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xxx L. Degola, I. Jansons and V. Šterna
Effect of replacement of coated barley grain with hulless barley in diet on growth, carcass and meat quality traits of fattening pigs
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Effect of replacement of coated barley grain with hulless barley in diet on growth, carcass and meat quality traits of fattening pigs

L. Degola¹*, I. Jansons² and V. Šterna²

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Institute of Animal Sciences, Liela street 2, LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, Dizstende, Libagi parish, LV 3258 Talsi County, Latvia
*Correspondence: lilija.degola@llu.lv

Abstract:

A amount of experimental pigs were 40 crossbred pigs (Yorkshire × Landrace). The initial body weight of pigs were average 27.0 kg. The goal of research was to assess the effect of replacement of coated barley grain with hulless barley in diet on pig growth, carcass and pork quality indices. Experimental groups of pigs on the holding were conducted according to age and sex. For trial group of pigs, a compound feed with hulless barley (38.9–45.4%) was prepared, for the control with coated barley (39.3–43.3%). The feed recipes made according the pigs age. The other feed ingredients were not changed and were wheat, soybean meal and oil, premivit, and from 20 till 70 kg liveweight also fish meal. Diets were formulated with the same of metabolizable energy and crude protein content. During the study the live weight of pigs was monitored and the feed consumption was counted. At the end of the study all pigs slaughtered, determined carcasses traits and took samples of loin muscle for chemical analyses. The results showed that pig fattening indices (daily liveweight gain were in control pig group 0.686 ± 0.183 and trial 0.716 ± 0.174) did not differ significantly between groups (P > 0.05), although its were slightly lower in the control group pigs by 4.37%. Feed consumption for live weight gain in both groups ranged from 3.14 to 3.25 kg. Carcasses scores showed significant differences in lean meat and chops (P < 0.05). There were also differences in the backfat thickness. The thickness of backfat was 2.62 mm less in the control pig group, which indicates that when feeding coated barley to fattening pigs, the carcasses have a higher proportion of lean meat (62.1 ± 0.7%). Pigs were slaughtered reaching a live weight of 110 to 114 kg. The meat yield 71.7% and moisture level (70.2–75.2%), as well as protein (22.3–22.9%) indicators showed that fattening pigs are sold at the optimal age. In conclusion, results from this study suggest that feeding hulless barley to fattening pigs results in higher live weight gain. Carcass indicators showed a significantly higher proportion of lean meat and weight of chops when pigs eating coated barley. Chemical composition of pork in groups without significant differences.

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xxx L. Lepse, S. Zeipiņa, I. Missa and A. Osvalde
The effect of cultivation technology on the plant development of organically grown garlic
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The effect of cultivation technology on the plant development of organically grown garlic

L. Lepse¹*, S. Zeipiņa¹, I. Missa¹ and A. Osvalde²

¹Institute of Horticulture, Graudu iela 1, LV–3701 Dobele, Latvia
²Institute of Biology, University of Latvia, Ojāra Vācieša iela 4–201, LV–1004 Rīga, Latvia
*Correspondence: liga.lepse@llu.lv

Abstract:

The new technological solutions for the hardneck garlic production were tested to prevent the influence of unfavourable soil and climatic conditions on the rooting, sprouting and wintering ability of hardneck garlic – factors that affect significantly the hardneck garlic production in Latvia. Field studies were carried out at the experimental field of the organic farm, located at the Koknese district, Latvia, during the seasons of 2018/2019 and 2019/2020, on sandy loam soil using hardneck garlic cultivar `Liubasha` and local clones. Two variants of garlic growing were compared – traditional planting in the autumn in the field as control, and planting in the trays as an innovative solution. Results indicated that low temperature treatment (below +7 °C) for the period of at least 50 days initiates cloves primordia development. The using of trays is effective technology to prevent unfavourable agroecological conditions on the field in the case if controlled conditions are available and technically feasible in the farm.

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xxx V.P. Aravani, K. Tsigkou, M. Kornaros and V.G. Papadakis
Laboratory analyses for assessing the potential for biogas production of various agricultural residues in Greece
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Laboratory analyses for assessing the potential for biogas production of various agricultural residues in Greece

V.P. Aravani¹, K. Tsigkou², M. Kornaros²* and V.G. Papadakis¹*

¹Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Patras, 2 Seferi Str., GR30100 Agrinio, Greece
²Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 1 Karatheodori Str., University Campus- Rio, GR26504 Patras, Greece
*Correspondence: kornaros@chemeng.upatras.gr; vgpapadakis@upatras.gr

Abstract:

Greece produces significant amounts of agricultural and livestock waste. For the needs of this study, Greece was divided into a Northern and a Southern part and relevant proposals were made for residues that can be used for energy production, through anaerobic digestion. For Northern Greece, this study concluded that the most abundant residues and potential substrates for anaerobic digestion valorisation are those of maize, inedible vegetables (including greenhouse vegetables), cattle manure, as well as the residues of beer and wine industry. For Southern Greece, the corresponding substrates are those of maize, inedible vegetables, sheep/goat manure and residues of wine, tomato, orange and olive processing, respectively. Based on the physicochemical characterization of individual feedstocks, corn silage, tomato husks, watermelon, malt, cattle manure, orange, and olive processing residues (olive pomace) were considered as the most suitable feedstocks for anaerobic digestion. Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) assays for Northern Greece were also performed, testing the most abundant and appropriate residues for anaerobic digestion (of this area), namely corn silage, cattle manure and malt, in order to define their BMP yield as well as their prospective optimum mixtures. It was concluded that the BMP of the mono-substrates is in accordance with literature, while there were no statistically significant differences in the methane yield of all tested mixtures. The residual biomass originating from the three main categories of the agricultural sector (crop residues, agro-industrial residues, and animal manure) in Northern Greece can be efficiently valorised via anaerobic co-digestion, without observing, though, any synergistic effects on methane production.

 

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xxx M.V. Radchenko, V.I. Trotsenko, Z.I. Hlupak, E.A. Zakharchenko, O.M. Osmachko, V.V. Moisiienko, V.Z. Panchуshуn and S.V. Stotska
Influence of mineral fertilizers on yielding capacity and quality of soft spring wheat grain
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Influence of mineral fertilizers on yielding capacity and quality of soft spring wheat grain

M.V. Radchenko¹*, V.I. Trotsenko¹, Z.I. Hlupak¹, E.A. Zakharchenko², O.M. Osmachko³, V.V. Moisiienko⁴, V.Z. Panchуshуn⁴ and S.V. Stotska⁴

¹1Sumy National Agrarian University, Faculty of Agrotechnology and Nature Management, Plant Growing Department, 160 G. Kondratieva street, UA40021 Sumy, Ukraine
²Sumy National Agrarian University, Faculty of Agrotechnology and Nature Management, Department of Arable farming, soil science and agrochemistry, 160 G. Kondratieva street, UA40021 Sumy, Ukraine
³Sumy National Agrarian University, Faculty of Agrotechnology and Nature Management, Department of Plant Protection named after Associate Professor Mishnev A.K., 160 G. Kondratieva street, UA40021 Sumy, Ukraine
⁴Polissia National University, Agronomy Faculty, Plant Growing Department, 7 Staryi Buljvar street, UA10008 Zhytomyr, Ukraine
*Correspondence: radchenkonikolay@ukr.net

Abstract:

The aim of the study is optimization of nutrition system for soft spring wheat plants through the use of mineral fertilizers in order to obtain high quality grain with simultaneous yield increase. Different doses of mineral fertilizers were tested in the study. The object of study was a variety of soft spring wheat ‘Uliublena’. The structure of the crop was determined by the method of selecting sheaf samples from each accounting area. The leaf surface area was determined by calculation method. According to the results of research, yield capacity of soft spring wheat on average ranged from 2.43 to 4.51 t ha-1. The highest index of gluten amount was obtained in the variant with fertilizers dose N64P64K64 – 28.19%, which is higher than in the variants with fertilizer doses N16P16K16 and N32P32K32 by 6.11 and 0.15%. The highest increase in the yield of soft spring wheat grain (2.08 t ha-1) was obtained with application of N64P64K64, slightly lower yield increase was obtained with application of N32P32K32 – 1.64 t ha-1, and N16P16K16 – 0.99 t ha-1 comparing with the control. With fertilizer dose of N64P64K64 soft spring wheat provided the maximum yield – 4.51 t ha-1, gluten content – 28.19% and protein content – 14.21%.

