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xxx E. Sermyagina, K. Murashko, D. Nevstrueva, A. Pihlajamäki and E. Vakkilainen
Conversion of cellulose to activated carbons for high-performance supercapacitors
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Conversion of cellulose to activated carbons for high-performance supercapacitors

E. Sermyagina¹*, K. Murashko², D. Nevstrueva¹, A. Pihlajamäki¹ and E. Vakkilainen¹

¹LUT University, Energy Technology, Laboratory of Sustainable Energy Systems, Skinnarilankatu 34, FI53850 Lappeenranta, Finland
²University of Eastern Finland, Fine Particle and Aerosol Technology Laboratory, Yliopistonranta 1 C, FI70210 Kuopio, Finland
*Correspondence: ekaterina.sermyagina@lut.fi

Abstract:

Biomass-derived activated carbons are promising materials that can be used in various applications. Current work investigates the possibilities of the cellulose-derived activated carbons in substituting the commercial alternatives for the supercapacitors’ electrodes with high efficiency, stable performance and relatively low cost. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) followed by chemical activation with KOH is used to convert cellulose into highly porous activated carbons. The effect of HTC parameters on the material porosity development and electrochemical properties of the electrodes is evaluated with several variations of the residence time and the weight ratio between cellulose and water during the pretreatment. The analysis shows that intensification of the HTC process (longer residence time and higher water/cellulose ratio) results in increase of the surface area of both hydrochar samples and subsequent activated carbons: with the highest surface area for the sample produced after 2 h HTC treatment with water/cellulose ratio of 6/1 – 2,645 m2 g-1. As for the electrochemical analysis, the highest values of the specific capacitance are found for the samples produced from 2 h HTC treatment: 110.3 F g-1 (water/cellulose ratio of 3/1) and 102.5 F g-1 (water/cellulose ratio of 6/1). Additionally, it is noted that electrodes produced from the samples treated during 4 h have higher impedance at low operation frequency. The present study proves the possibility to substitute commercial activated carbons with cellulose-derived materials, the porosity of which can be tuned accordingly already during the pretreatment step.

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xxx J.L. Paes, B.C. Vargas, J.P.B. Cunha, D.S.C. Silva, G.A.S. Ferraz, M.R.S. Braz, P.F.P. Ferraz, L. Conti and G. Rossi
Thermal performance of a solar hybrid dryer for Conilon coffee (Coffea canephora)
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Thermal performance of a solar hybrid dryer for Conilon coffee (Coffea canephora)

J.L. Paes¹*, B.C. Vargas¹, J.P.B. Cunha¹, D.S.C. Silva¹, G.A.S. Ferraz², M.R.S. Braz¹, P.F.P. Ferraz², L. Conti³ and G. Rossi³

¹Rural Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Engineering Department, Campus Seropédica, ZIP Code BR23890000, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
²Federal University of Lavras, Agricultural Engineering Department, ZIP Code BR37200000, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
³University of Florence, Department of Agricultural, Food, Environment and Forestry (DAGRI), Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145, Florence, Italy *Correspondence: juliana.lobop@gmail.com

Abstract:

The study was aimed at design and development of an energy efficient hybrid solar dryer suitable for drying of organic Conilon coffee placed in the town of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The energy efficiency and the drying efficiency were the evaluation criteria for thermal performance of the hybrid solar dryer during the coffee drying. Temperature and relative humidity (RH) of the drying and ambient air, solar radiation intensity and coffee weight loss were monitored during the drying process. The process occurred over six consecutive days; the drying time was from 07:00 to 17:00 h, totalling 120 h of operation with an intermittent period (at night) of 14 h. During intermittence, the exhaust system kept off and solar collector and drying chamber sealed. The effective drying period took 60 h, with temperature and RH, respectively, of 38.3 °C and 60.6% outlet of the solar collector, 32.7 °C and 72.2% outlet drying chamber and 27.8 °C and 74.5% ambient air. The maximum temperature in the solar collector and drying chamber reached 54 and 47.7 °C, respectively, with an ambient air temperature of 32 °C at 12:00 h. These values showing temperature increase 22.2 °C in solar collector and 10 ºC drying chamber. The mean variation for the reduction in RH between the drying air inside the solar collector and the ambient air was 28%, while in the chamber obtained in a range of 10.5% at 13:00 h. The solar collector and dryer chamber efficiency were 29.1 and 40.8%, respectively, while the overall dryer efficiency 39.7%.

