was 33% at 50–160 WTT. After VT treatment, WL was 0–2.4%. 120–214 VT and 180–217 VT poplar veneers were the most suitable for plywood production.

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xxx T.M. Daflon, C.M. Hüther, D. Cecchin, C.M.P.P. Santos, J. Borella, L.F. Carvalho, N.P.C. Correa, J.R. Oliveira, D.M. Correia, C.R. Pereira and T.B. Machado
Different proportion of root cutting and shoot pruning influence the growth of citronella plants
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Different proportion of root cutting and shoot pruning influence the growth of citronella plants

T.M. Daflon¹, C.M. Hüther¹*, D. Cecchin¹, C.M.P.P. Santos¹, J. Borella², L.F. Carvalho¹, N.P.C. Correa¹, J.R. Oliveira¹, D.M. Correia¹, C.R. Pereira¹ and T.B. Machado¹

¹Federal Fluminense University. Postgraduate Program in Biosystems Engineering - Department of Agricultural Engineering and Environment. Street Passo da Pátria, n.156, São Domingos, Zip Code: 24210-240, Niterói- RJ, Brazil
²Federal University of Rio Grande. Institute of Biological Sciences, Zip Code: 96203-900, Rio Grande, RS, Brazil
*Correspondence: cristinahuther@yahoo.com.br

Abstract:

Environment concern, sustainable products demand, and natural components conscious are currently global movement factors. Related to the global movement factors, citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus L.) is being widely used in folk medicine, and has insect repellent activity, fungal and bactericidal action. Its essential oil has high content of citronellal, citronellol, geraniol. The essential oil is mostly extracted from leaves which turns this plant with high commercial demand. However, to obtain the best therapeutic quality and productivity of medicinal plants, which culminates in greater quantity and quality of the active compounds, the proper management of the crop is fundamental, as several factors can interfere during its growth and development. Thus, we analyzed the growth of citronella plants submitted to different levels of shoot and root cuts. Five different proportions of root pruning (0, 25, 50, 75, 100%), after 145 days of seedling planting and four cuttings in the shoots: blunt; a cut at 145 DAP (days after planting) along with the root cut; a cut at 228 DAP; and cuts at 145 and 228 DAP (two cuts). Four harvesting for dry matter accumulation and photoassimilate partition data were performed. The treatment with 100% root cut, but without leaf cut, increased the total dry mass accumulation of the plant in relation to the other treatments, for the last analysis period, demonstrating a recovery. Thus, the application of two leaf cuts or no leaf cutting within the 100% root cut treatment for leaf dry mass accumulation is more effective when compared to the blunt root treatment.

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xxx I. S. Dunmade
A linear assignment based conceptual lifecycle assessment method for selecting optimal agri-industrial materials production pathway: A case study on Nigerian yam value chain
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A linear assignment based conceptual lifecycle assessment method for selecting optimal agri-industrial materials production pathway: A case study on Nigerian yam value chain

I. S. Dunmade

Mount Royal University, Faculty of Science & Technology, Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences, 4825 Mount Royal Gate SW, Calgary AB T3E 6K6, Canada
*Correspondence: idunmade@mtroyal.ca; israel_dunmade@yahoo.ca

Abstract:

Lifecycle assessment is a robust tool for comprehensive environmental impact assessment of products and processes. It provides users opportunities to identify the hotspots along the lifecycle of a system and thereby enable them to implement improvement opportunities as deemed appropriate. Production of agri-based industrial raw materials could be energy and water intensive. Such endeavour could take a heavy toll on the environment in terms of resource consumption and environmental pollution. The goal of this study was to develop an easy to use and less data intensive conceptual LCA methodology for selecting optimal pathway along a value-chain under two decision scenarios: the optimal techno-environmentally friendly pathway, and optimal sustainability pathway. This proposed Linear Assignment Method integrated LCA is a less data intensive conceptual LCA method that facilitates the selection of an optimal production and processing pathway for agri-industrial materials, minimizes resource consumption and reduction of potential climate change impact of agri-industrial materials value chain. The LCA ISO 14040s aligned conceptual LCA method will be found useful in identifying potential hotspots in a agri-industrial production process lifecycle, in selecting activity options that would result in minimum ecological footprint, and help in removing obstacles in implementing a scoping lifecycle analysis where cost, time and data availability are the impediments.

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xxx M. Klavins, K. Upska, A. Viksna, M. Bertins, L. Ansone-Bertina and J. Krumins
A comparative study of the properties of industrially produced humic substances
Abstract |
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A comparative study of the properties of industrially produced humic substances

M. Klavins¹*, K. Upska¹², A. Viksna², M. Bertins², L. Ansone-Bertina¹ and J. Krumins¹

¹University of Latvia, Department of Environmental Science, 19 Raina Blvd, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia
²University of Latvia, Department of Analytical Chemistry, 19 Raina Blvd, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: maris.klavins@lu.lv

Abstract:

Humic substances (HSs) are produced industrially in large quantities from low rank coal, weathered coal, peat, also from soils, composts and other sources. Considering that the applications of industrially produced HSs also include food, pharmaceutical applications and environmental technologies, it is important to evaluate their composition and quality and to identify their sources. The aim of the present study is to compare the properties of industrially produced HS samples. HSs were characterised using spectroscopic and other methods. For the identification of origin of HSs, different methods can be used, such as elemental analysis and ratios of light stable isotopes. The results of the study indicate that many industrially produced HSs are of poor quality (low concentration of basic substance, admixture of undesirable substances, pollutants, no quality indications). In this situation, rigorous quality control should be implemented, providing detailed characteristics of the product. The composition of materials suggested for agricultural applications has not been analysed much. Most of the studied materials were designated as HAs, followed by fulvic acids (FAs) and HSs. However, an analysis of the humic matter types indicates that the majority of substances offered on the market are in fact mixtures of HAs and FAs; so, it would be more appropriate to designate them as HSs or their salts. This study identifies the main quality problems of industrially produced humic substances: 1) lack of strict quality indicators, 2) absence of indication of source materials/origins of HSs.