 

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xxx P.R.L. Pascual, D.E. Carabio, N.F.H. Abello, E.A. Remedios and V.U. Pascual
Enhanced assimilation rate due to seaweed biostimulant improves growth and yield of rice bean (Vigna umbellata)
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Enhanced assimilation rate due to seaweed biostimulant improves growth and yield of rice bean (Vigna umbellata)

P.R.L. Pascual¹²*, D.E. Carabio¹, N.F.H. Abello², E.A. Remedios¹ and V.U. Pascual³

¹Cebu Technological University, Crop Science Department, College of Agriculture, - Barili Campus, Cagay, Barili 6036, Cebu, Philippines
²Cebu Technological University, Crop Biotechnology Unit, Center for Studies in Biotechnology, - Barili Campus, Cagay, Barili 6036, Cebu, Philippines
³Cebu Technological University, Department of Agricultural Economics and Development Studies, - Barili Campus, Cagay, Barili 6036, Cebu, Philippines
*Correspondence: petroey.pascual@ctu.edu.ph

Abstract:

Rice beans are traditionally planted as intercrop to corn or as the main crop during dry season when corn production is difficult. The use of biostimulants is widely studied to ameliorate the adverse effects of biotic and abiotic stresses. Three possible fermented biostimulants: seaweed, bamboo shoot, and Japanese snail were compared to a commercial organic liquid fertilizer (10 mL L-1) based on morphological, photosynthetic, and yield responses. Fermented seaweed-treated rice bean registered the greatest average vapor pressure deficit (VPD) at 4.33 KPa on the first month and is comparable to the highest average VPD of 4.39 KPa registered by plants applied with fermented Japanese snail on the second month. This interestingly, did not result in difference of transpiration rate (μmol H2O m-2 s-1). Such could be attributed to the plants reduced stomatal aperture when applied with fermented seaweed at 406.80 μmol CO2 mol stomatal conductance and 38.59 Pa total conductance on the second month. Despite this, the average carbon dioxide assimilation rate of rice beans still increased in both the first (15.26 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) and second (16.51 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) month. This increased assimilation rate of fermented seaweed-treated rice beans resulted to about 12 cm increase in height at 128.53 cm (R2 = 0.894), 0.02 g pod-1 (R2 = 0.978) heavier and 0.90 seeds pod-1 (R2 = 0.978) more when compared to those applied with the commercial liquid organic fertilizer. Thus, by limiting stomatal conductance, despite the differences in VPD, transpiration rate was not affected while significantly increasing assimilation rate to improve production of rice beans, thereby taking full advantage of available seaweed by-products.

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xxx B. Kulishov, D. Minkin, A. Fedorov and A. Novoselov
Development of the mathematical model of the electric resistance baking process
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Development of the mathematical model of the electric resistance baking process

B. Kulishov¹*, D. Minkin², A. Fedorov¹ and A. Novoselov¹

¹ITMO University, Saint Petersburg, Faculty of Food Biotechnologies and Engineering, School of Biotechnology and Cryogenic Systems, Kronverkskiy ave.49, RU197101 St. Petersburg, Russia
²Saint Petersburg University of State Fire Service of Emercom of Russia, Department of Physical and Technical Fundamentals of Fire Safety, Moskovskiy ave.149, RU 196105 St. Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: kulishov.b@list.ru

Abstract:

The work is dedicated to the development of the mathematical model of the electric resistance baking process for the purpose of predicting temperature changes during baking of dough pieces of arbitrary sizes. The equation for the non-stationary thermal regime of a body with an internal heat source was used with a number of assumptions. The dynamics of the dough temperature changes was determined by numerical solution of the equation in Comsol Multiphysics.
Due to the complexity of the dough baking process and the impossibility of solving the equation by analytical method only, a number of values included in the energy balance of ER baking were determined experimentally. A dough piece with dimensions of 100×50×80 mm was baked during the experiment. After the adjustment, the adequacy of the model was checked by comparing the data on the dough temperature changes during baking dough pieces of the same recipe, but of different sizes (150×49×80, 80×62×80, and 65×75×80). Statistical analysis using Fisher’s criterion confirmed the adequacy of the model.

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xxx L. Buša, M. Bērtiņš, A. Vīksna, L. Legzdiņa and D. Kobzarevs
Evaluation of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope ratio measurement data for characterization of organically and conventionally cultivated spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain
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Evaluation of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope ratio measurement data for characterization of organically and conventionally cultivated spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain

L. Buša¹*, M. Bērtiņš¹, A. Vīksna¹, L. Legzdiņa² and D. Kobzarevs¹

¹University of Latvia, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Jelgavas street 1, LV-1004 Riga, Latvia
²Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, Priekuli Research Centre, 2 Zinatnes street, LV-4126 Priekuli, Latvia
*Correspondence: lauma.busa@lu.lv

Abstract:

With the growing interest of public in the quality of their consumed food, organic produce has been steadily gaining an important place in everyday menus of our society. The growing demand has boosted organic farming and we have also seen the price difference between organic products and their conventional counterparts. It is important to the public to have security, that the food labelled ‘organic’ has really been grown according to the good practices of organic farming and that it has not received any chemical pesticides, herbicides, and synthetic fertilizers. Stable isotope ratios of crops from different crop management systems can help to answer these questions, as these values depend on the growing conditions, fertilizers used etc. In this study, 10 barley grain samples from conventional and organic crop management systems have been studied. Carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios have been determined and the element content in the samples has been calculated. Student’s t-test has been performed to evaluate whether the differences between various parameters are significant. For potential clustering and discrimination of organic and conventional grains principal component analysis has been carried out. The PCA showed that no significant clustering can be observed, however the Student’s t-test for δ15N values confirmed that barley grown with green-manure fertilizers are significantly (p < 0.01) enriched with the heavier nitrogen isotope. Furthermore, it has been concluded that the total element content of carbon and nitrogen in barley grains does not correlate with the stable isotope ratios and cannot help with discriminating of these samples.

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xxx Y. Olifir, A. Нabryel, T. Partyka, O. Havryshko and H. Konyk
Diagnosis of the functional state of transformed acid soils agroecosystems depending on long-term anthropogenic loads
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Diagnosis of the functional state of transformed acid soils agroecosystems depending on long-term anthropogenic loads

Y. Olifir*, A. Нabryel, T. Partyka, O. Havryshko and H. Konyk

Institute of Agriculture of Carpathian region NAAS, 5, Hrushevskoho Str., UA81115 Obroshyne, Pustomyty district, Lviv region, Ukraine

Abstract:

The main priority of agro industrial production has always been and remains to provide
the global population and its yearly increments with food food. The issue of soil fertility improvement is still the most important task of agricultural science. The assessment of the agroecological condition of Albic Stagnic Luvisol using carbon dioxide emission, redox potential, and biotic activity was carried out, based on modern methodological approaches, such as soil quality evaluation via ecologically-related biological parameters. Carbone dioxide emission, redox, and biological processes in long-term stationary experiment depend on the degree of soil acidity reduction. Soil acidification can be minimized through chemical melioration with the combined application of different doses of mineral fertilizers and manure. It was found that carbon dioxide emission is optimal in an organo-mineral fertilizing system with application of 10 t of manure per 1 ha and N65Р68K68 with lime dose (2.5 t ha-1) calculated according to pH buffering capacity. It is due to oxidative and moderately oxidative conditions created. This organo-mineral fertilizing system also increases the number of aerobic bacteria and overall biological activity. The mineral fertilization and the use of Albic Stagnic Luvisol without fertilizers are accompanied by increased mineralization, growth of reductive processes, and the number of moulds. Studies have shown that it is advisable to include CO2 emission, redox potential and biological activity along with physicochemical and agrochemical soil properties to assess the influence of different anthropogenic loads on soil formation.

