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xxx O. Gayosso-Barragán, S.A. Rodríguez-Herrera, C.D. Petroli, O. Antuna-Grijalva, A. López-Benítez, A. Mancera-Rico, M.P. Luévanos-Escareño and A.J. Lozano-del Río
Genetic components for fodder yield and agronomic characters in maize lines
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Genetic components for fodder yield and agronomic characters in maize lines

O. Gayosso-Barragán¹⁷, S.A. Rodríguez-Herrera²*, C.D. Petroli³, O. Antuna-Grijalva⁴, A. López-Benítez², A. Mancera-Rico⁵, M.P. Luévanos-Escareño⁶ and A.J. Lozano-del Río²

¹Postgrado en Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro UL, Periférico Raúl López Sánchez, MX27054 Torreón, Coahuila, México
²Departamento de Fitomejoramiento, Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Calzada Antonio Narro 1923, MX25315 Saltillo, Coahuila, México
³International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), El Batán Km. 45, MX56237, Texcoco, Estado de México, México
⁴Departamento de Fitomejoramiento, Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro UL, Periférico Raúl López Sánchez, MX27054 Torreón, Coahuila, México
⁵Centro de Capacitación y Desarrollo en Tecnologías de Semillas, Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Calzada Antonio Narro 1923, MX25315 Saltillo, Coahuila, México
⁶Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, Carretera Torreón-Matamoros Km. 7.5, MX27275 Torreón Coahuila, México
⁷Centro Nacional de Investigación Disciplinaria en Agricultura Familiar (CENID AF), Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP). Carretera Ojuelos-Lagos de Moreno km 8.5, MX47540 Ojuelos, Jalisco, México
*Correspondence: sarh50@live.com.mx

Abstract:

In maize hybrid development, it is essential to know the parent’s performance per se in different environments as well as the genetic base in populations in order to facilitate selection of superior lines. The objective of this work was to estimate the genetic variance and heritability while assessing agronomic behavior in 237 maize fodder lines featuring different inbred levels and origin in two different locations. Traits such as plant height, cob height, stem diameter, and fodder yield were taken. A combined variance analysis was carried out using this information. The variable mean squares showing significant differences were used to estimate the genetic variance components. Significant differences were observed (p ≤ 0.01) for the line variation source and location × line interaction in all assessed characteristics. The genetic parameter estimation provided information on the existing genetic variance and heritability among the population which is important for the progress of the selection process. Lines CLWN701, CLWN345, CML476, CML216, CLWQ232, and CML 528 measured 74.8, 72.2, 67.7, 65.8, 63.8 and 62.5 t ha-1, respectively showed the highest yield potential for green fodder.

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xxx A. Jansons, J. Dzenis, R. Matisons, V. Samariks and B. Jansone
Intra-annual height growth dynamics of Scots and lodgepole pines and its relationship with meteorological parameters in central Latvia
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Intra-annual height growth dynamics of Scots and lodgepole pines and its relationship with meteorological parameters in central Latvia

A. Jansons¹*, J. Dzenis², R. Matisons¹, V. Samariks¹ and B. Jansone¹³

¹Latvian State Forest Institute ‘Silava’, Rigas 111, LV 2169 Salaspils, Latvia
²Nature Conservation Agency, Baznīcas 7, LV 2150 Sigulda, Latvia
³Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Forestry Faculty, Liela 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: aris.jansons@silava.lv

Abstract:

The Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is the second-most widely used tree species in forestry in Latvia and is the only species used for afforestation on nutrient poor soils that cover considerable forest land in Latvia. Several studies have shown that, in such conditions, the lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) may be more productive in terms of biomass and yield. It is important to consider climate change studies to assess the potential for a larger-scale use of the lodgepole pine in forestry. The aim was to assess the intra-annual height growth patterns of both species, the differences between them, and the influence of meteorological parameters on their height growth. Their height growth was monitored on a weekly basis in two sampling sites in central Latvia, and the height increment curves were described by Gompertz’s model. The height growth dynamics of individual trees and species differed notably, indicating the potential for the selection of the best-adapted genotypes. Our results indicate that the early onset of the active growth phase might be the most important factor determining the total height increment for both species. Temperature-related meteorological parameters were the only ones with a statistically significant influence on pines height growth and only when at least one of the variables were standardised prior to the analysis. A temperature increase had a slightly stronger positive effect on the growth of the lodgepole pine, indicating that it might be suitable for more intensive use in forestry under the climate change scenarios for Latvia.