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xxx M. Hissa, S. Niemi and A. Niemi
Combustion and emission studies of a common-rail direct injection diesel engine with various injector nozzles
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Combustion and emission studies of a common-rail direct injection diesel engine with various injector nozzles

M. Hissa*, S. Niemi and A. Niemi

University of Vaasa, School of Technology and Innovations, P.O. Box 700, FI-65101 Vaasa Finland
*Correspondence: Michaela.Hissa@univaasa.fi

Abstract:

Fuel injection has a critical role in an internal combustion engine and a significant effect on the quality of the fuel spray. In turn, fuel spray directly affects an engine´s combustion, efficiency, power and emissions. This study evaluated three different injector nozzles in a high-speed, non-road diesel engine. It was run on diesel fuel oil (DFO) and testing was conducted at three different engine loads (100%, 75% and 50%) and at two engine speeds (2,200 rpm and 1,500 rpm). The nozzles had 6, 8 and 10 holes and a relatively high mass flow rate (HF). The study investigated and compared injection and combustion characteristics, together with gaseous emissions. The combustion parameters seemed to be very similar with all studied injector nozzles. The emission measurements indicated general reductions in hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) at most load/speed points when using the 6- and 10-hole nozzles instead of the reference 8-hole nozzles. However, smoke number increased when the alternative nozzles were used.

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xxx S. Palisoc, A.J. Gallardo, C.B. Laurito and M. Natividad
Determination of heavy metals in corn (Zea Mays L.) using silver nanoparticles/graphene/nafion modified glassy carbon electrode
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Determination of heavy metals in corn (Zea Mays L.) using silver nanoparticles/graphene/nafion modified glassy carbon electrode

S. Palisoc¹², A.J. Gallardo¹, C.B. Laurito¹ and M. Natividad¹²*

¹De La Salle University, Condensed Matter Research Laboratory, Physics Department, 2401 Taft Avenue, Manila, 922, Philippines
²De La Salle University, Condensed Matter Research Unit, CENSER, 2401 Taft Avenue, Manila, 922, Philippines
*Correspondence: michelle.natividad@dlsu.edu.ph

Abstract:

Silver nanoparticles (AgNP)/graphene/Nafion modified glassy carbon electrodes were fabricated for the determination of trace amounts of cadmium (Cd2+) and lead (Pb2+) via anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The electrode modifiers and the ASV parameters were optimized. The fabricated electrode was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. A linear relationship between anodic peak current and heavy metal concentration was obtained in the range of 25 parts per billion (ppb) to 250 ppb. The limit of detection of the modified electrode is 25 ppb for both Cd2+ and Pb2+, while the limits of quantitation are 155.7 ppb for Cd2+ and 159.5 ppb for Pb2+. Real sample analysis using corn plant and soil samples was performed to show the utility of the fabricated electrode in sensing applications. Trace amounts of Cd2+ and Pb2+ were found in the said samples.