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xxx A. Osvalde, A. Karlsons and G. Cekstere
Leaf nutrient status of tomatoes in coconut coir medium – differences in cultivars, impact on yield and quality
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Leaf nutrient status of tomatoes in coconut coir medium – differences in cultivars, impact on yield and quality

A. Osvalde*, A. Karlsons and G. Cekstere

University of Latvia, Institute of Biology, Laboratory of Plant Mineral Nutrition, O. Vaciesa street 4, LV-1004 Riga, Latvia

Abstract:

Coconut coir as an alternative to rockwool is increasingly used as a substrate for soilless hydroponic greenhouse production of tomatoes. However, little is known about the nutrient status of tomatoes in coconut coir, especially under intensive production conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the nutrient status of different tomato cultivars (orange plum ‘Organza F1’, red cherry ‘Daltary RZ F1’, red large fruit-sized ‘Securitas RZ F1’ and pink large fruit-sized ‘Fujimaru F1’) under industrial greenhouse production, using coconut coir as a substrate to reveal nutrient imbalances, their impact on tomato yield and quality, and cultivar differences. Essential nutrient and leaf SPAD value was detected for the youngest fully developed leaves and the old still vital leaves twice per month from April to August 2020. The total yield, marketable and non-marketable yield was regularly determined. During the crop cycle, the content of most of the nutrients in tomato leaves corresponded to the standard range reported for tomatoes. Only some imbalances were found: all cultivars were characterized by low Zn and high S levels in both young and old leaves. The obtained results identified several differences between the cultivars: cherry tomatoes ‘Daltary’ had significantly higher N, K, Fe and Zn in leaves compared to other cultivars. The lowest N, Fe and Cu were determined for large fruit-sized ‘Securitas’. Regardless of the nutrient status and microclimate conditions, the marketable yield of ‘Daltary’, ‘Organza’ and ‘Securitas’ was almost 100%, indicating on high suitability of these cultivars for hydroponic cultivation in coconut coir.

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xxx J. Olt, V. Bulgakov, V. Bonchik, Z. Ruzhylo, V. Volskiy, V. Melnik, Ye. Ihnatiev and H. Kaletnik
Theoretical research into operation of rotary potato harvester
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Theoretical research into operation of rotary potato harvester

J. Olt¹*, V. Bulgakov², V. Bonchik³, Z. Ruzhylo², V. Volskiy⁴, V. Melnik⁵, Ye. Ihnatiev⁶ and H. Kaletnik⁷

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE 51006 Tartu, Estonia
²National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
³State Agrarian and Engineering University in Podilia, 13 Shevchenko Str., UA 32300 Kamenets-Podilsky, Ukraine
⁴National Scientific Centre, “Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification”, 11 Vokzalna Str., Glevakcha 1, Vasylkiv District, UA 08631 Kyiv Region, Ukraine
⁵Kharkiv Petro Vasylenko National Technical University of Agriculture, 44 Alchevskih Str., UA 61002 Kharkiv, Ukraine
⁶Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B Khmelnytsky Ave, UA 72310, Melitopol, Zaporozhye Region, Ukraine
⁷Vinnytsia National Agrarian University of Ukraine, 3 Soniacha Str., UA21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

The topic of the paper is the determination and justification of the rational design and kinematic parameters of clod breaking tools in rotary potato harvesters with the aim of improving their separating efficiency. A new mathematical model has been developed for the motion of a soil particle on the working surfaces of the cone-shaped and cylindrical vanes in the rotary tool of the new design developed by the authors. Differential equations have been generated for the motion of a soil clod as a material particle from the moment of its arrival to the surface of the vane until the moment of its departure from the said surface. As a result of the completed investigations, relations have been established between the time of contact and absolute
displacement of the soil particle and the velocity of its departure from the rotor vane surface, on the one hand, and the kinematic and design parameters of the rotor, on the other hand. For example, when the machine translation velocity increases, the absolute displacement of the soil
particle within the interval from the time zero to the moment of its departure from the vane surface increases from 0.59 m to 0.65 m, the velocity of soil particle departure from the vane surface – from 1.61 m s–1 to 1.81 m s–1. The highest values of the absolute displacement of the soil particle and the velocity of its departure from the vane surface are achieved at a machine translation velocity of 2.0 m s–1. The time of the contact between the material particle and the vane surface decreases with the rise of the translation velocity. When the rotor rotation frequency varies within the range from 20 min–1 to 100 min–1, the absolute velocity, with which the soil particle leaves the vane surface, rises to 4 m s–1. The duration of the contact between the material particle and the vane reaches its maximum value of 0.33 s, when the rotor rotation frequency varies within the range of 30–40 min–1.

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xxx I. Plūduma-Pauniņa, Z. Gaile and G. Bimšteine
Sowing time effect on yield and quality of field beans in a changing meteorological situation in the Baltic region
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Sowing time effect on yield and quality of field beans in a changing meteorological situation in the Baltic region

I. Plūduma-Pauniņa¹²*, Z. Gaile¹ and G. Bimšteine¹

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies (LLU), Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Soil and Plant Science, Liela street 2, Jelgava LV–3001, Latvia
²LLU, Faculty of Agriculture, Research and Study Farm “Pēterlauki”, Platone parish, LV–3021, Latvia

Abstract:

As field beans (Vicia faba L.) need a lot of moisture to germinate, growers believe that they should be sown as early as possible in the spring. Field trial was carried out at the LLU RSF “Pēterlauki”, from 2018 to 2020. Following factors were researched: A) sowing time (early, medium and late), B) variety (‘Laura’, ‘Boxer’, ‘Isabell’), C) sowing rate (30, 40, 50 germinable seeds m-2), D) fungicide application (without and with application of fungicide at the GS 61-65). Meteorological conditions during the study had the greatest impact on the results as they were contrasting. Adverse meteorological conditions for field bean growing were observed in 2018 and in spring and early summer of 2019. The best year for bean yield formation was 2020, when temperature and precipitation was moderate. The highest average three year been yield was obtained sowing beans at the medium sowing time, however, equivalent yield was obtained sowing beans also in early sowing time. Fungicide application increased average three year yield significantly (p = 0.007) and independently of the sowing time. Influence of variety and sowing rate on average three year yield was insignificant, and it was not proved that any variety or sowing rate could be more suitable in a specific sowing time. Average three-year values of crude protein content, thousand seed weight and volume weight were affected by sowing time significantly (p < 0.001). Trial year, variety and fungicide application also affected all quality parameters significantly (p < 0.05), but the effect of sowing rate was insignificant (p > 0.05).

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xxx O.V. Shelepova, L.S. Olekhnovich, L.N. Konovalova, T.I. Khusnetdinova3, A.A. Gulevich and E.N. Baranova
Assessment of essential oil yield in three mint species in the climatic conditions of Central Russia
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Assessment of essential oil yield in three mint species in the climatic conditions of Central Russia

O.V. Shelepova¹*, L.S. Olekhnovich¹, L.N. Konovalova¹², T.I. Khusnetdinova3, A.A. Gulevich² and E.N. Baranova¹²*

¹N.V. Tsitsin Main Botanical Garden of Russian Academy of Sciences, RU127276 Moscow, Russia
²All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology, RU127550 Moscow, Russia ³Faculty of Soil Science, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1/12, RU119234 Moscow, Russia
*Correspondence: shov_gbsad@mail.ru; greenpro2007@rambler.ru

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to study the harvest time for the essential oil yield and its qualitative composition in three species of mint Mentha piperita L. (Peppermint), M. spicata L. (Spearmint) and M. arvensis var. piperascens Malinv. ex. Holmes (Sakhalinmint). In 2018, the research was performed with plants of second year of vegetation in the Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Immunity of the NV Tsitsin Main Botanical Garden of the RAS. As a result, it was found that the optimal harvest period for Sakhalinmint and Peppermint should be recommended in a phase of mass flowering: the yield of fresh raw materials was 509–479 g m-2, air-dry raw materials – 110–107 g m-2; the content of essential oil in the aboveground part (a mixture of leaves and inflorescences) of plants – 3.24–4.01%; the proportion of the main component of essential oil (menthol) – 57.3–50.2%. In Spearmint, the optimum time for harvesting is the phase of budding. The content of the main component of essential oil (carvon) was maximum – 67.9%, and the yield of essential oil was 2.6%, while the yield was 381 g m-2 of fresh raw materials (81.9 g m-2 of air-dry raw materials) at harvesting in this ontogenesis stage. Analysis of the secretory apparatus parameters on a surface of some green tissues in three mint species showed that the maximum density of secretory glands on both sides of the leaf is characteristic of peppermint, which provides a higher yield of essential oil in this type of mint. The study allowed determining the optimal harvesting time for highly productive mint species when they are grown in the conditions of Central Russia. The raw materials of these mint species can be used for the production of essential oils and are of interest for pharmacology and the perfume and cosmetics industry.