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xxx D. Chodová and E. Tůmová
Insects in chicken nutrition. A review
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Insects in chicken nutrition. A review

D. Chodová* and E. Tůmová

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Animal Science, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: chodova@af.czu.cz

Abstract:

Increasing chicken meat production needs an alternative and easily available protein source as a potentional substitute for soybean meal or fishmeal. The insect meals seem to be the most appropriate alternative. Of all insect species, Tenebrio molitor, Hermetia illucens and Musca domestica are the most suitable species for commercial exploitation in poultry feed. On the basis of numerous studies, insect meals contain sufficient nutrients (high quality protein and fat) for broiler production. Potential of insect meals used for feed of chickens is discussed based on published data. Many reviews summarizing the latest insights about the insect meals as an alternative protein source in poultry have been written. However, the present work describes not only the insect production, nutritional value and digestibility of the insect meals, but mainly the effect on performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of chickens fed insect meals, which has not been in any review summarized yet. The study describes also the risks and safety of the insect meals. Based on numerous studies, insect meals can have a positive influence on growth without negative impact on carcass and meat quality characteristics.

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xxx H. Ameziane, A. Nounah, M. Khamar and A. Zouahri
Composting olive pomace: evolution of organic matter and compost quality
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Composting olive pomace: evolution of organic matter and compost quality

H. Ameziane¹*, A. Nounah¹, M. Khamar¹ and A. Zouahri²

¹Mohammed V University, High School of Technology, Civil Engineering and Environment Laboratory (LGCE), Materials Water and Environment team, MA11060 Sale, Morocco
²INRA, Regional Center for Agricultural Research in Rabat, Research unit on Environment and Conservation of Natural Resources, MA10112 Rabat, Morocco
*Correspondence: amezianehalima@gmail.com

Abstract:

Morocco is one of the major olive-producing countries with an annual production of 1.56 million tonnes, part of which is dedicated to olive oil production. This important production generates, in addition to oil as the main product, a significant amount of waste (pomace and olive mill wastewater). The latter, when released in large quantities into the natural environment, cause fatal pollution. A suitable valuation of this waste will allow a clean and sustainable production for the sector. This work consists of composting olive pomace from the traditional system with two structural agents (poultry droppings and cattle manure) and comparing the two composts in terms of composting process parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter temperature, etc.), organic matter dynamics and compost quality, with manual aeration of the compost. Despite the high humidity level of the used pomace (80%), the adopted composting conditions have been effective in reducing high levels of organic matter and therefore organic carbon, as well as reducing the extreme phytotoxicity of the pomace. The experiment showed that the stabilization process in all the four treatments studied is comparable, and the final quality of the composts was adequate for agricultural use.

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xxx S. Rakutko, A. Avotiņš, I. Alsina and K. Berzina
New assessment tool for artificial plant lighting: case of tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill.)
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New assessment tool for artificial plant lighting: case of tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill.)

S. Rakutko¹, A. Avotiņš², I. Alsina³ and K. Berzina²

¹Federal Scientific Agroengineering Center VIM, branch in Saint Petersburg, Tyarlevo, Pushkinsky distr., RU196625 St. Petersburg, Russia
²Riga Technical University, Faculty of Power and Electrical Engineering, Kalku street 1, LV-1658 Riga, Latvia
³Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Plant and Soil Science, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia

Abstract:

Growing crops under artificial conditions need a very favourable environment, especially the spectral composition of radiation influencing the plant biometry greatly. The study objective was to find how to assess the closeness of real growing conditions to the optimal ones using a single coefficient, which would reflect several time dependencies of individual growth indicators. The plant growth friendliness factor (KG)was proposed for this purpose. Tomato transplants (Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill., ‘Polonaise F1’) were grown in a peat substrate under two lighting systems with different light quality.One system consisted of eight fluorescent lamps OSRAM L58W / 840 LUMILUX Cool White and eight lamps L58W / 77 FLUORA mounted on the standard frame, alternating the lamp types (Type I spectrum).In the other lighting system, the PCB Star LEDs with wavelengths of red 630 nm and far-red 735 nm were added(Type II spectrum). The irradiance level was maintained at 140 μmol m-2 s-1, the photoperiod was 16 h. The ratio of long-wave flux to the total flux KL was calculated for these lighting systems (0.37 rel.units for Type I spectrum and 0.50 rel.units for Type II spectrum) and KG factor was determined by the proposed formula. The value of KG was found to be twice as small for Type I spectrum than for Type II spectrum. The significant difference in biometric parameters of tomato transplants grown under Type I and Type II spectra was revealed. The plants grown in the environment characterized by higher KG, were higher; they had more significant wet mass and stem neck diameter.