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xxx P. Stankevics, V. Mironovs and N. Muracova
Manufacturing technologies for slide bushings from powder materials for lever brake systems of vehicles
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Manufacturing technologies for slide bushings from powder materials for lever brake systems of vehicles

P. Stankevics¹*, V. Mironovs² and N. Muracova³

¹Riga Technical University, Transport Institute, 12 Azenes street, LV–1048 Riga, Latvia
²Riga Technical University, Laboratory of Powder Materials, 12 Azenes street, LV–1048 Riga, Latvia
³ICFSD, Riga Technical University, 1 Kalku street, LV–1050 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: pavels.stankevics@rtu.lv

Abstract:

Slide bushings made of metal powder materials are used in many parts of vehicles. The current trend is to reduce the unit cost of products, increase the durability of components and assemblies, and reduce the harmful effects on the environment. One of these solutions is the use of powder materials. In this article, we consider some manufacturing techniques for sliding bushings of a lever brake system of a rolling stock using one-sided and two-sided pressing, pulse and combined sealing. The areas of their rational use are demonstrated as well.

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xxx S.M. Viyugin, A.V. Kuchumov, G.V. Viyugina, S.E. Terentyev and I.A. Karamulina
Influence of regional technologies of varying intensity on the bioproductivity of sod-podzolic medium loamy soil in the Central region of the Russian Federation
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Influence of regional technologies of varying intensity on the bioproductivity of sod-podzolic medium loamy soil in the Central region of the Russian Federation

S.M. Viyugin¹*, A.V. Kuchumov², G.V. Viyugina³, S.E. Terentyev⁴ and I.A. Karamulina¹

¹Smolensk State Agricultural Academy, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Department of Agronomy, Land Management and Ecology, 10/2 B. Sovetskaya Str., RU214000 Smolensk, Russia
²Smolensk State Agricultural Academy, Faculty of Economics, Department of Production Management, 10/2 B. Sovetskaya Str., RU214000 Smolensk, Russia
³Smolensk State University, Faculty of Natural Geography, Department of Biology and Ornamental Crop Production, 4 Przhevalskogo Str., RU214000 Smolensk, Russia
⁴Smolensk State Agricultural Academy, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Department of Agricultural Processing Technology, 10/2 B. Sovetskaya Str., RU214000 Smolensk, Russia
*Correspondence: vyugin_sm@mail.ru

Abstract:

This study is oriented to elucidating the role of the basic elements of regional farming systems in soil-crop complex using agricultural technologies of different levels of cultivation of field crops in the Smolensk Region.
As a result of monitoring carried out in 1991–2008 on a reference site located in the Smolensk Region, negative changes of soil profile were revealed. Degree of soil podzolization increased what contributed to its degradation. All genetic horizons demonstrated deterioration in the basic parameters of soil fertility.
Many years of experience showed a significant influence of the elements of studied technologies on soil acidity parameters, on the level of available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium; the amount of humic compounds was, however, characterized by relative stability.
According to the total grain harvest of winter rye, spring soft wheat and barley, as well as of the green mass of perennial and annual herbs, studied variants were ranged in the following order: intensive, organic, adaptive, and extensive. Organic technology is suitable for getting environmentally friendly products.
Obtained results are recommended to be used in the development of regional technologies of various intensity for the bio-productivity of sod-podzolic medium loamy soil in the Central region of the Russian Federation, as well as in regions with similar soil and climatic conditions. Choice of particular variant is in each case determined by the baseline characteristics of soil, planned level of productivity and harvest quality, availability of material and monetary resources in the economy.

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xxx K. Starý, Z. Jelínek, J. Kumhálová, J. Chyba and K. Balážová
Comparing RGB – based vegetation indices from UAV imageries to estimate hops canopy area
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Comparing RGB – based vegetation indices from UAV imageries to estimate hops canopy area