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xxx N. Telekalo and M. Melnyk
Agroecological substantiation of Medicago sativa cultivation technology
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Agroecological substantiation of Medicago sativa cultivation technology

N. Telekalo* and M. Melnyk

Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, Faculty of Agronomy and Forestry, Soniachna street 3, UA21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine
*Correspondence: nataliiatelekalo@gmail.com

Abstract:

Medicago sativa is one of the most productive legumes, which provides high protein production. Application of the biostimulant and microfertilizers is quite relevant and effective. Theoretically substantiates and presents ways to solve the scientific problem of formation of Medicago sativa productivity and the impact on them of seed treatment and foliar nutrition, taking into account the conditions of the Forest-Steppe right bank of Ukraine. The research was conducted in the research field of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University in the village of Agronomichne, Vinnytsia district during 2016–2018. Sinyukha variety was sown (2010). There has been established that the use of pre-sowing treatment of seeds and crops of Medicago sativa with biostimulant and microfertilizer improves the conditions of growth and development of the crop and increases individual productivity. On the researches it is established that fodder productivity of Medicago sativa sowing is provided by application of biostimulators of growth and microfertilizers on crops, genetic potential the culture realized as much as possible on the 2nd year of cultivation. The effect of growth stimulants on Medicago sativa productivity was defined and the optimal combination of macro- and microelements in modern complex fertilizers was determined, which contributes to the maximum possible yield of Medicago sativa green mass. New technological regulations for the use of bioorganic preparations and components in the technological scheme of Medicago sativa cultivation have been developed. It was found that on average for three years of vegetation of Medicago sativa sown on gray forest soils in the Forest-Steppe Right Bank, the highest yield of seeds and green mass provides the option of treatment with biostimulator Saprogum® and microfertilizer Wuxal®. Creating optimal conditions for mineral nutrition for Medicago sativa plants through the use of bacterial fertilizers and foliar nutrition contributed not only to the formation of high grain yields, but also significantly improved biochemical parameters and, consequently, increased crude protein content in grain, which is important for solving the problem of vegetable protein and balancing the diets of farm animals. The research results are aimed at solving current problems of technological renewal and development of agro-industrial complex on the basis of development of bioorganic models of varietal technology of Medicago sativa cultivation with orientation at the level of adequate arable productivity and climate fertility.

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xxx A. Parfeniuk, V. Mineralova, I. Beznosko, A. Lishchuk, V. Borodai and V. Krut
Mycobiota of the rhizosphere of raspberry plants (Rubus idaeus L.) under the influence of varieties and new fertilizers in conditions of organic production
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Mycobiota of the rhizosphere of raspberry plants (Rubus idaeus L.) under the influence of varieties and new fertilizers in conditions of organic production

A. Parfeniuk¹, V. Mineralova¹*, I. Beznosko¹, A. Lishchuk¹, V. Borodai² and V. Krut³

¹Institute of Agroecology and Nature Management of NAAS of Ukraine, Metrologichna, 12, UA03143 Kyiv, Ukraine
²The National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Heroiv Oborony, 15, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
³Institute of Microbiology and Virology named after D.K. Zabolotnyi of NAAS of Ukraine, Academician Zabolotny, 154, UA03143 Kyiv, Ukraine
*Correspondence: valentinamk@ukr.net

Abstract:

The results of studies of influence of raspberry plant varieties and new organic fertilizers on the abundance and species composition of the micromycetes in rhizospheric soil in conditions of organic production are presented. The mycobiota of Joan J and Himbo-Top raspberry varieties during plant ontogeny was analyzed and the species composition of phytopathogenic micromycetes, which are presented in the rhizospheric plant soil, was defined. It was revealed that the following fungi species prevail in the population: Botrytis cinerea, Pers, Aspergillus niger, V. Tiegh, Alternaria alternata, (Fr.) Keissl, Fusarium sp. These fungi are producers of mycotoxins that can cause dangerous diseases in animals and humans. There is a stabilizing selection of microorganisms in the phase of separation of buds in inflorescences in the mycobiota of the rhizosphere of plants of raspberry varieties under the influence of the organic fertilizer VITERI with the addition of Basil essential oil.

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xxx V. Bulgakov, I. Holovach, V. Nadykto, O. Parakhin, H. Kaletnik, L. Shymko and J. Olt
Motion stability estimation for modular traction vehicle-based combined unit
Abstract |

Motion stability estimation for modular traction vehicle-based combined unit

V. Bulgakov¹, I. Holovach¹, V. Nadykto², O. Parakhin², H. Kaletnik³, L. Shymko¹ and J. Olt⁴*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B, Khmelnytsky Ave, UA 72310, Melitopol, Zaporozhye Region, Ukraine
³Vinnytsia National Agrarian University of Ukraine, 3 Soniachna Str., UA 21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine
⁴Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE 51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

One of the promising ways of efficiently applying high power intensity tractors is their design and utilisation in the form of modular traction vehicles comprising two modules: the power module and the process module. In order to provide for the sufficient manoeuvrability of the modular traction vehicle, when its process module passes a turn, the latter is equipped with vertical and horizontal hinge joints. The freedom of the process module’s rotation with respect to the power module in the horizontal plane through the agency of the above-mentioned vertical hinge joint is restrained by a hydraulic cylinder, in which the chambers above and below the piston are connected via a throttle valve with a hydraulic resistance coefficient of about 1.03×106 N m s rad–1. This paper is concerned with the theoretical and experimental research into the stability of motion (on turn spaces as well as in the transport mode) of a modular combined unit, when its velocity changes and/or the slip resistance coefficient of the tyres on the wheels of the process module, in which the hydraulic cylinder is equipped with a throttle valve with the above-mentioned hydraulic resistance coefficient, changes.

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xxx D.G. Churilov, S.D. Polischuk, G.I. Churilov, V.V. Churilova and D.N. Byshova
Investigation of the long-term toxic effect of nanoparticles of different physical-chemical characteristics
Abstract |
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Investigation of the long-term toxic effect of nanoparticles of different physical-chemical characteristics

D.G. Churilov¹, S.D. Polischuk²*, G.I. Churilov³, V.V. Churilova² and D.N. Byshova⁴

¹Ryazan State Agrotechnological University, Road Transport Faculty, Department of Metal Technology and Machine Repair, Kostychev street 1, 390044 Ryazan, Russia
²Ryazan State Agrotechnological University, Technological Faculty, Department of Breeding and Seed Production, Agricultural Chemistry, Forestry and Ecology, Kostychev street 1, 390044, Ryazan, Russia
³Ryazan State Medical University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of General Chemistry, Vysokovoltnaya street 9, 390026 Ryazan, Russia
⁴Ryazan State Agrotechnological University, Faculty of Vet Medicine and Biotechnology, Kostychev street 1, 390044 Ryazan, Russia
*Correspondence: svpolishuk@mail.ru

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to study the effect of metal and oxide nanoparticles on some ecological and functional groups in the soil-plant-animal system to form the stability limits of organisms. Nanoparticles of cobalt, iron, zinc, copper, copper oxide, zinc oxide and titanium dioxide sized 20–80 nm were studied. The concentration range was 0.01–1,000 g of nanoparticles per ton of seeds or soil. Objects suitable for biotesting and environmental monitoring were selected: earthworms (Lumbricina), rats (white outbred) and Wistar rats. It was previously found that nanoparticles of the studied metals up to a concentration of 100 g t-1 of seeds, unlike oxides, practically do not affect bacterial populations. The use of indicators of biochemical and cytomorphologic reactions of invertebrates seems promising because worms are able to bind pollutants and reduce their penetration into plants. They are also an indicator of soil biotesting for metal contamination. Reactivity and toxic effects of nanoparticles (NPs) in natural conditions depend both on the type of soil and on the size and concentration of nanoparticles. With sizes (NPs) of up to 20 nm (depending on the type of soil and physicochemical characteristics), NPs are much more reactive and reduce the survival of microorganisms. Small nanoparticles (less than 20 nm) are characterized by a large interface. Such nano-objects exhibit high physical-chemical activity and are safe only at very low concentrations. The specifics of the environmental impact of oxide NPs compared to metal NPs was revealed. It was associated with accumulation of oxides in living systems and the peculiarities of changes in the morph physiological, histological and reproductive parameters of organisms and morphological and biochemical parameters of animals. Oxide nanoparticles accumulate in a living organism, exhibit toxic properties, lower the activity of enzymes and hormones and are transferred along trophic chains, which is not typical for metal nanoparticles.