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xxx I.Yu. Kuznetsov, R.R. Alimgafarov, B.G. Akhiyarov, F.F. Safin and A.R. Nafikova
Effect of different pesticides combined with Melafen on grain yield and quality of winter wheat
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Effect of different pesticides combined with Melafen on grain yield and quality of winter wheat

I.Yu. Kuznetsov*, R.R. Alimgafarov, B.G. Akhiyarov, F.F. Safin and A.R. Nafikova

University Federal state budgetary educational institution of higher education “Bashkir state agrarian university”, Department of plant growing, plant breeding and biotechnology, 50 anniversary of October St., 34, RU450001 Ufa, Russia
*Correspondence: kuznetsov_i1@rambler.ru

Abstract:

The use and search for new pesticides ensuring high and stable yields is one of the topical issues in winter wheat growing. The aim of the study was to develop theoretical foundations and farming practices for highly productive winter wheat through the use of pesticides of different groups in the southern forest-steppe of the Republic of Bashkortostan. An experiment (2016–2019) with 4 main blocks was conducted to determine the optimal combination of pesticides in cultivation of winter wheat. The pesticides were used at the tillering ((ZGS) 25) and heading stages ((ZGS) 59) of wheat growth. The experiment was replicated 4 times. The study results show that pesticides used to treat winter wheat increased grain yield and improved grain quality characteristics. The best results were reached in the block where treatment included Melafen plant growth promoter combined with the insecticide, herbicide and fungicide at different stages of winter wheat growth. The pesticides used in the experiment confirmed their efficiency. On the whole, the block of variants that used seed treatment produced a yield of 3.33–6.37 t ha-1. The new plant growth promoter Melafen worked well in the experiments on winter wheat, especially in combination with pesticides in different variations. It produced the highest grain yield (6.36–7.41 t ha-1). All experiment variants demonstrated positive economic efficiency. The study results may be useful in developing winter wheat cultivation practices aimed at increasing yields and improving grain quality.

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xxx P. Hutla, M. Kolaříková, D. Hájek, P. Doležal, E. Hausvater and B. Petráčková
Ozone treatment of stored potato tubers
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Ozone treatment of stored potato tubers

P. Hutla¹*, M. Kolaříková¹, D. Hájek¹, P. Doležal², E. Hausvater² and B. Petráčková¹

¹Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p. r. i., Drnovská 507, CZ161 01 Praha 6 – Ruzyně, Czech Republic
²Potato Research Institute, Inc., Protection Department, Dobrovského 2366, CZ580 01 Havlíčkův Brod, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: petr.hutla@vuzt.cz

Abstract:

During storage, potato tubers are susceptible to different pathogen, which can attack the skin and flesh of the tubers. The most serious damage can be caused by rot inducing bacteria and fungi. A possible way to prevent microbial damage may be the use of ozone in the air ventilated through the stored tubers. However, the tubers can undergo qualitative changes, e.g. dehydration and loss of starch content. This article presents the results of a five-month experiment in which ozone concentration of 5 mg m-3 was periodically introduced in some of the stored potato tubers of the cultivar ‘Dali’. All potato tubers were stored in closed storage boxes with a metal frame and wood panels in the floor and walls (ground area 1.6×1.2 m, height 0.95 m) which were continuously aerated using the ambient air in a potato warehouse. There was 900 kg of tubers stored in the box. At the end of the experiment, the ozonated variant was compared with the control (not treated). The ozone-treated tubers had 2.95 times lower incidence of infection by rot and the number of microorganisms on healthy tubers was lower than the control. The ozone-treated tubers were less frequently dehydrated. The water loss was higher in control by 0.86 %. There was no significant difference in silver scurf manifestation or in the starch content between the two variants.

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xxx B. Mazurenko, S. Kalenska, L. Honchar and N. Novytska
Grain yield response of facultative and winter triticale for late autumn sowing in different weather conditions
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Grain yield response of facultative and winter triticale for late autumn sowing in different weather conditions

B. Mazurenko*, S. Kalenska, L. Honchar and N. Novytska

National University of Life and Environmental Science, Department of Plant Science, Heroiv Oborony street 15, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
*Correspondence: mazurenko.bohdan@nubip.edu.ua

Abstract:

Climate change is affecting the growing conditions of winter cereals. Peculiarities of organogenesis and their impact in grain yield of facultative triticale depend on different nitrogen fertilization can help to avoid adverse effects of unfavorable conditions. Field experiment was conducted in zone of the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. The experiment included 2 late autumns sowing periods and fertilization system with few variants of nitrogen fertilization applied in spring. Features of organogenesis of two winter varieties and facultative triticale Pidzimok kharkivskiy were determined by apical meristem microscopy from emergence till heading. Was established process of apical meristem differentiation in facultative triticale has non-linear relation between temperature and number of spikelets. The efficiency of apical meristem differentiation reaches its maximum at 12 °C. Grain yield of triticale varieties depend on studied factors but main impact had weather conditions. Grain yield of facultative triticale significantly exceeds winter varieties and had a lesser difference between sowing period than winter cultivars. Crops in the first sowing period were more productive than in the second. Facultative triticale has great productivity potential in late autumn sowing and can realize it in various conditions. Reduced yields in late sowing are lower than in winter cultivars.

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xxx S. Murtić, H. Čivić, E. Sijahović, I. Koleška, J. Jurković and M. Tvica
Use of pyrophyllite to reduce heavy metals mobility in a soil environment
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Use of pyrophyllite to reduce heavy metals mobility in a soil environment

S. Murtić¹*, H. Čivić², E. Sijahović², I. Koleška³, J. Jurković⁴ and M. Tvica⁵

¹University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Department of Plant Physiology, Zmaja od Bosne 8, BA71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
²University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Department of Plant Nutrition, Zmaja od Bosne 8, BA71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
³University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Physiology and Nutrition, Bulevar vojvode Petra Bojovića 1A, BA78000 Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina
⁴University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Zmaja od Bosne 8, BA71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
⁵University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Department of Pedology, Zmaja od Bosne 8, BA71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
*Correspondence: murticsenad@hotmail.com

Abstract:

This study revealed the effects of pyrophyllite ore materials on heavy metals mobility in soil plots located near the steel mill in Zenica (Bosnia and Herzegovina). The experiment was set up in a randomized block design with four pyrophyllite treatment rates i.e. 0, 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1 in three replications. Analyses of the heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd) in soil and plant samples were performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Pyrophyllite addition in soil was found to reduce the availability of all tested heavy metals in the studied soil. The pyrophyllite addition at a rate of 200 kg ha-1 reduced Mn, Cu and Zn available forms in soil by 11.1, 20.4 and 11.2%, respectively, compared with control. The pyrophyllite addition at higher rates i.e. 400 and 600 kg ha-1 had an even higher impact on the decrease in Mn and Zn mobility in studied soil in comparison with 200 kg ha-1. Additionally, these pyrophyllite rates have the ability to reduce Ni mobility in studied soil. The study also found a positive effect of all pyrophyllite treatments to reduce heavy metals accumulation in the leaves of potato grown on the studied soil. In sum, the results of this study indicate that pyrophyllite treatment could be an effective technique for improving the environmental quality of soils and alleviating the hazards of heavy metals to plants. However, further studies are necessary to confirm or denied this hypothesis.

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xxx K.A. Seetseng, A.S. Gerrano, S. Mavengahama, H.T. Araya and C.P. Du Plooy
Influence of fertilizer application on biomass yield and nutritional quality of Mustard Spinach (Florida) Broadleaf in South Africa
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Influence of fertilizer application on biomass yield and nutritional quality of Mustard Spinach (Florida) Broadleaf in South Africa

K.A. Seetseng¹, A.S. Gerrano¹*, S. Mavengahama², H.T. Araya¹ and C.P. Du Plooy¹

¹Agricultural Research Council, Vegetable and Ornamental Plants, Private Bag X293, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
²Crop Science Department and Food Security and Safety Research Group, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, North-West University P/Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa
*Correspondence: agerrano@arc.agric.za

Abstract:

Mustard Spinach (Florida Broadleaf) is an indigenized leafy vegetable grown in Southern Africa. It is a good source of vitamins and mineral nutrients. An understanding of its response to fertilizer application is important in developing cultural practices for improved yield of the crop. Furthermore, improving fertilizer use efficiency such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) would result in improving cropping system. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted in 2010 and 2011 winter cropping season to determine the influence of NPK applications and their interactions on biomass yield and nutritional values of Mustard spinach. A randomized complete block design replicated four times were used for the experiment. ANOVA showed significant variation among the treatments. The values for total fresh biomass yield ranged from 252–4,510 and 820–4,982 kg ha-1 in 2010 and 2011 cropping seasons, respectively. Omission of P had 4,510 kg ha-1 of total fresh biomass yield, while omission of K had 4,506 kg ha-1 in the first season. The lowest N content (2.63%) was recorded when nitrogen fertilizer was omitted. Full NPK application increased the content of N and K on the leaf tissues of Mustard Spinach. The highest percentage of dietary fiber was observed when K was omitted. The values recorded for ascorbic acid content varied from 126.94 and 117.42 mg 100g-1, respectively for both seasons. Iron was more concentrated on the treatments, where K was omitted. Mustard Spinach responded to fertilizer application and the results validated that application of NPK had a beneficial effect on increased production and productivity of the crop tested for small scale farmers.