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xxx V.Yu. Chernova and B.A. Kheyfets
China food security assessment
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China food security assessment

V.Yu. Chernova¹²* and B.A. Kheyfets³⁴

¹People’s Friendships University of Russia, Moscow, Russia, Faculty of Economics, Department of International Economic Relations, 6 Miklukho-Maklaya Str., RU117198 Moscow, Russia
²2State University of Management, Institute of Marketing, 99 Ryazanskiy Prospect, RU109542 Moscow, Russia
³Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 32 Nakhimovskiy Prospect, RU117218 Moscow, Russia
⁴Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, 49 Leningradsky Prospekt, RU125993 Moscow, Russia
*Correspondence: veronika.urievna@mail.ru

Abstract:

Ensuring food security is a strategic goal of any state, especially in the face of population growth. A review of the academic literature showed the presence of problems in ensuring a high level of food security in China: the rigidity of demand for food, limited land resources, structural contradictions between supply and demand. This study proposes an approach to assessing the level of food security, based on the calculation of an integral index consisting of four units of indicators: the sub-index of provision of crop products, the sub-index of productivity, the sub-index of provision of livestock products, and the sub-index of food import dependence. The results show that, in general, the level of food security in China has increased over the period under review, but there are problems in self-sufficiency in crop and dairy products, as well as in an increase in food import dependence. A forecast of the dynamics of the integral index of the food security level and its sub-indices was constructed, which showed that a decrease in the integral index might occur due to a decrease in self-sufficiency in livestock products and import dependence, while the availability of crop products and yields will increase. The study showed that the measures taken by the Chinese government led to some positive changes, but it is necessary to take a comprehensive approach to this problem, to solve which it is necessary to use the potential of all sectors of the food industry.

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xxx O.M. Savchenko, S.A. Totskaya and M.Yu. Gryaznov
Micromorphological features of the leaf epidermis of the evening primrose cultivars of the VILAR biocollection
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Micromorphological features of the leaf epidermis of the evening primrose cultivars of the VILAR biocollection

O.M. Savchenko*, S.A. Totskaya and M.Yu. Gryaznov

All-Russian scientific research institute of medicinal and aromatic plants, agrobiology laboratory, 7 Grina Str., RU 117216 Moscow, Russia
*Correspondence: nordfenugreek@gmail.com

Abstract:

Novelty of the work. For the first time, a comparative study of the epidermis of the leaf plates of four cultivars of Oenothera biennis L. was carried out. The aim of the work. Study and comparison of morpho-anatomical signs of the epidermis of the leaf plate of the cultivars of evening primrose to reveal their potential ecological plasticity. Materials and methods. There were used leaves of plants of the second year of life in the phase of mass flowering. Micromorphological study of the epidermis of leaf plates included: determination of the shape of the main cells of the epidermis, the size and number of stomata per 1 mm2, the type of stomatal apparatus, the presence and parameters of trichomes. The number of trichomes was calculated per 1 mm2. Results. In the Genoteros cultivar, the stomata were smaller; their number on the lower epidermis was the lowest. Two types of trichomes were classified. At cultivar Genoteros unicellular covering trichomes were mainly located in the upper epidermis of the leaf. No covering trichomes were found in the Svetlyachok cultivar. The Tverskoj cultivar differs in the length of the hairs: from 774 to 790 microns. Papillary single-celled trichomes on the leaves of the studied cultivar of evening primrose are concentrated on both sides of the epidermis, mostly in the middle part of the leaf, less often – in the mesophyll space. Conclusion. Based on the obtained data, the authors established the potential ecological plasticity of the studied varieties of evening primrose for the subsequent study of the influence of stress factors on the described cultivars. The results obtained may be important taxonomic for the correct identification of problematic Onagraceae taxa and in further breeding work.

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xxx N. Nik Bakhsh and I. Riivits-Arkonsuo
Joint Business-to-Business recovery management: the moderating role of locus of failure
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Joint Business-to-Business recovery management: the moderating role of locus of failure

N. Nik Bakhsh¹* and I. Riivits-Arkonsuo²

¹Tallinn University of Technology, School of Business and Governance, Department of Business Administration, Akadeemia Tee 3, EE19086 Tallinn, Estonia
²Tallinn University of Technology, School of Business and Governance, Department of Business Administration, Akadeemia Tee 3, EE19086 Tallinn, Estonia
*Correspondence: Naghmeh.nikbakhsh@yahoo.com

Abstract:

Agricultural machinery manufacturers and services providers increasingly experience failure in core products and service deliveries. Despite the importance of recovery management in context, scant research exists on studying recovery management, collaborative recovery activities, and the impact of joint recovery management on post-recovery relationship quality. More pressing is the lack of research on the impact of relationship quality on the customer’s intention of future co-recovery activities. Using an experimental design with data from 30 agronomy machinery and equipment manufacturers and service providers in Iran, we investigate how customers’ perception of relationship quality is influenced by the interplay of locus of failure and supplier recovery tactics (non-co-creation of recovery vs co-creation of recovery). The results reveal the locus of failure, interacts with the supplier recovery tactics to impact the customers’ perceptions of relationship quality. Finally, all three dimensions of relationship quality (satisfaction, trust, and commitment) positively impact the customers’ intention for future co-recovery activities.

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xxx I. Karandušovská, P. Hlinka, D. Páleš and T. Szabóová
Concentrations of CO2 from composting under different treatments
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Concentrations of CO2 from composting under different treatments

I. Karandušovská¹, P. Hlinka², D. Páleš³ and T. Szabóová¹

¹Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Building Equipment and Technology Safety, Tr.A. Hlinku 2, SK94976 Nitra, Slovakia
²Local Union of Ponitrie villages for separation and management of waste, Korytovská 20, SK95141 Lužianky, Slovakia
³Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machine Design, Tr.A. Hlinku 2, SK 94976 Nitra, Slovakia
*Correspondence: ingrid.karandusovska@uniag.sk

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to analyse the production of CO2 concentrations in relation to the composting technology used. Three loose piles of bio-waste (V1, V2, V3) were created with the same volume. V1 reference pile was without any treatment. The biological preparation containing probiotic bacteria was added to the pile V2. The pile V3 was treated once a week by turning and watering. The degassing shafts were installed in each pile and the Multigas Monitor 1312 gas analyser with the Multipoint Sampler 1309 were used to measure of gas concentrations during the degradation process. Continuous 24-hour measurements of carbon dioxide concentrations from each pile were performed in the first, fourth, and seventh week of the degradation process to compare the amount of concentrations between piles in those weeks. At the beginning of the process, there were no significant differences in the production of CO2 concentrations from the monitored piles V1, V2 and V3. In the fourth week, significantly higher values of CO2 concentrations were recorded from the pile V3 (P < 0.05), which was turned and irrigated, than from V1 and V2. At week 7, significant differences were found between all treatments at the significance level (P < 0.05), with the highest values from the V3 pile. It has been shown that turning and humidifying results in the highest release of CO2 into the air, but in a more rapid decomposition of the microorganisms, that reducing the time required to achieve a stable compost product and increasing the efficiency of the composting plant.

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xxx O. Zavadska, І. Bobos, I. Fedosiy, H. Podpriatov, O. Komar, B. Mazur and J. Olt
Suitability of various onion (allium cepa) varieties for drying and long-term storage
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Suitability of various onion (allium cepa) varieties for drying and long-term storage

O. Zavadska¹, І. Bobos¹, I. Fedosiy¹, H. Podpriatov¹, O. Komar¹, B. Mazur¹ and J. Olt²*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE 51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

In the paper, the results are presented obtained in the research into the fresh bulbs and the dried products of 9 onion varieties cultivated in the conditions of the Ukrainian Forest Steppe area with regard to their economical biology, biochemical, marketability and organoleptic indices. The varieties that are most suitable for convection drying and long-term storage have been identified. It has been established that the marketability of both the fresh bulbs and dried products depends on the masses of the bulbs. The Bronze d’Amposta and Harmony varieties deliver the greatest amount of marketable output (94.0 and 93.2%) featuring marketable bulbs with masses of 67.4 g and 70.4 g, respectively (r = 0.82). As the bulb mass increases, the amount of non-standard (r = 0.81) and small (r = 0.76) particles in the dried product decreases substantially. It has been found that the content of solid matter and sugars in fresh bulbs has effect on the yield and quality of the dried and reconstituted products. The Harmony and Skvirskaya varieties, the bulbs of which during the vegetation season build up 12.9% and 13.8% of solid matter, respectively, are distinguished by the highest dry product yield – 17.1 and 16.8%, respectively. Correlation has been established between the contents of solid matter and sugars in fresh bulbs (r = + 0.58). During the tasting of reconstituted onion products, the highest scores were awarded to the samples produced from the Skvirskaya and Harmony varieties – 7.0 points each on the 9-point scale, as their bulbs had accumulated over 7.0% of sugars (total). Judging by the aggregate of the researched indices, the Harmony and Skvirskaya varieties of onions are the most suitable for convection drying. It has been established that the preservation of onions in the conditions of stationary buried storage without artificial cooling depends on the duration of storage and the specific varietal features. Within the five months of the test storage, the preservation of bulbs of all the varieties was high and varied within the range of 80–93%. Longer storage is expedient only in case of the Harmony, Skvirskaya and Gospodinya, for which the bulb preservation rates for a seven month storage period has been shown to be equal to 90.2, 88.4 and 87.2%, respectively. It has been proved that the quantity of healthy bulbs depends to a significant extent on the solid matter content in the bulbs (r = 0.93).