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xxx М.І. Kulyk, А.О. Rozhkov, О.V. Kalinichenko, А.О. Taranenko and О.V. Onopriienko
Effect of winter wheat variety, hydrothermal coefficient (HTC) and thousand kernel weight (TKW) on protein content, grain and protein yield
Abstract |
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Effect of winter wheat variety, hydrothermal coefficient (HTC) and thousand kernel weight (TKW) on protein content, grain and protein yield

М.І. Kulyk¹, А.О. Rozhkov², О.V. Kalinichenko¹, А.О. Taranenko¹* and О.V. Onopriienko¹

¹Poltava State Agrarian Academy, Faculty of Agrotechnology and ecology, 1/3 Skovorody street UA36003 Poltava, Ukraine
²Kharkiv National Agrarian University. V. V. Dokuchaev, Agronomy Department, p/v Dokuchaevske – 2, UA62483 Kharkiv, Ukraine
*Correspondence: anna.taranenko@pdaa.edu.ua

Abstract:

The aim of the research is to clarify the physiological and biochemical processes in the plant organism that occur in the optimal and stressful conditions, as well as to search for anthropogenic methods of their manifestation in connection with the protein content in grain of wheat varieties of different origin in the conditions of the Forest-Steppe Ukraine. The impact of temperature factor and the moistening mode of the period of winter wheat seed formation and ripening (Triticum aestivum L.) has been studied. The impact of varieties of Ukrainian and foreign plant breeding on the protein content in grain of the obtained offspring (reproduction yield) has been studied too. The ways to eliminate the influence of weather conditions on the protein content in grain and on the bases of sowing of different seed fractions have been searched. Research methods: field (studying the influence of growing conditions on grain quality), laboratory (determination of protein content), correlation-regression (establishing connection between factors), statistical method (to confirm the difference between variants). According to the results of the first stage of research, the dependence has been established: sowing with seed, grown in the arid conditions, allows obtaining offspring with high protein content, and vice versa. This is confirmed by the strong correlation both for winter wheat variety. At the second stage of research it has been determined that sowing with fine seed raises the yield protein content in grain, and protein yield without additional costs, but using seed, formed in the arid conditions.

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xxx P. Kic
Electric infrared heating panels as an alternative source of heating for greenhouses
Abstract |
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Electric infrared heating panels as an alternative source of heating for greenhouses

P. Kic

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamycka 129, CZ165 21 Praha 6, Czech Republic
Correspondence: kic@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The aim of this article is to show the possibilities of supplementary heating of greenhouses. There was used for this research an electric infrared heating panel ITA 700. The average total power was 630.8 W in laboratory measurements, of which 504.3 W has been transferred by the front part of the panel, of which 267.2 W has been transmitted by radiation. The total radiation efficiency of the front part was 42.4%. Similar measurements have been carried out in an experimental greenhouse (length 24 m, width 3.5 m). Approximately 448 W of average total power 603.7 W has been transferred by the front part of the panel, of which 159 W has been transferred by radiation. The total radiation efficiency of the front part was 26.3%. Differences between measured surface temperatures confirmed the influence of panel radiation on the flower bed. The average temperature in the soil (9 °C) shows that the influence of heating is mainly on the surface of the flower bed, where it could protect cultivated plants during the lowest temperature period. The obtained results can be useful for choosing suitable panel parameters for the placement in small horticultural or hobby greenhouse.

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xxx A. Lebedev, R. Iskenderov, Y. Zhevora, P. Lebedev, N. Marin, R. Pavlyuk and A. Zaharin
Feasibility study of the grinding process of grain materials
Abstract |

Feasibility study of the grinding process of grain materials

A. Lebedev, R. Iskenderov*, Y. Zhevora, P. Lebedev, N. Marin, R. Pavlyuk and A. Zaharin

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education ‘Stavropol State Agrarian University’, Faculty of Agricultural Mechanization, Department of Technical Service, Standardization and Metrology, 12 Zootechnicheskiy Ln, RU355017 Stavropol, Russia
*Correspondence: iskenderov_ramil@inbox.ru

Abstract:

For a comparative assessment of the effectiveness of various types of grinders of grain materials, various approaches are used. As the main criterion, the correspondence of the crushed material according to the particle size distribution can be taken as an indicator of the reliability of the grinding process. A comparative assessment of rotary crushers is carried out using the technical and economic indicator Eg, which is the ratio of total costs to the implementation of a given amount of work. Under the reliability of the grinding process, we have accepted the condition that the particle size distribution will comply with the requirements for agricultural feeding animals, which is possible while maintaining a rational gap between the stator and rotor riffles. The contradiction manufacturing techniques for the experiment are divided into: option No. 1 – steel 3 (HRC 10–12), option No. 2 – steel 45 (HRC 15–17), option No. 3 – hardened steel 45 (HRC 45–50), option No. 4 – steel 45 hardened and having a thin-film coating of FPH (finish plasma hardening), microhardness of 13 GPa. If reliability of the grinding process equal to 80%, wear on the fourth option, the cost was 1,171 rubles per ton, which is 16% lower than the cost of the first version of the production of a rotor crusher equal to 1,405 rubles per ton, respectively, this all speaks of the possible use of the proposed options for various forms of ownership of agricultural enterprises.