K. Starý¹*, Z. Jelínek¹, J. Kumhálová¹, J. Chyba² and K. Balážová²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilization, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: staryk@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Remote estimation of hops plants in hop gardens is imperative in field of precision agriculture, because of precise imaging of hop garden structure. Monitoring of hop plant volume and area can help to predict the condition and yield of hops. In this study, two unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) – eBee X senseFly UAV equipped with Red Green Blue (RGB) S.O.D.A. camera and Vertical Take-Off Landing (VTOL) UAV FireFly6 Pro by BirdsEyeView Aerobotics equipped with MicaSense RedEdge MX camera were used to acquire images of hop garden at phenology stage maturity of cones (24 th July) before harvest. Seven commonly used RGB vegetation indices (VI) were derived from these RGB and multispectral (MS) images after photogrammetric pre-processing and orthophoto mosaic extraction using Pix4Dmapper software. Vegetation Indices as the Green Percentage Index (G%), Excess of Green Index (ExGreen), Green Leaf Index (GLI), Visible Atmospherically Resistant Index (VARI), Red Green Blue Vegetation Index (RGBVI), Normalised Green Red Difference Index (NGRDI) and Triangular Greenness Index (TGI) were derived from both data sets. Binary model from each of VI was derived and threshold value for green vegetation was set. The results showed significant differences in hop plant area based on the specifications of cameras, especially wavelengths centres, and design and flight parameters of both UAV types. The comparison of various indices showed, that ExG and TGI indices has the highest congruity of estimated vegetation indices in hop garden canopy area for both used cameras. Further processing by Fuzzy Overlay tool proved high accuracy in green canopy area estimation for ExG and TGI vegetation indices.

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xxx I.M. Donnik, A.S. Krivonogova, A.G. Isaeva, I.A. Shkuratova, K.V. Moiseeva and N.B. Musikhina
Special features of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in animal and poultry farms in the regions with various levels of man-made pollution
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Special features of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in animal and poultry farms in the regions with various levels of man-made pollution

I.M. Donnik¹, A.S. Krivonogova², A.G. Isaeva¹²*, I.A. Shkuratova², K.V. Moiseeva¹² and N.B. Musikhina¹

¹‘Ural State Agrarian University’ (FSBEI HE Ural SAU), Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education, 42, K. Liebknechta Str., RU620000 Ekaterinburg, Russia
²‘Ural Federal Agrarian Scientific Research Centre, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences’ (FSBSI UrFASRC, UrB of RAS), Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution, 112 А, Belinskogo Str., RU620000 Еkaterinburg, Russia
*Correspondence: isaeva.05@bk.ru

Abstract:

The research on the P. aeruginosa strains in animal and poultry farms located in the areas with various levels of technogenic pollution were done. The content of P. aeruginosa in composition of opportunistic pathogenic microflora in dairy, pig-breeding and poultry farms was stated. Susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to fluoroquinolone antibiotics and carbapenems was defined. The enterprises were located in the areas with various levels of contamination of agrobiocenosis with Zn, Fe, Cd, Cu, As, Pb, 90Sr, 137Cs of technogenic origin. It was stated that content of P. aeruginosa in opportunistic pathogenic microbiota was the most in poultry farms. In man-made polluted areas P. aeruginosa was most often found in samples from oral cavity and cloaca of laying hens and broiler chickens, and in ‘clean’ areas’ – mostly in wash-offs from cages and drinking pans. In dairy farms content of P. aeruginosa was higher in environmentally friendly areas, as compared to the areas with technogenic pollution. Analysis of antibiotic susceptibility has shown that in dairy farms average level of resistance of P. aeruginosa strains to carbapenems and fluoroquinolone was 12% and 6%, in pig-breeding farms – 9% and 13%, and in poultry farms – 6% and 18% correspondingly. At the same time, in environmentally neglected areas significant content of the strains with low susceptibility to the above-mentioned antibiotics was stated. The research is executed at the expense of a grant of the Russian scientific fund (project No. 18-16-00040).