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xxx T.V. Nezhentseva, A.F. Koltsov and E.N. Grishchenko
Dendrological collections of the Stavropol Botanical Garden: introduction and development prospects
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Dendrological collections of the Stavropol Botanical Garden: introduction and development prospects

T.V. Nezhentseva*, A.F. Koltsov and E.N. Grishchenko

Federal State Budget Scientific Institution North-Caucasian Federal Agricultural Research Center, Lenin street 478, RU355029 Stavropol, Russia
*Correspondence: sbsconifers@mail.ru

Abstract:

Botanical gardens perform active introductory work, carry out educational and academic activities, preserve the gene pool of the red book species, and serve as a source of enrichment plant resources. The leading role in solving these problems is played by dendrological collections, on the basis of which botanical research is carried out. The main part of the woody collections is located in the Stavropol Botanical Garden (SBG) arboretum. Work on the construction of the SBG arboretum began in 1959. Initially, it was planned to collect various species, natural and cultural forms of woody and shrubby plants from the temperate, and partly northern and subtropical zones. In addition, four models of forest vegetation formations of the Stavropol Krai and Karachay-Cherkessia were created on the territory of the SBG. The article presents the main stages of the introduction work on the creation of dendrological collections, the methods used. Most of the collections were formed in a short time due to the preliminary selection and mobilization of planting material. The long period of introduction made it possible to judge the advantages and disadvantages of the chosen method of genus complexes. The modern composition of the collections is analyzed, the role of the introduction process in the conservation of biodiversity is noted. The species that are promising for use in the landscaping of the region are listed. In the future, work with dendrological collections implies the attraction of new species, the introduction of information technologies, continuation of study and monitoring of plants listed in the Red Books of the Stavropol Krai, Russia and the Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

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xxx O.E. Zakaria, M.M. El-Rouby, A.I. Nawar, H.E.M. Ibrahim and A.A. Abd El-Salam
Relative efficiency of replicated and non-replicated statistical designs in quantifying the variations in maize grain yield
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Relative efficiency of replicated and non-replicated statistical designs in quantifying the variations in maize grain yield

O.E. Zakaria¹, M.M. El-Rouby¹, A.I. Nawar¹*, H.E.M. Ibrahim¹ and A.A. Abd El-Salam²

¹Crop Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Aflaton street, El-Shatby, EG21545 Alexandria, Egypt
2Soil and Water Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Aflaton street, El-Shatby, EG21545 Alexandria, Egypt
*Correspondence: dralinawar@alexu.edu.eg

Abstract:

Two-year field experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Egypt, during the two successive summer seasons of 2018 and 2019. The main aim was to evaluate the relative efficiency of two groups of experimental designs in quantifying the variations in maize grain yield as influenced by sowing date (SD), plant density (PD) and phosphorous (P) fertilization, and their interactions. The single hybrid Giza 168 maize (Zea mays, L.) cultivar was used during both seasons. The experimental designs under evaluation included replicated (RCBD, SPD, SSPD and 3-DLD), in three replications, and non-replicated (one-rep without and with center points, RCCD and PRCCD) designs. The 3-DLD design was more efficient, within the replicated group, than the RCBD (reference design) with relative efficiency of 3.68. The SPD and SSPD had higher relative efficiencies at the sub-plot and sub sub-plot levels compared to RCBD. Within the non-replicated designs, the one-rep with center points, RCCD and PRCCD were more efficient than one-rep without center points (reference design) in discriminating the more important factors affecting grain yield in maize cultivar Giza 168.

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xxx O. Kibalnik, S. Kukoleva, D. Semin, I. Efremova and V. Starchak
Evaluation of the combining ability of CMS lines in crosses with samples of grain sorghum and Sudan grass
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Evaluation of the combining ability of CMS lines in crosses with samples of grain sorghum and Sudan grass

O. Kibalnik*, S. Kukoleva, D. Semin, I. Efremova and V. Starchak

FSBSI Russian Research and Design-Technological Institute of Sorghum and Corn, 1-y Institutskiy Passage, 4, RU410050 Saratov, Russia
*Correspondence: kibalnik79@yandex.ru

Abstract:

The versatility of use, species diversity, and high drought resistance have ensured the demand for sorghum among agricultural crops in the world. Currently, the most promising direction of breeding is the creation of F1 sorghum hybrids, which is based on the identification and selection of parental forms with high combining ability. In this paper, the combining ability analysis crosses of two hybridization schemes: grain×grain sorghum and grain sorghum×Sudan grass was carried out using topcross method. Gene action governing inheritance of a particular trait can be measured in terms of general and specific combining ability estimates, where general combining ability effects are mostly indicative of additive gene action (ms (GCA)/ms (SCA)>1)and specific combining ability effects – non-additive (ms (GCA)/ms (SCA)<1). Genes with an additive effect participate in the genetic control of breeding-valuable traits, which is proven byms (GCA)/ms (SCA) ratios changing within1.10-28.01 range. It is advisable to involve CMS-lines A3 Feterita 14, A2 KVV 114 and A2 O-1237 to create high-yielding hybrids of grain sorghum; highly productive sorghum-sudangrasshybridss – lines L-106, L-143 and Anastasiya, Kinelskaya 100, Elegiya variety samples; with a high share of grain in the total biomass – Allegoriya, Krasnodarskaya 75 and Zonalskaya 6 variety samples. CMS lines are distinguished by high and average CA values both in crosses with samples of grain sorghum and Sudan grass: by weight of 1,000 grains – A2 O-1237; by seed yield and weight of 1,000 grains – A2 KVV 114.

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xxx T. Seregina , O. Chernikova, Yu. Mazhaysky and L. Ampleeva
The productivity of spring barley when using cobalt nanoparticles and liquid-phase biological product
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The productivity of spring barley when using cobalt nanoparticles and liquid-phase biological product

T. Seregina¹ , O. Chernikova¹*, Yu. Mazhaysky¹ and L. Ampleeva²

¹Academy of law and management of the Federal penal service of Russia, Sennaya street 1, RU390036 Ryazan, Russia
²Ryazan State Agrotechnological University named after P.A. Kostychev, Kostychev street 1, RU390044 Ryazan, Russia
*Correspondence: chernikova_olga@inbox.ru

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to study the effect of growth activators on the yield and quality of spring barley products. For the most complete disclosure of the potential yield of spring barley against the background of the application of minimal doses of organic fertilizers, cobalt nanoparticles were used, as well as a liquid-phase biological product (LPBP) in various combinations (NPСо, Compost, Compost + NPСо, Compost+ LPBP 1%, Compost+ LPBP 2%, Compost+ LPBP 1%+ NPСо, Compost+ LPBP 2%+ NPСо). The size of cobalt nanoparticles was 40–60 nm, the phase composition – Cо – 100%. A suspension of nanoparticles was obtained by dispersing with ultrasound in an aqueous solution in accordance with the requirements of the technical conditions. LPBP is a dark brown liquid with a specific odor, pH = 6.5–7.5, contains N, C, P, K, Ca, Mg, tryptophan, microorganisms. Cobalt nanopowder in solution contained 0.01 g per hectare seeding rate (20 mg l-1), LPBP concentration was 1% and 2%. Compost was used as an organic fertilizer; it consisted of 90% of cattle manure and 10% of poultry manure at a dose of 20 t ha-1. The seeds were soaked 30 minutes before sowing in double distilled water, in a suspension of nanoparticles and LPBP in accordance with the experimental options. The analysis of the results of the research has shown that the studied preparations have a stimulating effect, contribute to an increase in resistance to suboptimal weather conditions, an increase in productivity and product quality. It was noted that the best indicators were obtained with joint pre-sowing treatment of seed material by cobalt nanoparticles with 1% solution of a liquid-phase biological product. Thus, there was an activation of growth processes, the yield increased by 35%, the content of crude protein – by 20.9%, digestible protein – by 10.9%, and crude fat – by 78.8%.