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xxx A. Senchik, Yu. Guretskaya, M. Bormotov, A. Pavlov, A. Ryabchenko, V. Glushkov, Y. Sato and H. Igota
Game species fodder conditions in Eastern Siberia and Amur region
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Game species fodder conditions in Eastern Siberia and Amur region

A. Senchik¹, Yu. Guretskaya¹*, M. Bormotov¹, A. Pavlov¹, A. Ryabchenko¹, V. Glushkov², Y. Sato³ and H. Igota³

¹Far-Eastern State Agrarian University, Politehnicheskaja street 86, RU675005 Blagoveshchensk, Amur Oblast, Russia
²Russian Scientific Research Institute of Hunting and Fur farming named after Professor V.M. Zhitkov, 79, Engelsa street, RU610000 Kirov, Russia
³Rakuno Gakuen University, 582 Midorimachi, Bunkyodai, Ebetsu-shi, JP069-8501 Hokkaido, Japan
*Correspondence: gureczkayay@bk.ru

Abstract:

Hunting farms can serve as a source of primary data on the state of natural resources. Taking into account the increasing anthropogenic impact on the environment, it is necessary to constantly monitor the situation with food for ungulates and predators in order to be able to take timely measures to improve the quality of habitat for wild fauna. Populations of wild large animals live in the host landscapes of so reduced that animals population become extremely vulnerable and unstable, signs of crisis can be seen in the data on the number of animals. Lack of natural food is a serious deterrent, especially in difficult times of the year, such as winter and spring. An analysis of the situation with food for a particular species will allow hunting farms to properly plan their feeding and other activities throughout the year in order to maintain a population of certain species on their territory and minimize the migration of species outside the protected areas. The aim of our work was to create a baseline for tracking data on the characteristics of wildlife animals. The research results allow hunting farms to use the data of animal feeding preferences during different seasons of the year for better organization of their biotechnical measures and improvement of feeding conditions for such species as red deer (Cervus elaphus), elk (Cervus canadensis), roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) and bear (Ursus arctos).

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xxx O. Ulianych, K. Kostetska, N. Vorobiova, S. Shchetyna, G. Slobodyanyk and K. Shevchuk
Growth and yield of spinach depending on absorbents’ action
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Growth and yield of spinach depending on absorbents’ action

O. Ulianych¹, K. Kostetska²*, N. Vorobiova¹, S. Shchetyna¹, G. Slobodyanyk¹ and K. Shevchuk¹

¹Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Horticulture, Ecology and Plants Protection Department of Vegetable Growing, Instytutska street, 1, UA20300 Uman, Ukraine
²Uman National University of Horticulture, Department of Technology of Storage and Processing of Grain, 1 Instytutska street, UA20305 Uman, Ukraine
*Correspondence: kostetskakateryna@gmail.com

Abstract:

The use of absorbents from Maximarin for growing spinach contributed to its faster germination, increased plant growth and development, and resulted in an increase in yields of commodity products by 2.0–6.1 t ha-1 and an increase in chemical composition. The use of absorbents in open ground for spinach made it possible to obtain the highest amount of contingent net profit for making the drug Maximarin in the form of a gel and the company Eco – with small granules, and in the Krasen Polissia variety – 2,160 and 2,102 USD ha-1, in the Malakhit variety for introduction the drug Maximarin in the form of a gel 1,949 USD ha-1 and the company Eco absorbent with potassium – 1,575 USD ha-1. Profitability for the Matador variety has reached 75%, Malakhit grade – 69–75%, Keb – 3.0–3.2. It was established that in the closed ground application of the drug Maximarin in the form of gel and granules for spinach made it possible to obtain the highest amount of contingent net profit, which was Matador 3,079 and 3,025 USD ha-1, in the Malakhit variety for the introduction of gel 4,304 USD ha-1 and granules – 4,245 USD ha-1. Profitability for the use of drugs for the Krasenʹ Polissia variety reached 84–77%, Malakhit – 118–116%, the bioenergy efficiency ratio – 3.0–3.3.