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xxx M. Lanno, M. Silm, M. Shanskiy, A. Kisand, K. Orupõld and M. Kriipsalu
Open windrow composting of fish waste in Estonia
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Open windrow composting of fish waste in Estonia

M. Lanno¹*, M. Silm², M. Shanskiy¹, A. Kisand², K. Orupõld³ and M. Kriipsalu⁴

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Chair of Soil Science, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 5, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Chair of Hydrobiology and Fishery, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 5, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Chair of Environmental Protection and Landscape Management, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 5, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
⁴Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Chair of Rural Building and Water Management, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 5, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: marge.lanno@emu.ee

Abstract:

By-catch fish is caught unintentionally during the fishing and is currently thrown back in water bodies to cause the water pollution. Currently fishermen does not have a motivation to bring the by-catch fish to the shore, as it needs to be sorted by fish species, causing fishermen extra work without additional income. Estonian Ministry of Rural Affairs decided to give funding to present study with purpose to find solution to this matter. One possible solution for by-catch fish utilization is to produce high value nutrient rich fertilizer in order to close nutrient cycle and return valuable nutrients into soil. The adaptive study of outdoor windrow composting was conducted with consecutive treatments, rather than simultaneously, in order to make adaptive improvements to the set-up of each consecutive treatment. The consecutive treatments showed that fish waste composting is manageable from a technical perspective, feasible in a temperate climate, and that this type of compost holds high potential as an organic fertiliser or soil improver. Composting process started rapidly and, as required by the EU Commission regulation EU 142/2011, temperatures exceeded 70 °C for at least 1 h in all windrows. While initial treatments suffered from odours, as well as events inhibitive to the composting process, these disadvantages were successfully avoided in later treatments by adding a biofilter and inoculant from previous composting windrows, as well as lake sediments. Rather than disposing of low-value fish, these can be recycled into stable and nutrient-rich compost on-site, near fishing harbours.

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xxx V. Novák, K. Křížová and P. Šařec
Biochar Dosage Impact on Physical Soil Properties and Crop Status
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Biochar Dosage Impact on Physical Soil Properties and Crop Status

V. Novák¹*, K. Křížová¹² and P. Šařec¹

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilization, Kamýcká 129, CZ16500 Prague, Czech Republic
²Crop Research Institute, Division of Crop Protection and Plant Health, Drnovská 507/73, CZ16106 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: novakvaclav@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

In the context of climate change and the ongoing population growth, current agriculture inevitably faces many challenges. Long periods of drought are often followed by shorter periods of heavy precipitation and degraded soil is often unable to retain the rainfall water properly. Apart from common organic fertilizers, soil amendments are currently considered a promising solution that might improve soil quality. The most discussed one is biochar, a natural soil conditioner that might under certain conditions improve soil properties. This study is based on the experiment that was established in 2017 in order to determine the impact of biochar dosage and it’s effect over time. Four parcels approximately 15×30 m were designed in Rapotín, Czech Republic. Each of them was treated with a specific dose of biochar (15, 30, 45, 60 t ha-1), and selected soil physical properties such as penetration resistance and reduced bulk density were then measured at the beginning of the cropping season 2019. In addition, vegetation properties were investigated with the use of handheld sensors repeatedly during the season on winter wheat. The dataset contained information about chlorophyll and nitrogen content as well as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index estimations. Acquired values were later compared with the results obtained from the fifth variant founded in 2014 with a 15 t ha-1 dose and from the control variant. Although the dosage levels applied were quite substantial, no significant difference was found when evaluating selected soil properties. Crop response gave similar results. Any of the examined characteristics differed among the 2017 variants and control. Nevertheless, when compared to the 2014 variant, clearly different results were detected. Thus, this study concluded that the effect of biochar dosage is might not be as significant factor, however, the time effect likely is. Therefore, the study has to continue and soil/crop properties will be observed in the upcoming season as well.

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xxx I. Alsiņa, L. Dubova, M. Dūma, I. Erdberga, I. Augšpole, D. Sergejeva and A. Avotiņš
Lighting source as cause of changes in cucumbers’ physiology and morphology
Abstract |
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Lighting source as cause of changes in cucumbers’ physiology and morphology

I. Alsiņa¹*, L. Dubova¹, M. Dūma², I. Erdberga¹, I. Augšpole¹, D. Sergejeva¹ and A. Avotiņš³

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Plant and Soil Science, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Chemistry, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
³Riga Technical University, Faculty of Power and Electrical Engineering, Kaļķu street 1, LV-1658 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: Ina.Alsina@llu.lv

Abstract:

The demand of fresh fruits and vegetables is growing. Therefore cultivation of them is essential all year round. The growth in the dark period of a year is not imaginable without artificial lighting sources. Therefore the experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of three different lighting sources on the growth of cucumbers at the early stages of development. Plants were grown in the polycarbonate greenhouse under three different lighting sources: Led cob Helle top LED 280, induction lamp and high pressure sodium lamp Helle magna. Cucumbers were grown in 16h photoperiod with PAR at the tips of plants 200 ± 20 μmol m-2 s-1. Plant growth parameters, specific leaf area, pigments, phenols and flavonoids content in leaves, leaf light reflection parameters were determined. Results showed that cucumber plants grown under Led cob Helle top LED 280 in average were smaller, with less chlorophyll, carotenoids and phenols, but leaves have higher chlorophyll a and b ratio and specific leaf area in comparison with traditionally used in greenhouses High Pressure Sodium Lamps (HPSL). Cucumber plants grown under Induction lamp in average were shorter, but with larger leaf area, with higher chlorophyll and carotenoids content, but decreased phenols content in comparison with HPSL. Lichtenthaler index 1 (LIC1) and NDVI are useful for assessing the physiological state of cucumber plants. Despite the fact that the plants grow well and develop normally under all lamps, the results show that sodium lamps are the most suitable for cucumbers. Further research is needed to adjust LED lighting for cucumber cultivation.

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xxx H.S.A. Salama and H.H. Badry
Effect of partial substitution of bulk urea by nanoparticle urea fertilizer on productivity and nutritive value of teosinte varieties
Abstract |
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Effect of partial substitution of bulk urea by nanoparticle urea fertilizer on productivity and nutritive value of teosinte varieties

H.S.A. Salama¹* and H.H. Badry²

¹Crop Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Aflaton street, El-Shatby, EG21545 Alexandria, Egypt
²Soil and Water Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Aflaton street, El-Shatby, EG21545 Alexandria, Egypt
*Correspondence: heba.salama@alexu.edu.eg

Abstract:

The integration of nanoparticle urea (NPU) in the fertilization scheme of forage crops with high nutrients’ requirements, like teosinte (Zea mexicana L.), would help avoiding the environmental implications associated with the application of high rates of conventional bulk urea (BU), while not depriving the plant from its benefits. The effects of fertilization treatments composed of different percentages of NPU and/or BU, on yield, agronomic characteristics and quality attributes of three cuts of two teosinte local varieties were investigated in a split-split plot design during summers of 2018 and 2019. In general, the application of 50% NPU + 50% BU was similar to 100% BU in the production of highest amount of fresh yield, with the highest values for plant height and stem diameter, in addition to appreciable nutritive value, in terms of high crude protein (66.10 g kg-1) and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC), and low acid-detergent fiber (284.09 g kg-1) and crude fat (36.97 g kg-1) contents. While the 1st cut was characterized by the highest plant height (58.74 cm in average), stem diameter (7.64 mm in average) and leaf area (130.07 m2 in average), the 3rd cut produced the highest amount of fresh yield (39.68 t ha-1 in average). Variations in quality measures among the three cuts were almost non-significant. Variations in yield and quality were detected between the two tested local varieties. In conclusion, the combined application of 50% NPU with 50% BU is recommended for the production of fodder teosinte in similar environments.