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xxx S.V. Nikitin, К.S. Shatokhin, V.I. Zaporozhets, N.N. Кochnev, D.S. Bashur, A.V. Khodakovа and V.I. Ermolaev
‘GENETIC LOAD’ and changes in the chronology of early mortality in mini-pigs of ICG SB RAS
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‘GENETIC LOAD’ and changes in the chronology of early mortality in mini-pigs of ICG SB RAS

S.V. Nikitin¹, К.S. Shatokhin²*, V.I. Zaporozhets¹, N.N. Кochnev², D.S. Bashur¹, A.V. Khodakovа² and V.I. Ermolaev¹

¹Institute of Cytology and Genetics of Siberian Department of Russian Academy of Sciences, RU630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
²Novosibirsk State Agrarian University, RU630039 Novosibirsk, Russia
*Correspondence: true_genetic@mail.ru

Abstract:

This paper describes the study of the common factors of mortality of suckling piglets. It is assumed that this parameter is influenced by recessive lethal factors of the genetic load in population. An immediate subject of study was the chronological analysis of mortality in piglets from the breeding group of mini-pigs of ICG SB RAS (Institute of Cytology and Genetics Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences) for the period from 2013 through 2019. The results revealed increased number of dead piglets in the early postnatal period (first five days after farrowing) over this time period. This observation was confirmed by a statistically significant correlation coefficient between the year of birth and the number of animals that died during the first five days of life. Mortality in the period from the 6th day to weaning, on the contrary, decreased to probable accidental death which was non-related to genetic causes. Observed redistribution of mortality may be associated with increased general homozygosity in population and, in part, with the optimization of the excessive for mini-pigs multiple fertility. It is possible that the consequence of the second cause is an increase in mortality and a decrease in multiple pregnancy. It is assumed that in the breeding group of mini-pigs of the ICG SB RAS, there is the process of eliminating excessive lethal ‘genetic load’ and optimizing homozygosity to a level ensuring maximum survival of piglets on the 6th day after birth. Results of regression analysis showed that the mortality of piglets in 2018 reached its maximum level and in future a decrease to the optimum level which is typical for domestic pigs is possible. In general, results of this study suggest that newborn piglets are represented by two types. The first type includes animals whose viability potential determined by recessive lethal ‘genetic load’ is zero – they cannot live outside mother’s body. The second type is represented by animals with a genetic viability potential equal to one –they can die only from accidental death.

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xxx O. Ulianych, V. Yatsenko, P. Kondratenko, O. Lazariev, L. Voievoda, O. Lukianets and D. Adamenko
The influence of amino acids on the activity of antioxidant enzimes, malonic dialdehyde content and productivity of garlic (Allium Sativum L.)
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The influence of amino acids on the activity of antioxidant enzimes, malonic dialdehyde content and productivity of garlic (Allium Sativum L.)

O. Ulianych¹, V. Yatsenko¹*, P. Kondratenko², O. Lazariev¹, L. Voievoda¹, O. Lukianets¹ and D. Adamenko¹

¹Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Horticulture, Ecology and Plants Protection, Department of Vegetable Growing, Department of Plant Protection and Quarantine, Faculty of Management, Department of Ukrainian and Foreign Languages, Instytutska street, 1, UA20300 Uman, Ukraine
²The National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, Mykhayla Omelyanovycha-Pavlenka street, 9, UA01010 Kyiv, Ukraine
*Correspondence: slaviksklavin16@gmail.com

Abstract:

The research was carried out in 2017–2019 in the conditions of the Right-Bank Forest Steppe of Ukraine. The results of study, the effect of spraying by certain amino acids; salicylic (300 ppm), gibberellin (150 ppm) and ascorbic acids (200 ppm) on garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants are presented in the article. It was found that amino acid solutions improves the antioxidant state: the activities of SOD, CAT, POD, GR, GST in treated leaves tended to increase, the activity of SOD was higher than the control of 7.5–15.0%; CAT (27.4–45.9%); POD (7.0–83.0%); GR (5.4–49.9%); and GST (14.8–41.3%). It was noted that the content of chlorophyll a+b in the leaves significantly increased (2.6–10.8%), The use of amino acids increased the accumulation of dry matter by 1.4–4.0%. The yield increase was 1.14–2.27 t ha-1 (7.7–15.3% compared to control). The content of B vitamins in the garlic cloves was greatly influenced by gibberellic acid, where increasing the amount of B vitamins reached to 21.9% relative to control The use of salicylic and ascorbic acids increased the amount of B vitamins by 7.6 and 8.2%, respectively. The most significant increasing of C vitamin content was observed by spraying of plants with ascorbic acid (+12.5%), whereas by spraying with salicylic and gibberellic acids its content increased by 6.0 and 7.5%, respectively. In the future, the data obtained can be used to reduce the impact of abiotic factors on the physiological state and productivity of garlic plants. Also, the obtained data will serve as a theoretical basis for producers in view of the purposes for which the products are grown (for sale in fresh form, processing or storage).