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xxx L.A. Grechushkina-Sukhorukova and E.V. Peshchanskaya
Evaluation of artificial agricultural landscapes biodiversity in Stavropol Botanical Garden
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Evaluation of artificial agricultural landscapes biodiversity in Stavropol Botanical Garden

L.A. Grechushkina-Sukhorukova and E.V. Peshchanskaya*

Federal State Budget Scientific Institution "North Caucasus Federal Scientific Agricultural Center" 478 Lenin Str., RU355029 Stavropol, Russia
*Correspondence: ekaterina108@mail.ru

Abstract:

The meadow steppes recreated in the Stavropol Botanical Garden, Russia, by planting sod blocks after more than 40-year period of cultivation have preserved species composition similar to zonal steppes. The aim of our research is to evaluate the restored artificial cultivated land biodiversity. A parallel measurement of species saturation per 100 m², yield, botanical analysis by crops was conducted on model experimental sites and in nature. Systematic and biomorphological flora study, analysis of variance were carried out. Useful plant species were identified. The restored steppes represent a multispecies community including 236 species, 149 genera, and 36 families. It consists of 5 biomorphs which comprise 2.9% of phanerophytes, 3.0% of chamephytes, 74.6% of hemicryptophytes, 14.4% therophytes that have a high degree of similarity in quantity to the steppes of Central Fore-Caucasus. The cenoses are dominated by plants having life cycles of perennial ones which accounts for 81.0%, annuals, and biennials make up 19.0%, cereals and sedges amount to 32 species (13.5%), legumes represent 28 speies (11.9%), mixed herbs are 176 (74.6%). The projective cover of grass stand is 80.0–100.0%, that corresponds 73–109 species per 100 m². An average yield of the restored steppes grass stand is 2.8–3.8 t ha-1. It exceeds the productivity of natural cenoses by 2.1–3.3 t ha-1. The botanical analysis by crops demonstrated that in the grass stands samples of cereals (19.6–43.9%) and mixed herbs (18.3–31.2%) dominated. 18 rare plants are preserved in the cenoses. 171 species have useful properties. The site of the restored meadow steppe is an exposition and serves for sightseeing and educational purposes. Lately, sod blocks planting was widely used in experimental phytocenology and landscape design. Its implementation for natural vegetation restoration on the large areas is time-consuming and expensive compared to the method of cultivated lands, therefore it can be used in small sites as a component of combined options.

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xxx Ē. Teirumnieka, Da. Blumberga, E. Teirumnieks and V. Stramkale
Product-oriented production of industrial hemp according to climatic conditions
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Product-oriented production of industrial hemp according to climatic conditions

Ē. Teirumnieka¹*, Da. Blumberga¹, E. Teirumnieks² and V. Stramkale³

¹Riga Technical University, Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Azenes Iela 12/1, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia
²Rezekne Academy of Technologies, Engineering Institute, Atbrivosanas aleja 115, LV-4601 Rezekne, Latvia
³Latvia University of Life Science and Technologies, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, Department of Crop Breeding and Agroecology, Latgale Agricultural Research Centre, Kulturas laukums 1a, Vilani, LV-4650 Vilanu novads, Latvia
*Correspondence: erika.teirumnieka@gmail.com

Abstract:

Cultivation area of industrial hemp in Europe has increased since 2012. It is expected that in future its production will increase, because European Union (EU) policy focuses more on the ‘green deal’ goals. Research into the effects of climate conditions (temperature and rainfall) on growth is important to select the best industrial hemp varieties for hemp products. The objective of the research is identifying industrial hemp varieties suitable for seed, fiber and shives production in varying pedo-climatic conditions in order to obtain products with the highest added value.
Four industrial hemp varieties were used for the research: ‘Purini’ (Latvia), ‘Bialobrzeskie’ (Poland), ‘USO -31’ (France-Ukraine), ‘Finola’ (Finland). Field trials were carried out in Eastern Latvia in 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2019. Climatic indicators were recorded during the vegetation period from April to September. Yields of seeds, fibre, shives and total biomass were determined during the research. Factor analysis method was used to determine the impact of temperature and rainfall on the yield of seeds, fibres and shives. The study of climatic factors shows that the effect of temperature and rainfall on seed, shives and fiber yields strongly depends on the variety

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xxx R. Goher and M. Akmal
Wheat cultivars exposed to high temperature at onset of anthesis for yield and yield traits analysis
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Wheat cultivars exposed to high temperature at onset of anthesis for yield and yield traits analysis

R. Goher and M. Akmal*

Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Crop Production Sciences, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar-25130, Pakistan
*Correspondence: akmal@aup.edu.pk

Abstract:

Temperature fluxes at some critical growth stages adversely affect the crop yield. Heat stress (HS) of limited duration shows mild to marked effects on crop yield. The study focused on evaluating HS of limited durations on wheat crop effective from anthesis. Four wheat cultivars (Pirsabak-2005, Pakhtunkhwa-2015, Pakistan-2013, and DN-84) and three advanced lines (P-2, P-12, and P-18) were subjected to HS for 48, 72, and 96 h evaluating changes in the yield and yield contributing traits. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design during 2017–18 and 2018–19 at Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar Pakistan. At the onset of anthesis, plants were exposed to HS in the plastic tunnel for limited durations. The temperature inside and outside tents was recorded periodically. The mean across the years showed a significant effect on yield traits by HS imposition at anthesis stage. The mean data across the two years showed a significant effect of HS on yield and yield contributing traits. In comparison with control, spike weight (g) reduced by 29, 40, and 49% under limited HS of 48, 72, and 96 h, respectively. Grains per spike were decreased by 45, 61, and 69% and grain weight by 29, 36, and 45% from control to imposed HS of 48, 72, and 96 h, respectively. Overall grain yield decreased by 44, 61, and 70% upon exposed to 48, 72, and 96 h of HS, respectively. The differences among the cultivars for yield and yield contributing traits were different under various HS conditions. The study concluded that HS effective from anthesis has an adverse effect on grain weight and number and hence the grain yield. Among the cultivars, Pakistan-2013 showed better resistance to HS of limited duration when exposed at the anthesis stage of the crop growth.

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xxx P. Šařec, J. Korba, V. Novák and K. Křížová
Digestate application with regard to greenhouse gases and physical soil properties
Abstract |

Digestate application with regard to greenhouse gases and physical soil properties

P. Šařec¹, J. Korba¹*, V. Novák¹ and K. Křížová¹²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilization, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague 6, Czech Republic
²Crop Research Institute, Division of Crop Protection and Plant Health, Drnovská 507/73, CZ161 06 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: korba@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The article deals with the method of application of digestate with regard to the environment, soil properties and utilization of nutrients by plants. The aim is to monitor the dependence of the emission gas leakage and the dose of applied fertilizer. With the current expansion of biogas plants, a large amount of waste product, especially digestate, is being generated. This product is most often used as a liquid organic fertilizer because it contains substances important for plant growth. The disadvantage of this fertilizer is the release of greenhouse gases into the air. The digestate contains mainly ammonia, nitrogen in the residual organic matter and is a fertilizer with rapidly releasing nitrogen. The ammonium nitrogen contained in the digestate is easily subject to air losses. Therefore, a method of application for a certain crop is sought, where the smallest leaks of gases into the air occur. Different amounts of doses for the same route of administration are compared. To measure the amount of emission gases, a wind tunnel was placed on each variant of the application, taking air above the soil surface, which is discharged to the gas analyser. The monitored greenhouse gases are CH4, NH3 and CO2. Furthermore, physical properties of soil were monitored in order to verify the conditions of the experiment. One of the parameters measured was the soil bulk density of the soil by taking intact soil samples. The penetration resistance of the soil was also determined, which indicates the degree of compaction. The use of nutrients was assessed through the condition of the stand on each variant by monitoring vegetation indices using remote sensing of the earth.