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xxx D. Paulus, I. C. Zorzzi, D. Becker, G.A. Nava, A.L. de Paula and F.M. de Paula
Physiological indicators and yield of the Chinese cabbage cultivated at different soil water tensions
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Physiological indicators and yield of the Chinese cabbage cultivated at different soil water tensions

D. Paulus*, I. C. Zorzzi, D. Becker, G.A. Nava, A.L. de Paula and F.M. de Paula

Federal University of Technology - Paraná, Campus Dois Vizinhos, Faculty of Agronomia, Department of Agronomy, Street adress Estrada para Boa Esperança, km 04, postal code 157, Dois Vizinhos, Paraná, Brazil
*Correspondence: dalvapaulus@gmail.com

Abstract:

The development and yield of Chinese cabbage is influenced by soil moisture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological indicators, development, and yield of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis (Lour.) Rupr.) grown at different soil water tension ranges. Two experiments were conducted (2016–2017) in the Olericulture Sector of the Federal University of Technology of Paraná. Two cultivars of the Chinese cabbage, Eikoo and Kinjitsu, and four soil water tension ranges 13–17, 23–27, 33–37, and 43–47 kPa were studied. Eikoo presented higher relative chlorophyll index, photosynthesis, and fresh leaf mass than did Kinjitsu. Physiological indicators transpiration (5.8 mmol H2O m-2 s-1), photosynthesis (14.5 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1), stomatal conductance (0.31 mol H2O m-2 s-1), and WUE (39.4 kg m-3) were higher at 13–17 kPa soil water tension. Soil water tension ranges with high water restrictions reduced the fresh leaf mass of both cultivars. Fresh leaf mass decreased by 236.2 and 191.7 g plant-1 in the highest soil water tension range in 2016 and 2017, respectively, when compared with the fresh leaf mass at the 13–17 kPa tension range. The lowest water consumption was observed at the 13–17 kPa tension range. The year 2017 resulted in higher internal CO2 concentration, transpiration rate, fresh leaf mass, number of irrigations and water consumption compared to the year 2016. Thus, the irrigation regime for the most optimal Chinese cabbage cultivation should maintain the soil water tension range at 13–17 kPa.

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xxx V. Karpenko, G. Slobodyanyk, O. Ulianych, S. Schetyna, І. Mostoviak and V. Voitsekhovskyi
Combined application of microbial preparation, mineral fertilizer and bioadhesive in production of leek
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Combined application of microbial preparation, mineral fertilizer and bioadhesive in production of leek

V. Karpenko¹*, G. Slobodyanyk¹, O. Ulianych¹, S. Schetyna¹, І. Mostoviak¹ and V. Voitsekhovskyi²

¹Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Horticulture, Ecology and Plants Protection, Department of Biology, Department of Vegetable Growing, Department of Plant Protection and Quarantine, Instytutska street, 1, UA20300 Uman, Ukraine
²National University of Bioresources and Nature Management, Agrobiological Faculty Department of technologies of storage, processing and standardization of planting products by. prof. B.V. Lesika, Heroiv Oborony street 13, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
*Correspondence: unuh1844@gmail.com

Abstract:

The research deals with additional fertilizing of leek cultivars Goliath and Tango with bacterial preparation Organic-balance and mineral fertilizer DripFert N20P20K20 + Ме in combination with adhesive agent of a natural origin Liposam. Field research was performed on the experimental plots of the Department of Vegetable Growing of Uman National University of Horticulture. The research focused on microbiological processes and formation of productivity in the leek crops depending on the combination of preparations.
It has been established that the number of bacteria Azotobacter in the rhizosphere of leek increased 2.8 times after a four-time fertilizing with bacterial preparation Organic-balance and bioadhesive Liposam during vegetation. The maximum number of bacteria, including Azotobacter, in the rhizosphere of leek, was recorded after a four-time fertilization with DripFert N20P20K20 + Ме in combination with Organic-balance and Liposam. The share of influence of additional fertilization on the microbiota of the rhizosphere made up 77–97%.
Leek cultivar Tango produced a larger assimilative leaf surface. Depending on the fertilizing the maximum leaf surface and photosynthetic potential of leek cultivars Tango and Goliath were recorded under combination of Organic-balance + DripFert N20P20K20 + Ме + Liposam. The yielding capacity of variety Goliath was better than that one of the variety Tango regardless of fertilizing. To make the growing technology of leek more environmental friendly it is advisable to introduce in the growing technology bacterial preparation Organic-balance together with Liposam. Utilization of these preparations improves crop yield, which makes up 0.6–0.7 t ha-1 for variety Goliath and 1.1–2.7 t ha-1 for variety Tango correspondingly. The investigated leek varieties had the maximum yields under combined application of Organic-balance + Liposam with fertilizer DripFert N20P20K20 + Ме, which is by 18–24% higher than provided by plants grown without fertilization.