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xxx G. Argenti, F. Del Serra, N. Staglianò and I. Battaglini
Assessment of management effect on grasslands characteristics in an area of the Apennines (North Italy)
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Assessment of management effect on grasslands characteristics in an area of the Apennines (North Italy)

G. Argenti¹*, F. Del Serra¹, N. Staglianò¹ and I. Battaglini²

¹University of Florence, School of Agriculture, DAGRI, P.le delle Cascine 18, IT50144 Firenze, Italy
²Unione di Comuni Valdarno e Valdisieve, Via XXV Aprile, 10, IT50068 Rufina (FI), Italy
*Correspondence: giovanni.argenti@unifi.it

Abstract:

In many regions of Europe, semi-natural grasslands not properly utilized face different threats, concerning changes in botanical composition and structural evolution, which can lead to a reduction of the qualitative value of forage biomass or, in the mid-long term, forest recovery. The present paper assesses various semi-natural grasslands within a mountain public property located in Tuscany (North Apennines, Italy) subjected to different types of utilization. Some of them are managed through cattle grazing during summer, whereas some others are only periodically mowed and utilization is performed only by wildlife occurring in the area. The paper analyses the importance of resource management and its impact on botanical composition and on qualitative value of forage production. Data collection of studied areas was conducted by means of vegetation assessment performed with a fast procedure that simplifies the botanical composition sampling. Results show the relevance of some environmental factors on grasslands evolution and on their composition (such as altitude and slope) and the importance of management on grassland quality and on level of shrub encroachment.

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xxx W.R. Żelazny
Application of feature selection for predicting leaf chlorophyll content in oats (Avena sativa L.) from hyperspectral imagery
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Application of feature selection for predicting leaf chlorophyll content in oats (Avena sativa L.) from hyperspectral imagery

W.R. Żelazny¹²*

¹Crop Research Institute, Division of Crop Management Systems, Drnovská 507/73, CZ161 06 Praha 6 Ruzyně, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Praha 6 Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: wzelazny@vurv.cz

Abstract:

Feature selection can improve predictions generated by partial least squares models. In the context of hyperspectral imaging, it can also enable the development of affordable devices with specialized applications. The feasibility of feature selection for oat leaf chlorophyll estimation from hyperspectral imagery was assessed using a public domain dataset. A wrapper approach resulted in a simplistic model with poor predictive performance. The number of model inputs decreased from 94 to 3 bands when a filter approach based on the minimum redundancy, maximum relevance criterion was attempted. The filtering led to improved prediction quality, with the root mean square error decreasing from 0.17 to 0.16 g m-2 and R2 increasing from 0.57 to 0.62. Accurate predictions were obtained especially for low chlorophyll levels. The obtained model estimated leaf chlorophyll concentration from near infra-red reflectance, canopy darkness, and its blueness. The prediction robustness needs to be investigated, which can be done by employing an ensemble methodology and testing the model on a new dataset with improved ground-truth measurements and additional crop species.