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xxx P.E. Oliveira, X. Petit-Breuilh, O.J. Rojas and W. Gacitúa
Production of cellulose nanostructures from Chilean bamboo, Chusquea quila
Abstract |

Production of cellulose nanostructures from Chilean bamboo, Chusquea quila

P.E. Oliveira¹*, X. Petit-Breuilh², O.J. Rojas³ and W. Gacitúa⁴

¹Department of Industrial Process Engineering, Nucleus of Research in Bioproducts and Advanced Materials, Catholic University of Temuco, Manuel Montt Street, Postal Code CL4813302 Temuco, Chile
²School of Engineering and Business, Viña del Mar University, Diego Portales Street, Postal Code CL2580022, Chile
³Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems, Aalto University School of Chemical Engineering, P.O. Box 16300, 00076 Aalto, Finland
⁴Postgraduate Department of Wood Engineering, Biomaterials and Nanotechnology Center, Bío-Bío University, Collao Avenue 1202, Postal Code CL4051381 Concepción, Chile
*Correspondence: poliveira@uct.cl

Abstract:

In Chile, bamboo bushes of Chusquea quila genus (or popularly known as ‘quila’) have brought economic and ecological problems for decades in the south-central part of this country. On the other hand, this plant species was studied as a raw material for the production of nanofibrillated cellulose (CNF) and nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC), presenting an opportunity for sustainable and environmentally friendly management, positioning Chile as a Latin American country at the forefront of studies with nanotechnological approaches. The methodology applied to generate these nanostructures contemplated hydrolysis with sulfuric acid and oxalic acid, in addition to an intermediate stage of microfluidization to generate nanofibrillated cellulose. The products obtained showed morphological and topographic homogeneity in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images. The diameter values of the particles ranged from 10 to 20 nanometers for the CNCs. Through Fourier transformed spectrophotometry (FTIR) it was found that the processes of microfluidization and acid hydrolysis did not affect the molecular shape of the nanostructures and X-ray diffraction (XRD) was important to determine crystallinity index (IC), presenting values higher than 80%.

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xxx A.N. El-Sadek, F.I. Abd EL-Ghany and A.M. Shaalan
Simulating the effect of tillage practices on the yield production of wheat and barley under dryland condition
Abstract |
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Simulating the effect of tillage practices on the yield production of wheat and barley under dryland condition

A.N. El-Sadek¹, F.I. Abd EL-Ghany¹ and A.M. Shaalan²*

¹Ecology and Dry Land Agriculture Division, Desert Research Center, EG11753 El-Matarya, Cairo, Egypt
²Plant Production Department, Faculty of Desert and Environmental Agriculture, Matrouh University, EG51744 Matrouh, Egypt
*Correspondence: ahmedmahgoub@mau.edu.eg

Abstract:

In arid and semiarid regions, soil tillage practices have major effects on soil water dynamics. In this study, we compared the effects of Zero tillage (ZT) and Conventional tillage (CT) on the grain yield of rainfed barley and wheat at three locations i.e. Barrani, El-Neguilla and Matrouh in the north western coast of Egypt. We also tested the performance of the DSSAT (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer). In the first season of 2017/2018, only barley plants in Barrani location were able to grow and produce yield due to insufficient rain. Results showed that ZT produced significantly higher grain yield (almost 200%) for barley as compared to the CT treatment. In the second season of 2018/2019, conventional tillage produced higher yields as compared to the zero tillage treatment over the three studied locations and for the two crops. The DSSAT model successfully simulated the grain yield, total biomass and harvest index with an excellent agreement between simulated and observed data with NSE values of 0.868 and 0.800 for grain yield and total biomass respectively and a satisfactory agreement with NSE of 0.431 in case of harvest index. Tillage had a noticeable impact on grain yield of barley and wheat and the DSSAT successfully simulated the effects of the tillage treatments.

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xxx P. Šařec, O. Látal, P. Novák, J. Holátko, V. Novák, T. Dokulilová and M. Brtnický
Changes in soil properties and possibilities of reducing environmental risks due to the application of biological activators in conditions of very heavy soils
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Changes in soil properties and possibilities of reducing environmental risks due to the application of biological activators in conditions of very heavy soils

P. Šařec¹*, O. Látal², P. Novák³, J. Holátko⁴, V. Novák¹, T. Dokulilová⁴⁵ and M. Brtnický⁴⁵

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilization, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 000 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
²Agrovýzkum Rapotín Ltd., Rapotín, Výzkumníků 267, CZ788 13 Vikýřovice, Czech Republic
³Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 000 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
⁴Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Department of Geology and Pedology, Zemědělská 1, CZ61 300 Brno, Czech Republic
⁵Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of AgriSciences, Department of Agrochemistry, Soil Science, Microbiology and Plant Nutrition, Zemědělská 1, CZ61 300 Brno, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: psarec@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This study aims at verifying the effect of farmyard manure (FYM) and of selected activators (Z’fix and NeoSol) on changes of soil properties. Their application should lead to improvement of soil physical properties and of organic matter fixation, to reduction of environmental risks, e.g. of tillage energy requirements. Experimental variants (0.7 ha each) were as follows: I (FYM with Z’fix); II (FYM with Z’fix + NeoSol); III (FYM); IV (Control NPK only). FYM was applied at rates: 50 t ha-1 (2014); 30 t ha-1 (2016). Additional NPK fertilizer (I–IV) was applied according to annual crop nutrient normative. The agent Z’fix was used as an activator of FYM biological transformation (5.5 kg t-1). The agent NeoSol was used as soil activator (200 kg ha-1; annually). In order to verify the effect, cone index, bulk density, tillage implement draft and chemical soil components (Humus, C/N ration and Ntot) were measured annually. Compared to the control, the application of FYM combined with the mentioned agents (I–III) increased Ntot more than two times. Moreover, it decreased (I–III) bulk density by 8.7%. Tillage implement draft decreased by 3% after the application of FYM with Z’fix (I, II). The study confirmed that FYM application combined with utilization of activators positively influenced soil fertility and helped to reduce environmental risks.