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xxx N. Durnova, M. Simakova, D. Isaev, I. Simakova and A. Simakov
Morphology of Camellia Sinensis L. leaves as marker of white tea authenticity
Abstract |

Morphology of Camellia Sinensis L. leaves as marker of white tea authenticity

N. Durnova¹, M. Simakova¹, D. Isaev¹, I. Simakova²* and A. Simakov²

¹Saratov State Medical University named after V.I. Razumovsky, Faculty of Pharmacy, B. Kazach'ya Str., 112, RU410012 Saratov, Russia
²Saratov State Agrarian University named after N.I. Vavilova, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Biotechnology and Food Technology, B. Sadovaya Str., 220, RU410005 Saratov, Russia
*Correspondence: simakovaiv@yandex.ru

Abstract:

Tea is one of the most common drinks in the world. Classic tea is obtained by brewing the leaves of the Camellia sinensis L plant in hot water. However, even the leaves collected from the same branch of the same tea bush can have completely different anatomical, biochemical and taste characteristics. White tea is the youngest, immature apical leaves of the tea bush (fleshes) together with leaf buds (tips) which are is considered the most valuable parts of teaplant.
The chemical composition of tea is studied in sufficient detail, however, there are still no uniform criteria for determining the authenticity of white tea leaves, which creates great preconditions for falsifying this most valuable type of raw material. The aim of this study was to study the macro- and microstructure of white tea leaves from different manufacturers and to determine the morphological markers of the authenticity of white tea leaves.
The objects of research were white tea from the Nandana Tea Factory (Sri Lanka) and white tea from an unknown manufacturer, purchased from a local tea shop.
The study of raw materials was carried out in accordance with the requirements of GF XIV OFS 1.5.1.0003.15 ‘Leaves’ and OFS 1.5.3.0003.15 ‘Technique of microscopic and microchemical examination of medicinal plants and herbal medicinal products.’
The work was carried out on the basis of the laboratories of the Department of Food Technologies of FGBOU VO Saratov GAU named after N.I. Vavilov, and the Department of General Biology, Pharmacognosy and Botany, Saratov State Medical University named after V.I. Razumovsky Ministry of Health of Russia.
Studies of the structure of white tea leaves from various manufacturers have shown that the structure and presence of morphological elements of leaves, such as hairs, stomata, leaf edge, druses, sclereids, differ markedly and can serve as reliable markers for identifying the variety of tea.

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xxx M. Maradudin, I. Simakova and A. Fedonnikov
The effect of bean flour addition on the rheological properties and baking quality of a triticale flour blends
Abstract |

The effect of bean flour addition on the rheological properties and baking quality of a triticale flour blends

M. Maradudin¹, I. Simakova¹* and A. Fedonnikov²

¹Saratov State Medical University named after V.I. Razumovsky, Faculty of Pharmacy, B. Kazach'ya Str., 112, RU410012 Saratov, Russia
²Saratov State Agrarian University named after N.I. Vavilova, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Biotechnology and Food Technology, B. Sadovaya Str., 220, RU410005 Saratov, Russia
*Correspondence: simakovaiv@yandex.ru

Abstract:

The aim of this research work was to study and compare the main parameters of the rheological state of the dough made from triticale flour (a variety of George selection by the FSBIS Agricultural Research Institute of the South-East), dough made from flour of white and red bean seeds, as well as parameters of dough from flour of composite mixtures based on them. The rheological properties of the dough were determined using a Mixolab device according to the GOST ISO 17718-2015 method. The mixing ability of the blends was additionally tested by the SDS sedimentation method. It was found that the moment of force, which characterizes the gelatinization process, correlates well with the SDS sedimentation index. To a lesser extent, this indicator correlates with the values of the moments of force characterizing the process of ‘starch retrogradation’ and the energy intensity of the dough formation process. The water absorption capacity of flour highly correlates with the moment of force during the liquefaction phase and with the moments of force characterizing the minimum and maximum consistency of the dough during the ‘starch retrogradation’ phase. The correlation between the SDS sedimentation rate and water absorption capacity was found to be rather low. The rheological parameters were also significantly influenced by the type of beans. Taking into account the results of studies of the rheological state of the dough, test baking of bread with various mass fractions of components was carried out. The results obtained confirmed the improving effect of bean flour.

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xxx S. Vitolina, G. Shulga, B. Neiberte and S. Reihmane
Woodworking wastewater biomass effective separation and its recovery
Abstract |

Woodworking wastewater biomass effective separation and its recovery

S. Vitolina¹*, G. Shulga¹, B. Neiberte¹ and S. Reihmane²

¹Latvian State Institute of Wood Chemistry, 27 Dzerbenes Street, LV–1006 Riga, Latvia
2Riga Technical University, Faculty of Material Science and Applied Chemistry, 3/7 Paula Valdena Street, LV–1048 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: sanita.vitolina@gmail.com

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to develop a new Al-based hybrid coagulant that was effective in removing wood biomass from the wastewater formed in water basins of plywood plants during hydrothermal treatment of birch wood. The organic-inorganic coagulant was prepared by interaction of high molecular polyethyleneimine (PEI) with the inorganic polyaluminium chloride-based composite coagulant (KHPAC) in aqueous medium. Owing to the hybrid nature, the developed coagulant could simultaneously perform both the coagulation and flocculation function. The influence of a hybrid coagulant composition, its dosage, pH and a temperature on the efficiency of wastewater biomass separation was investigated. The best coagulation-flocculation efficiency was achieved with the hybrid coagulant having a mass ratio of PEI/KHPAC equal to 0.3–0.5 and at the optimal dosage of 70–80 mg L-1, reaching 97% yield of the total wood biomass and 60% yield of the lignin recovery. The efficient dosage of PEI and KHPAC in hybrid coagulant was about 1.4–1.8 and 1.7–2.2 times lower than if these coagulants/flocculants were used alone. As a result of the coagulation-flocculation process, wood biomass sludge is formed, which is a sufficiently large source of renewable organic matter, with the potential to obtain value-added products. The components of the biomass sludge were found to have surface activity and binder properties, as well as cation exchange capacity. Based on these properties, its ability to structure dusty soil particles with the formation of mechanically resistant soil aggregates was studied.

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xxx V. Bisters, J. Kalviss, J. Burlakovs and M. Klavins
Algae processing for energy production: development of waste pyrolysis technology
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Algae processing for energy production: development of waste pyrolysis technology

V. Bisters, J. Kalviss, J. Burlakovs and M. Klavins*

Department of Environmental Science, University of Latvia, Raina bulv. 19, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: maris.klavins@lu.lv

Abstract:

Waste processing accordingly to waste-to-energy concept remains a major challenge to deal with growing amounts of different waste types. The aim of the study is to expand the knowledge base for biomass waste thermochemical processing into syngas and biochar on example of algae waste treatment. In accordance to this concept, waste pyrolysis technology is further advanced by evaluating, studying and adapting the most technologically and economically feasible approach and by developing a pilot scale facility with the aim to demonstrate its potential to offer the industry an innovative solution for solid waste processing. The study includes theoretical background for thermal recovery of organic waste, with application of specifics of algae waste (beach wrack). Algae waste thermochemical processing and gas analysis are tested both for process of torrefied material and with full ash content characterisation. Additional algae waste proximate/ultimate analysis were done. The synthesis gas produced by the pyrolysis process contain 30–60% CH4, 5–12% H2, 20–40% CO (remaining CO2, N2) and thus can be used for heating purposes. The another algae waste pyrolysis product – biochar is enriched with mineral components thus increasing its application potential in agriculture, however in can be used also for energy production purposes. Thermal analytics of beach wreck undertaken on different type of samples to be common for the Baltic Sea area and projections on application of gasification technology for upscale at municipality level is analysed with a view to application for municipality larger amount material.

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xxx P.H.N. Martins, D. Cecchin, A.R.G. de Azevedo, D.F. do Carmo, R.A. Donagemma, R.M.M. Waite, N.F. Rodrigues, F.A. Sousa, P.I.S. Amaral, C.M. Hüther, C.R. Pereira and V.M.F da Cruz
Technical and economic pre-feasibility study for the construction of septic tank-filter-sinkhole with alternative material
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Technical and economic pre-feasibility study for the construction of septic tank-filter-sinkhole with alternative material

P.H.N. Martins¹, D. Cecchin¹*, A.R.G. de Azevedo², D.F. do Carmo¹, R.A. Donagemma¹, R.M.M. Waite¹, N.F. Rodrigues¹, F.A. Sousa³, P.I.S. Amaral⁴, C.M. Hüther¹, C.R. Pereira¹ and V.M.F da Cruz⁵

1Federal Fluminense University (UFF), Department of Agricultural Engineering and Environment, Street Passo da Pátria, n.156, Boa Viagem, Niterói-RJ, Brazil
²North Fluminense State University (UENF), Civil Engineering Department, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000 - Parque Califórnia, Campos dos Goytacazes BR28013-602 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
³SEMAG/Aracruz, Av. Morobá, n.20, BR 29192-733 Bairro Morobá-ES, Brazil
⁴José do Rosário Vellano University (UNIFENAS), Department of Veterinary Medicine, Rodovia MG-179 km 0, s/n -Bairro Trevo, BR 37130-000 Alfenas-MG, Brazil
⁵Évora University (UE), Pólo da Mitra, PT 7002-554, Évora, Portugal
*Correspondence: daianececchin@id.uff.br

Abstract:

The study of the different materials used in the construction of septic tanks aims to facilitate and spread the use of this sewage treatment system in places that are not assisted by municipal sewage systems and in the rural area, which despite having a smaller number of inhabitants compared to the urban area This study aims to carry out a technical and economic evaluation of the concrete and tires using in the construction of septic tanks-filter-sinkhole. The wastewater treatment systems were built according to the recommendations in NBR 7229/93 and 13969/97. To evaluate the efficiency of each system built, the following parameters were analyzed: chemical oxygen demand (COD), the potential of hydrogen (pH), alkalinity, acidity, and temperature. In the economic evaluation, the materials and labor required to install the systems were considered using the Brazilian cost database (SINAPI), and an economic and financial feasibility study was carried out. According to the technical and economic analysis of construction, both systems showed the same technical performance, however, the concrete design proved to be more advantageous than the tire design, considering the difficulty in acquiring the tires and the high cost if it is necessary to buy them, in addition to the greater difficulty in handling and installing the tire system compared to the concrete one.