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xxx J. Bazarnova, Т. Kuznetsova, E. Aronova, L. Popova and E. Pochkaeva
A method for obtaining plastid pigments from the biomass of Chlorella microalgae
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A method for obtaining plastid pigments from the biomass of Chlorella microalgae

J. Bazarnova*, Т. Kuznetsova, E. Aronova, L. Popova and E. Pochkaeva

Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Graduate School of Biotechnology and Food Science, Polytechnicheskaya, 29, RU195251, St. Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: j.bazarnova@spbstu.ru

Abstract:

Microalgae are distinguished from land plants by the high content of plastid pigments and the biodiversity of carotenoids. The aim of this study is to develop a technology for extracting a pigment complex from the biomass of the microalgae of the genus Chlorella and to determine the extracted pigments’ composition. To obtain biomass, a crude cell suspension of microalgae was used, which was obtained under laboratory conditions for pre-culture cultivation of C. sorokiniana (strain 211-8k). The extraction of plastid pigments from air-dry biomass after disintegration of cell membrane was performed in the 40 kHz mode. It was found that the highest pigment content in ethanol extracts was observed after 30 min (870.0 ± 27.1 mg L-1) at 45−50 °C. The pigments’ composition in the resulting total extracts was determined by spectrophotometry and the Reverse Phase HPLC method. The established content of chlorophyll a in the obtained extracts was 537.5 ± 10.0 mg L-1, the content of chlorophyll b was 182.5 ± 27.5 mg L-1; the maximum output of the amount of carotenoids in extracts was 150.0 ± 10.0 mg L-1. Thus, the main identified forms of carotenoids in extracts from the biomass of microalgae C. sorokiniana were xanthophylls: lutein and fucoxanthin (18.6 and 4.7% of the amount of pigment in extract, respectively) and β-carotene (1.8% of the amount of pigment). It is planned to further fractionate the obtained total extracts of the pigment complex to obtain various forms of chlorophylls and carotenoids to study the spectrum of physiological activity of plastid pigments.

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xxx Z. Jelínek, K. Starý, J. Kumhálová, J. Lukáš and J. Mašek
Winter wheat, winter rape and poppy crop growth evaluation with the help of remote and proximal sensing measurements
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Winter wheat, winter rape and poppy crop growth evaluation with the help of remote and proximal sensing measurements

Z. Jelínek¹*, K. Starý¹, J. Kumhálová¹, J. Lukáš² and J. Mašek³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilization, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
²Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Drnovská 507, CZ161 00 Prague, Czech Republic
³Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: jelinekzdenek@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Monitoring of agricultural crops with the help of remote and proximal sensors during the growing season plays important role for site-specific management decisions. Winter wheat, winter rape and poppy are representatives of typical agricultural crops from the family Poacea, Brassicaceae and Papaveraceae, growing in relative dry area of Rakovník district in the Czech Republic. Ten Sentinel 2 satellite images acquired during vegetation season of the crops were downloaded and processed. Crops were monitored with the help of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) equipped with consumer grade Red Green Blue (RGB) camera and multispectral (MS) MicaSense RedEdge MX camera. In-field variability was assessed by computing RGB-based vegetation indices Triangular Greenness Index (TGI), Green Leaf Index (GLI) and Visible Atmospherically Resistant Index (VARI) and commonly used vegetation indices as Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Green NDVI (GNDVI). The results derived from satellite and UAV images were supported with in-situ measurements of hand-held GreenSeeker and Chlorophyll Meter Content sensors. The study showed the usability of individual vegetation indices, especially the TGI index for chlorophyll content estimation, and VARI index for green vegetation fraction detection and leaf area index estimation, in comparison with selected hand-held devices. The results showed as well that leaf properties and canopy structure of typical characteristics of selected families can significantly influence the spectral response of the crops detected in different phenological stages.