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xxx P. Casini and G. Biancofiore
Influence of row spacing on canopy and seed production in grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.)
Abstract |
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Influence of row spacing on canopy and seed production in grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.)

P. Casini* and G. Biancofiore

University of Florence, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry (DAGRI), Piazzale delle Cascine 18, IT50144 Florence, Italy
*Correspondence: paolo.casini@unifi.it

Abstract:

A new crop recently introduced in Italy is amaranth. Studies involving agronomic techniques on this plant are limited. The aim of the present research was to assess the effect of distance between rows on both seed yield and ground cover in Amaranthus cruentus L. Sowing treatments included two single row spacing designs (18 and 60 cm) and one double row spacing design (18 + 60 cm). At the six true leaf stage, in the single row design of 60 and 18 cm row spacing, ground cover was 16% and 47% respectively. An intermediate coverage of 31% was evident in the double rows. At the ten true leaf stage, plants cultivated in single rows at 18 cm covered the ground early, thereby attaining a ground cover of 85%. Regarding yield, a seed production of 0.92 t ha-1 was obtained from plants in the double row design compared to the respective single row spacing designs of 18 and 60 cm, where yields were 0.85 and 0.70 t ha-1 respectively. The selection of one mode of sowing over another will largely depend on the type of equipment available to the farm. Whilst single row spacing distances of 18 cm displayed a net of advantage against weeds, difficulties were encountered in the case of managing weeds by mechanical equipment. The use of double rows permitted taking advantage of a slightly better ground cover than single rows, together with the possibility of mechanical intervention for the control of weeds, and importantly also provided a higher yield.

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xxx V.A. Mazur, H.V. Pantsyreva, K.V. Mazur, R.O. Myalkovsky and O.O. Alekseev
Agroecological prospects of using corn hybrids for biogas production
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Agroecological prospects of using corn hybrids for biogas production

V.A. Mazur¹, H.V. Pantsyreva¹*, K.V. Mazur¹, R.O. Myalkovsky² and O.O. Alekseev¹

¹Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, 3, Soniachna Str., UA21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine
²State Agrarian and Engineering University, 13, Shevchenko Str., UA32300 Kamianets-Podilskyi, Ukraine
*Correspondence: pantsyreva@vsau.vin.ua

Abstract:

Ukraine is an agricultural country with great agricultural potential for biogas production, which is the key to fertile soils and favorable climatic conditions for energy crops, including corn. The article analyzes the experience of using biogas in Ukraine and the world, its mechanism of production. The leader in biogas production in the world is the European Union in general and Germany in particular. The total number of biogas plants in Europe exceeds 11 thousand, of which 7.2 thousand in Germany. Іnstalled biogas, which is released in the process of complex fermentation of organic waste, consists of a mixture of gases: methane – 55–75%, carbon dioxide – 23–33%, hydrogen sulfide – 7%. An important sector of renewable energy sources in biogas production is presented and the prospects for its use are determined. The energy dependence of our country on the volumes of imported natural gas is analyzed. The main aspects of biogas production are explored using renewable energy sources that are inexhaustible in our crane and the phased operation of the biogas plant is investigated. The real advantages of the need for biogas production and use in our country are outlined. Problems aimed at the development of alternative energy have been proved in order to detect environmental pollution. It has been established that in Ukraine the use of corn silage to improve the efficiency of biogas production at existing biogas stations has not been used so far. The problems of increasing the yield of corn plants have been proved not only by breeding and genetic methods, but also by cultivation technology.

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xxx L. Hlisnikovský, P. Barlog, E .Kunzová, M. Vach and L. Menšík
Biomass yield of silage maize, fertilizers efficiency, and soil properties under different soil-climate conditions and fertilizer treatments
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Biomass yield of silage maize, fertilizers efficiency, and soil properties under different soil-climate conditions and fertilizer treatments

L. Hlisnikovský¹, P. Barlog², E .Kunzová¹, M. Vach¹ and L. Menšík³

¹Division of Crop Management System, team Management of Nutrients in Agrosystems, Crop Research Institute, Drnovská 507, CZ161 01 Prague 6, Czech Republic
²Poznan University of Life Sciences, Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Environmental Biogeochemistry, Wojska Polskiego 71F, PL60-625 Poznan, Poland
³Division of Crop Management System, team Sustainable Management and Utilization of Permanent Grassland, Crop Research Institute, K.H. Borovského 461, CZ569 43 Jevíčko, Czech Republic

Abstract:

We evaluated the efficiency (the netto agronomic efficiency – NAE, the physiological efficiency – PE, and the apparent recovery efficiency – ARE) of farmyard manure (FYM) applied alone, and together with mineral N (FYM+N), and NPK (FYM+NPK), on the biomass production of silage maize at three localities (Caslav, Ivanovice, Lukavec) in the Czech Republic, characterised by different soil-climate conditions. The effect of fertilizer treatment on soil chemical properties was also analyzed. After four years of evaluation, the application of FYM resulted in comparable biomass production as in the FYM+N, and FYM+NPK treatments, showing the good ability of the mineralized FYM to provide enough nutrients during the growing season. Increasing doses of applied nutrients were connected with higher biomass production. However, no significant differences were recorded between fertilizer treatments. The efficiency of applied nutrients was higher on soils of worst quality (sandy loamy Cambisol – Lukavec), while lower on naturally fertile loamy degraded Chernozem (Ivanovice). But again, no significant differences between the selected parameters were recorded. Although the application of mineral fertilizers has not increased maize biomass yield significantly, they positively affected soil chemical properties, mainly the soil concentration of P, K, Mg, and soil organic carbon content. This shows the beneficial effect of the application of mineral fertilizers, especially in the Czech Republic, where the application of mineral P and K decreased drastically during the last thirty years.

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xxx A.-H. Viira, J. Ariva, K. Kall, L. Oper, E. Jürgenson, S. Maasikamäe and R. Põldaru
Restricting the eligible maintenance practices of permanent grassland – a realistic way towards more active farming?
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Restricting the eligible maintenance practices of permanent grassland – a realistic way towards more active farming?

A.-H. Viira¹*, J. Ariva¹, K. Kall¹, L. Oper¹, E. Jürgenson², S. Maasikamäe² and R. Põldaru¹

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Economics and Social Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1 A, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
²University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Kreutzwaldi 5, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: ants.viira@emu.ee

Abstract:

As a result of agricultural, land and ownership reforms coupled with liberal agricultural policy during the transition, agricultural land use in Estonia became more fragmented. A significant portion of agricultural land users are now considered passive farmers who maintain their agricultural land (often permanent grasslands) in good agricultural and environmental conditions and are therefore eligible for single area and greening payment. The maintenance of permanent grassland is one of the objectives of the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), which contributes to the overall climate and biodiversity objectives of the EU. Until 2014, in Estonia, the minimum eligible activity for the maintenance of permanent grassland was to cut the grass and leave it on the ground. In 2015 and 2016, the area on which the cut grass could be left on the ground was restricted in order to increase incentives for more active agricultural land use. This paper analyses the likely effects of such restriction on the use and maintenance of permanent grasslands. The results of the study show that in the case of restrictions on the eligible practices of permanent grassland maintenance, passive land users as well as crop and mixed crop-livestock farms are likely to reduce the area of permanent grasslands (shrinking farms). At the same time, grazing livestock farms (expanding farms) would be willing to expand their permanent grassland area. More than 70% of the permanent grasslands of shrinking farms are located within 1 km and more than 90% within 2 km of expanding farms. However, in some regions it is likely that the maintenance of permanent grasslands is stopped as a result of the restrictions. It is argued that if permanent grasslands are to be maintained, it is necessary to introduce supports for grazing livestock farms, targeted supports for passive land users for their maintenance or more comprehensive land use policy that takes the climate change mitigation requirements into account.

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xxx L. Tsirulnichenko and J. Kretova
Prebiotic properties of licorice root extracts
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Prebiotic properties of licorice root extracts

L. Tsirulnichenko* and J. Kretova

South Ural State University, Higher School of Medicine and Biology, Department of Food and Biotechology, 85 Lenina Avenue, RU454080 Chelyabinsk, Russia,
*Correspondence author: tcirulnichenkola@susu.ru

Abstract:

The study objective is to investigate effect of licorice root extract on growth of probiotic microorganisms. As fructan percentage in licorice roots is 27.8–28.8%, this value is sufficient to enable the raw material suitability as a prebiotic ingredient. The licorice root extract (0.1%, 1% and 10% of medium volume) was added to media. The same media without added extract were considered as controls. Effect of the licorice root extract on growth of probiotic microorganisms was studied in 2 commercial probiotic drug Bifiform (Denmark) and Bifidobacterin forte (Russia). Licorice root extract provides probiotic bacteria an opportunity to tolerate acidity/alkalinity gradient of model media well and to decrease their count slower. In vitro studies showed, what 1% extract provides more favorable conditions for microorganisms that 10% one.

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