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xxx L. Edesi, T. Kangor, V. Loide, R. Vettik, I. Tamm, H.J. Kennedy, M. Haljak, Ü. Tamm, T. Võsa, K. Tamm, T. Talve and E. Karron
Effects of lake sediment on soil chemical composition, dehydrogenase activity and grain yield and quality in organic oats and spring barley succession
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Effects of lake sediment on soil chemical composition, dehydrogenase activity and grain yield and quality in organic oats and spring barley succession

L. Edesi¹*, T. Kangor², V. Loide¹, R. Vettik¹, I. Tamm², H.J. Kennedy³, M. Haljak², Ü. Tamm², T. Võsa¹, K. Tamm¹, T. Talve¹ and E. Karron¹

¹Estonian Crop Research Institute, Department of Agrotechnology, Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva alevik, Estonia
²Estonian Crop Research Institute, Department of Plant breeding, Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva alevik, Estonia
³Estonian Crop Research Institute, Department of Development, Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva alevik, Estonia
*Correspondence: liina.edesi@etki.ee

Abstract:

In organic farming, it is important to maintain soil fertility with organic fertilisers; often organic compost, manure, or slurry is used. However, the effects of lake sediment in maintaining and improving soil fertility are less studied. The direct and residual effects of a one-time application of 50 t ha-1 or 100 t ha-1 of lake sediment were compared to an unfertilised control for oats (Avena sativa) (2015) followed by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) in 2016, under organic farming conditions. Soil chemical composition, microbial activity in the 0–20 cm soil layer, grain yield, and grain quality were tested. The application rate, 100 t ha-1, increased (P < 0.05) the soil organic carbon (SOC), the amount of mobile calcium (Ca), total nitrogen (Ntot), and boron (B) content in soil. Both application rates increased (P < 0.05) the amount of magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), and manganese (Mn) content in the soil. The application rate had no effect on soil pH. Soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) was higher (P < 0.05) at 100 t ha-1 than the control and the lower application rate. Both rates of lake sediment application significantly (P < 0.05) increased the grain yield and test weight for oats in 2015. Positive residual effects on spring barely yield only occurred in the 100 t ha-1 treatments in 2016. No residual impact of lake sediment was found on spring barely quality.

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xxx H. Ameziane, A. Nounah & M. Khamar
Olive pomace compost use for fenugreek germination
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Olive pomace compost use for fenugreek germination

H. Ameziane*, A. Nounah & M. Khamar

Mohammed V University, High School of Technology, Civil Engineering and Environment Laboratory (LGCE), Materials Water and Environment team, MA11060 Sale, Morocco
*Correspondence: amezianehalima@gmail.com

Abstract:

Morocco is among the major olive-growing countries around the Mediterranean, its productivity increases from one year to the next, especially after the introduction of the Green Morocco plan, which aims for an increase in the olive-growing area by the year 2020. The increase in productivity especially in olive oil is strictly accompanied by an increase in waste generated after crushing. The objective of this study is to value the olive pomace compost from traditional system as a soil amendment, and study its effect on the cultivation of herbaceous plants. The germination test is carried out in small pots, placed in a sunny place in a laboratory. 25 Fenugreek seeds were germinated in each pot which contains soil and a well-defined percentage of compost (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%). The seeds were irrigated regularly twice a week. All the tested seeds in different percentages of compost germinated at a rate of more than 90%. The final germination rate for the different concentrations was significantly important from the control (the pot that contains only soil). However, the 5% compost concentration allows an optimal germination rate. As well as the vigour of the seedlings that approves the positive effect of using olive pomace compost with a significantly high vigour index for all compost percentages (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%). The olive pomace compost use also improved the dry matter weight of the fenugreek seedlings for all percentages.

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xxx O. Zavadska, І. Bobos, I. Fedosiy, G. Podpryatov and J. Olt
Studying the storage and processing quality of the carrot taproots (Daucus carota) of various hybrids
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Studying the storage and processing quality of the carrot taproots (Daucus carota) of various hybrids

O. Zavadska¹, І. Bobos¹, I. Fedosiy¹, G. Podpryatov¹ and J. Olt²*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA 03041 Kyiv,Ukraine
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 F.R. Kreutzwaldi Str., 51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

This paper presents the results acquired from the study of eight carrot hybrids which are suitable for growing in the climatic zone of woodland steppes, while considering a set of economical and/or biological, biochemical, and organoleptic properties. The carrot hybrids that were studied have a wide range of variation in their economic value indicators, which makes it possible to grow them for storage and processing in various soils and climate conditions without irrigation. The most productive carrot hybrids are White Sabine F1 and Yellowstone F1 with a commercial yield of 55.8–58.7 t hа–1 and an average taproot weight of 118.7–136.2 g. The levels of preservation of the taproot of the hybrids White Sabine F1 and Purple Haze F1 after seven months of storage in conditions that involved the use of a stationary pit storage facility was at 81.4% and 80.2% respectively. The use of the taproots of the hybrids Yellowstone F1 and Viking F1 for drying ensures a yield of a high-quality, biologically-valuable finished product with a yield of 11.4–11.7%. Dry hybrid Evolyutsiya F1 and Mars F1 carrots contain more than 40 mg (100 g)–1 of β-carotene.

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xxx V. Bulgakov, V. Nadykto, V. Kaminskiy, Z. Ruzhylo, V. Volskyi and J. Olt
Experimental research into the effect of harrowing unit’s operating speed on uniformity of cultivation depth during tillage in fallow field
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Experimental research into the effect of harrowing unit’s operating speed on uniformity of cultivation depth during tillage in fallow field

V. Bulgakov¹, V. Nadykto², V. Kaminskiy³, Z. Ruzhylo¹, V. Volskyi⁴ and J. Olt⁵*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony street, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B Khmelnytsky Avenue, UA72310 Melitopol, Zaporozhye Region, Ukraine
³National Scientific Centre, Institute of Agriculture of NAAS of Ukraine, 2b, Mashinobudivnikiv street, Chabany vil., Kyiv-Svyatoshin Dist., UA08162 Kyiv Region, Ukraine
⁴National Scientific Centre, Institute of Mechanization and Electrification of Agriculture, 11 Vokzalna street, Glevakha stl, Vasylkivsky Dist., UA08631 Kyiv Region, Ukraine
⁵Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi street, EE 51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

Retention of soil moisture is an urgent topic of the day in the cultivation of agricultural crops. Using fallow fields is one of the ways to solve the named problem, but the tilling of such fields requires observing some special conditions, in particular, the capillary effects in their upper soil layers must be cut down. For that purpose, the authors have proposed a special harrow equipped with the tools capable of fulfilling the above-mentioned task. The authors have carried out extensive field experiment research into the tillage of fallow soils with the use of the said implement. In order to apply the implement, a new harrow unit has been developed. The results obtained during the experiment research have been processed with the use of statistical methods and it has been established that the depth of harrowing in the tilled field decreases, when the operating speed of the combined unit under consideration increases to 3.3 m s–1. At the same time, the variances of oscillations of the parameter under research in accordance with the Cochran’s C test remain uniform. Also, the frequency of the harrowing depth oscillations changes insignificantly. That is supported by the correlation lengths of the normalized correlation functions of the process under consideration, which, at the above-mentioned operating speed, stay within the sufficiently narrow range of values: 0.16–0.20 m. According to the results of the experimental investigations, the maximum value of the normalized cross-correlation function for the relation between the oscillations of the field harrowing depth and the oscillations of the field’s longitudinal profile does not exceed 0.12. This testifies to the absence of any substantial interrelation between the said two stochastic processes, which is quite reasonable in view of the small values of the variance and period of the oscillations of the field’s longitudinal profile. The probability of the new combined tractor and harrow unit maintaining the tolerance of the fallow field cultivation depth oscillations within the range of ± 1 cm is equal to 82%. Within each 1.85 m of the distance travelled by the combined soil cultivation unit under consideration, only one instance of the field cultivation depth deviating from the ± 1 cm tolerance can be expected.