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xxx A. Miftakhutdinov, N. Zhuravel and I. Dikhtyaruk
Comparative economic efficiency of using pharmacological agents for the stress prevention in the course of immunization of birds against reovirus tenosynovitis
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Comparative economic efficiency of using pharmacological agents for the stress prevention in the course of immunization of birds against reovirus tenosynovitis

A. Miftakhutdinov, N. Zhuravel and I. Dikhtyaruk*

South Ural State Agrarian University, 13 Gagarina St., RU457100 Troitsk, Chelyabinsk Region, Russia
*Correspondence: nirugavm@mail.ru

Abstract:

This article describes the results of studies on the definition and comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of using SPAO-FA (stress protector antioxidant – feed additive) and SPAO-complex pharmacological preparation (stress protector antioxidant – complex preparation for birds) for the prevention of vaccine stress during immunization of birds against reovirus tenosynovitis. These preparations were used during 5 days (3 days before vaccination, on the day of vaccination and one day after vaccination) at the dose of 185 mg kg-1 body weight: SPAO-FA was given as a part of compound feed, SPAO-complex – with water. Stress prevention in chickens of the parent flock provides equally high level of protection of birds from a field virus, a causative agent of reovirus tenosynovitis: it reduces the development of a protective level of antibodies by 7 days. Using SPAO-complex contributed to the increase in antibody titers by a factor of 2.6, and to the decrease in the coefficient of variation by the term of monitoring immunity stress by 25.7%. Using SPAO-FA increased antibody titers by 1.6 times, but had no significant effect on vaccination homogeneity. Vaccination index that should be high in the case of successful vaccination was 3.5 times higher for SPAO-complex in comparison with the basic diet; this for SPAO-FA was 1.6 times higher. Positive effect of anti-stress therapy influences the livability of chickens which was 3.5% higher with SPAO-complex, 0.79% higher – with SPAO-FA; bird live weight and the yield of day-old chicks were also higher in comparison with the basic diet by 6.44 and 0.88%, and 4.22 and 0.55%, respectively. Cost-effectiveness of using SPAO-FA per RUR of costs amounted to 180.09 RUR, for SPAO-complex, this parameter amounted to 435.86 RUR.

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xxx I. Kakabouki, A. Folina, S. Karydogianni, Ch. Zisi and A. Efthimiadou
The effect of nitrogen fertilization on root characteristics of Camelina sativa L. in greenhouse pots
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The effect of nitrogen fertilization on root characteristics of Camelina sativa L. in greenhouse pots

I. Kakabouki¹*, A. Folina¹, S. Karydogianni¹, Ch. Zisi¹ and A. Efthimiadou²

¹Agricultural University of Athens, Department of Crop Science, Laboratory of Agronomy, 75 Iera Odos Str., GR11855 Athens, Greece
²Institute of Soil and Water Resources, Department of Soil Science of Athens, Hellenic Agricultural Organization-DEMETER, Sofokli Venizelou 1, GR14123 Lycovrissi, Attica, Greece
*Correspondence: i.kakabouki@gmail.com

Abstract:

Climate change has made mandatory the introduction of new crops in Greece, such as the cultivation of camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz]. Nitrogen (N) and the development of root system are two important factors affecting crop growth and yield. Camelina has been studied mainly for its composition and oil. In the present study, root development of camelina crop was thoroughly investigated; mainly in terms of Nitrogen fertilization. Therefore, a camelina greenhouse experiment was established in Western Greece, in the region of Agrinio, in March 2019 in completely randomized design with four treatments, (control 0 ppm N, 30 ppm N, 60, ppm N and 90 ppm N). The N rates had statistically significant affected root density and root surface from 40 to 120 days after treatment (DAT) with highest values at 100 DAT and 90 ppm N, 52.54 cm of root 100 cm-3 and 27.59 cm2 of root 100 cm-3, respectively. The root volume was significantly affected by N fertilizer from 40 to 100 DAT and highest value was 13.18 cm3 of root 100 cm-3 soil in the 90 ppm at 120 DAT. The plant leaf area was significantly affected by the highest rate of N. Yield per plant had not statistically significant difference with the 60 and with the 90 and highest weight per plant 292.25 g plant-1 in 90 ppm. In conclusion, Ν fertilization significantly affected growth or camelina’s root system after 40 DAT. Plant growth was significantly affected by fertilization and the highest yield and 1,000 seed weight were recorded with the highest amount of N.

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