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xxx J.N. Bougiouklis, Z. Karachaliou, J. Tsakos, P. Kalkanis, A. Michalakos and N. Moustakas
Seasonal variation of macro- and micro- nutrients in leaves of fig (Ficus carica L.) under Mediterranean conditions
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Seasonal variation of macro- and micro- nutrients in leaves of fig (Ficus carica L.) under Mediterranean conditions

J.N. Bougiouklis, Z. Karachaliou, J. Tsakos, P. Kalkanis, A. Michalakos and N. Moustakas*

Agricultural University of Athens, Department of Natural Resources Management and Agricultural Engineering, Laboratory of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Iera Odos 75, GR11855 Athens, Greece
*Correspondence: nmoustakas@aua.gr

Abstract:

Leaves of ‘Smyrna’ fig (Ficus carica L.), variety ‘Smyrneiki’, were collected at four stages of the annual growth cycle, namely (1) at flowering, (2) during fruit development, (3) at fruit maturity and (4) after fruit harvest, during two consecutive years (2018 and 2019) and the leaf macro-(N, P, K, Ca, Mg) and micro-(Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, B) nutrient concentrations were determined. Mean concentrations of N, P, K, Ca and Mg ranged between 14.4–28.6, 0.5–1.7, 2–31.2, 22–80.3 and 2.1–6.7 g kg-1 (on a dry weight basis-d.w.), respectively, while concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and B, ranged between 84–280, 11–70, 2–86, 40–206, and 18–39 mg kg-1 d.w., respectively. The mean leaf concentration of N decreased significantly at each successive growth stage, whereas those of P, K, Fe and Zn, also decreased progressively, but not always to a statistically significant level between each stage. In contrast, the mean leaf concentration of Ca increased significantly throughout the season, while the concentrations of Mg and Cu also increased, but not to a statistically significant level at each stage. The Mn concentration of fig leaves decreased significantly at fruit maturity, then increased significantly after fruit harvest. Overall, the nutrient concentration of fig leaves varies throughout the period from flowering to fruit harvest, suggesting that trees may need different amounts of nutrients depending on the developmental stage. The seasonal variation of the nutrient concentration in fig leaves confirmed the need for reference values for each phenological stage for leaf analysis interpretation and for developing an efficient fertilization program.

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xxx F. Arslan, H. Değirmenci, S. Kartal and F. Alcon
Mapping performance of irrigation schemes in Turkey
Abstract |

Mapping performance of irrigation schemes in Turkey

F. Arslan¹*, H. Değirmenci², S. Kartal¹ and F. Alcon³

¹Alanya Alaaddin Keykubat University, Gazipaşa MRB Vocational School, Animal and Plant Production Department, TR07350 Antalya, Turkey
²Department of Biosystem Engineering, Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University, 251/A, TR46040 Kahramanmaraş, Turkey
³Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Agronómica, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Paseo Alfonso XIII 48, ES30203 Cartagena, Spain
*Correspondence: firat.arslan@alanya.edu.tr

Abstract:

Water is a crucial resource and approximately 70% usage of it in the agriculture sector in Turkey. Water user associations are in charge of irrigation water management. The core aim of this study is to assess water user associations have command area more than 1,000 ha (WUAs) within the districts of DSI (State Hydraulic Works) and to create spatial maps to show the distribution of the performance indicators used constantly by researchers especially around Mediterranean countries during the period from 2011 to 2015. Frequency and panel data analysis are used to figure out the relationship among performance indicators and attributes such as water diversion type, management type, source of water and district no. Panel data analysis was applied to examine statistical assessment over time. As a result, current performance indicators show that excessive irrigation water used due to low technology and management problem. Performance indicators show high differences among districts due to climate, water resources, and crop pattern. Moreover, low irrigation efficiency can be increased with a transition to pressurized irrigation systems, so more are can be irrigated with less water.

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xxx G. Palumbo, S. Carfagna, V. Stoleru, V. Torino, P.M. Romano, F. Letizia and C. Di Martino
Environmental sustainability fruit quality and production in mycorrhizal tomato plants without P fertilizing
Abstract |
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Environmental sustainability fruit quality and production in mycorrhizal tomato plants without P fertilizing

G. Palumbo¹, S. Carfagna², V. Stoleru³, V. Torino¹, P.M. Romano³, F. Letizia¹ and C. Di Martino¹*

¹University of Molise, Department of Agriculture, Environmental and Food, Via F. De Sanctis 1, IT86100 Campobasso, Italy
²University of Napoli, Department of Biology, Via Foria 223, IT80137 Napoli, Italy
³Ion Ionescu de la Brad, University of Agricultural, UASMV, Iasi, M. Sadoveanu 3, RO700490, Romania
³Institute of Agricultural Technical Higher Education ‘S. Pardo’, IT86035 Larino, CB, Italy
*Correspondence: lello.dimartino@unimol.it

Abstract:

The influence of root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Funelliformis mosseae, on fruit quality, production and environmental sustainability were evaluated in field-tomato plants grown exposed to P-limited soil 5 μg g-1 soil (basal-soil) with nitrate fertilization (50 μg g-1 soil), after greenhouse germination and fungus colonization. After 60 days sowing (DAS), when the percentage of mycorrhizal root length (% RLC) raised at about 50%, the plants were transplanted in open field.
During the experiment, the mycorrhization has affected a lot of physiological aspects like vegetative and reproductive growth, improving them and ended the fruiting with a major fruit production that was 50% higher than not mycorrhizal (NM) plants. The ripening process of the fruits was also followed by testing sugars content and ß-Amylase activity in fruits of NM and mycorrhizal (M) plants fruits. At 140 DAS, in the harvesting fruits stage, fruits of M plants showed significantly higher mineral nutrient sugars and organic nitrogen compounds as amino acids and protein, compared to fruits from NM plants. In particular, GLU-GLN-ASP and ASN raised about 35% more than fruits from NM plants, improving nutritional aspect and flavor of the product. THR-ILEU-LEU-VAL and LYS, essential amino acids in man nutrition, increased around 25% more than fruits from NM plants, too. In this contest, lycopene, total carotenoids, ascorbic acid and glutathione (GS) and reduced form (GSH) were also tested in ripe fruits. The overall results suggest that tomato roots colonization by mycorrhizal fungus Funelliformis mosseae affects host plant nutritional status, modifying reproductive behavior, fruits production and nutritional quality.

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xxx I.A. Plotnikov, M.M. Mukhamedyanov, I.A. Domsky, O.Yu. Bespyatykh and N.A. Makarova
Experience and prospects for application of by-products of processing of fruits in the production of animal feed
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Experience and prospects for application of by-products of processing of fruits in the production of animal feed

I.A. Plotnikov¹²*, M.M. Mukhamedyanov¹, I.A. Domsky¹, O.Yu. Bespyatykh³ and N.A. Makarova⁴

¹Russian Research Institute of Game Management and Fur Farming, 79 Preobrazhenskaya street, RU610000 Kirov, Russia
²Vyatka State Agricultural Academy, 133 October Avenue, RU610017 Kirov, Russia
³Vyatka State University, 12 Orlovskaya street, RU610002 Kirov, Russia
⁴Kirov State Medical University, 112 Karl Marx street, RU610998 Kirov, Russia
*Correspondence: bio.vniioz@mail.ru

Abstract:

The purpose of the research was to study the feasibility of using by-products of the industrial processing of fruits for the production of full-feed mixed fodders with the possibility of using these mixed feeds as the only feed in the diets of herbivorous fur animals (nutria, brown muskrat, steppe marmot). Studies of chemical composition and nutrition have shown that non-traditional ingredients can be included in the composition of feed. At their expense, you can save up to 30% of leguminous feed, 9% – cake, 1% – meat and bone meal. This allowed us to reduce the cost of the studied batches of feed by 18–21%. Experiments have shown the effectiveness of using such feed in the diets of herbivorous fur-bearing animals. The inclusion of compound feed in the diet allowed to increase the number of commercial offspring per female muskrat by 0.8 heads, compared to the control group. The safety of young animals until the moment of depositing puppies from their mothers was approximately equal in both groups. Young muskrats of the experimental groups had 5.5–6.8% higher values of average daily increments, compared to control analogues. A similar pattern is established in male nutria. Marmots of the experimental group from the very beginning of the experiment were outnumbered by control animals. In July, these differences reached statistically significant values: 4,085 ± 71 g vs. 3,736 ± 73 g (p < 0.01). Thus, the marmots of the experimental group recovered faster after winter hibernation.

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xxx L.E. Kolesnikov, I.I. Novikova, E.V. Popova, N.S. Priyatkin, E.V. Zuev, Yu.R. Kolesnikova and M.D. Solodyannikov
The effectiveness of biopreparations in soft wheat cultivation and the quality assessment of the grain by the digital x-ray imaging
Abstract |
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The effectiveness of biopreparations in soft wheat cultivation and the quality assessment of the grain by the digital x-ray imaging

L.E. Kolesnikov¹*, I.I. Novikova², E.V. Popova², N.S. Priyatkin³, E.V. Zuev⁴, Yu.R. Kolesnikova⁴ and M.D. Solodyannikov¹

¹Saint-Petersburg State Agrarian University, Faculty of Agrotechnologies, Soil science and Ecology, Department of Plant Protection and Quarantine, Petersburgskoe Shosse (highway), 2, RU196601 St-Petersburg – Pushkin, Russia
²All-Russian Institute of Plant Protection (VIZR), Laboratory of microbiological plant protection, shosse Podbel’skogo highway, 3, RU196608 Saint Petersburg-Pushkin, Russia
³Agrophysical Research Institute (ARI), plant biophysics division, Grazhdanskiy ave. 14, RU195220 St-Petersburg, Russia
⁴Federal Research Center N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (VIR), genetic resource of wheat department, plant introduction department, Bolshaya Morskaya street, 42–44, RU190000 St–Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: kleon9@yandex.ru

Abstract:

The main trend of modern crop production is the expansion of the use of plant protection solutions and technologies, that ensure not only effective management of the number of populations of harmful organisms, but also the production of environmentally safe agricultural products with minimal anthropogenic impact on agro-ecosystems. One of our priorities is to develop new environmentally sound polyfunctional biopreparations, that combine useful properties of microbial strains such as phytopathogen antagonists and chitosan compositions that increase disease resistance. The introscopic analysis of the seed material quality realized with the non–destructive express techniques application was used for evaluation the effectiveness of the compositions’ complex influence on plants. The research studies the effectiveness of the influence of Bacillus subtilis strains and chitosan compositions, including their combined effect, on soft wheat productivity and its damage by disease agents. Data on the quality assessment of the grain using microfocus x-ray radiography and gas-discharge visualization (electrophotography) are also provided. The complex of more than 20 structural elements of wheat productivity was analysed during the research. Assessment of the plant damage intensity according to the standard criterion – the disease development, and additional phytopathological indicators was carried out. The evaluation of the grains’ introscopic characteristics was carried out by the microfocus x-ray radiography techniques combined with the digital x-ray image analysis. It is shown that the biopreparation complexes, containing B. subtilis strains and Chitosan, have a combined biological activity manifested in the optimization of wheat plants’ physiological state, increasing productivity, diseases resistance.

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xxx N. Novytska, G. Gadzovskiy, B. Mazurenko, S. Kalenska, I. Svistunova and O. Martynov
Effect of seed inoculation and foliar fertilizing on structure of soybean yield and yield structure in Western Polissya of Ukraine
Abstract |
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Effect of seed inoculation and foliar fertilizing on structure of soybean yield and yield structure in Western Polissya of Ukraine

N. Novytska¹, G. Gadzovskiy¹, B. Mazurenko¹*, S. Kalenska¹, I. Svistunova² and O. Martynov³

¹National University of Life and Environmental Science, Department of Plant Science, Heroiv Oborony street 15, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²National University of Life and Environmental Science, Department of Fodder production, melioration, and meteorology, Heroiv Oborony street 13, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
³Ukrainian Institute for Plant Variety Examination, Generala Rodimceva street 15, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
*Correspondence: mazurenko.bohdan@nubip.edu.ua

Abstract:

Growing soybeans requires adjustment of micronutrient nutrition on poorly fertile soils. Foliar fertilization can overcome the deficiency of micronutrients in plants in the most important period. Three factorial field experiment to study foliar fertilization with complex micronutrients, seed inoculation by Bradyrhizobium japonicum in two soybean varieties (Kassidy and ES Mentor) was conducted. Foliar fertilization with Quantum oil and WUXAL Oilseed significantly increased certain elements in soybean yield structure. Fertilizer WUXAL Oilseed with a higher concentration of Mo, Mn and B more effectively increased the number of pods and seeds from the plant and formed a higher yield in soybeans. Foliar fertilization with WUXAL Oilseed and Quantum oil increased seed yield to 3.00 t ha-1 and 2.94 t ha-1, respectively in regard to variant without fertilizing, where yield was 2.71 t ha-1. Variety Kassidy had greater number of pods and seeds, seed weight in comparison to foliar fertilizing ES Mentor. Seed inoculation gave a stable increase in yield under different foliar fertilizations in varieties Kassidy and ES Mentor.

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