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xxx A. Lenerts, K. Naglis-Liepa, D. Popluga, Dz. Kreišmane, E. Aplociņa, L. Bērziņa and O. Frolova
Marginal abatement cost curve for an ammonia reduction measure in agriculture: the case of Latvia
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Marginal abatement cost curve for an ammonia reduction measure in agriculture: the case of Latvia

A. Lenerts¹*, K. Naglis-Liepa¹, D. Popluga¹, Dz. Kreišmane², E. Aplociņa², L. Bērziņa³ and O. Frolova³

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Economics and Social Development, Institute of Economics and Regional Development, 18 Svetes street, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, 2 Liela street, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
³Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Environment and Civil Engineering, 19 Akademijas street, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: arnis.lenerts@llu.lv

Abstract:

With the production of grain and livestock–derived agricultural commodities increasing, the agricultural sector has become one of the main sources of ammonia (NH3) emissions in Latvia. In 2018, the agricultural sector contributed to 83% of the total NH3 emissions originated in Latvia (15.46 kt) (LIIR 2020). The EU has already put in place measures to control NH3 emissions. This includes the EU target of reducing ammonia emissions by 21% by 2030 and sets out emission reduction commitments for Latvia. Considering Latvia’s indicative reduction target, the NH3 emission reductions need to be achieved by 2030 (Directive 2016/2284) so that the emissions do not exceed the 2005 level (11.33 kt). Implementing no mitigation measures, Latvia has projected agricultural sector NH3 emissions to be 32.4% higher than those in 2005, and therefore the mitigation of the NH3 emissions from agriculture is important. The research aims to estimate cost-effective NH3 emission reduction measures in agriculture in Latvia. The results of the research represent a marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) analysis, in which we have quantified the potential for reduction for selected NH3 emission mitigation measures in Latvia. A list of the measures has been established taking into account the experience of good agricultural practices in the reduction of NH3 emissions (UN, 2014) and of other European countries as well. The calculations carried out allowed us to group the measures according to their priorities: measures that are cost-effective and with high potential for reduction of NH3; measures that are cost-effective but with low NH3 emission reduction potential; measures that are not cost-effective but with high potential for reduction of NH3; measures that are not cost-effective and with low potential for reduction of NH3. The estimated cumulative (total) reduction of NH3 emissions in Latvian agriculture by 2030, with the implementation of the measures analysed, is equal to 20.08 kt.

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xxx A.M. Golubev, N.A. Alyoshina, V.E. Anfalov, A.A. Kulikov and V.S. Vdovenko
Some mechanisms of winter resistance in apricot flower buds in the period of ecodormancy
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Some mechanisms of winter resistance in apricot flower buds in the period of ecodormancy

A.M. Golubev*, N.A. Alyoshina, V.E. Anfalov, A.A. Kulikov and V.S. Vdovenko

Laboratory of Molecular Genetic Selection of Fruit Crops, Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "Federal Agrarian Scientific Center of Agriculture of The South-East" (FSBSI "FASCA South-East". 7 Tulaikov Str., RU410010 Saratov, Russia
*Correspondence: biotechnoalgol@mail.ru

Abstract:

The accelerated development of flower buds during the thaw in apricots and almonds during the ecodormancy period leads to significant damage to the flower elements during return frosts and loss of future crops. The aim of the research was to identify the mechanisms of delay in the rate of development of flower buds during the ecodormancy period, their relationship with the degree of frost resistance and the timing of flowering in apricots. The following indicators of flower buds were analyzed: the degree of exit from endodormancy, frost resistance at temperatures of -18 °C and -31 °C, the degree of morphological development of flower elements, the activity of α-amylases at temperatures of +15 °C and + 60 °C, total content water, phenolcarboxylic acids, flavonoids and free proline. A significant positive correlation was revealed between the percentage of death of flower buds at a temperature of -18 °C and the percentage of buds emerging from endogenous dormancy (0.64*), the percentage of death of buds at a temperature of -31 °C and the degree of development of flower elements (0.70*), water content and the degree of development of flower elements (0.76**), amylase activity at +60 °C and amylase activity at +15 °C (0.76**), the content of phenolcarboxylic acids in the bark of shoots and flower buds (0.61*). For the first time, psychrophilic forms of α-amylases have been discovered in apricot flower buds.

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xxx G.M.G. Ferreira, D. Cecchin, A.R.G. de Azevedo, I.C.R.P. Valadão, K.A. Costa, T.R. Silva, F. Ferreira, P.I.S. Amaral, C.M. Huther, F.A. Sousa, J.O. Castro, P.F.P. Ferraz and M.A. Teixeira
Bibliometric analysis on the use of natural fibers in construction materials
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Bibliometric analysis on the use of natural fibers in construction materials

G.M.G. Ferreira¹, D. Cecchin¹*, A.R.G. de Azevedo², I.C.R.P. Valadão¹, K.A. Costa³, T.R. Silva⁴, F. Ferreira⁵, P.I.S. Amaral⁶, C.M. Huther¹, F.A. Sousa⁷, J.O. Castro⁸, P.F.P. Ferraz⁸ and M.A. Teixeira¹

¹Federal Fluminense University (UFF), Department of Agricultural Engineering and Environment, Street Passo da Pátria, n. 156, Boa Viagem, Niterói-RJ, Brazil
²North Fluminense State University (UENF), Civil Engineering Department, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil
³Federal Fluminense University (UFF), Production Engineering Department, Avenida dos Trabalhadores, n. 420, Vila Santa Cecília, Volta Redonda-RJ, Brazil
⁴North Fluminense State University (UENF), Advanced Materials Laboratory (LAMAV), Av.Alberto Lamego, 2000, 28013-602 Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ, Brazil
⁵Federal Fluminense University (UFF), Metallurgical Engineering Department (VMT), Volta Redonda-RJ, Brasil
⁶José do Rosário Vellano University (UNIFENAS), Department of Veterinary Medicine, Rodovia Mg-179 km 0, s/n - Bairro Trevo, BR 37130-000 Alfenas-MG, Brazil
⁷SEMAG/Aracruz, Av. Morobá, n. 20, BR 29192-733 Bairro Morobá-ES, Brazil
⁸Federal University of Lavras (UFLA), Campus Universitário, postal scode 3037 Lavras, MG, Brazil
*Correspondence: daianececchin@id.uff.br

Abstract:

Due to the increasing interest of the population in the sustainability theme, there was a consequent growth in publications related to the theme in the area of civil construction. Agro-industrial waste has become an environmental problem, and with that natural fibers have found space in the reuse of waste due to its characteristics and possibilities of improving the mechanical properties of its products. In order to achieve sustainable construction demand, along with the need to reuse waste, studies have begun to analyze the application of natural fibers in construction materials. The documents provided by the Web of Science (WOS) database through research carried out with the search for the terms ‘Natural Fibers’ and ‘Building materials’ restricted to the period 2010–2020 in the main WOS collection. The institutions involved with the publications, the countries of origin of the documents, the year of publication, the keywords used by the authors and the number of citations for each document were analyzed using bibliometrics in the VOSVIEWER (VOS) software. The result of the analysis shows an increase in documents related to the theme over the years, and that the countries with the most studies in the area are China (16), USA (14) and Brazil (11), respectively. The results presented after analysis of the keywords show that natural fiber (61 occurrences), mechanical properties (44 occurrences) and composites (31 occurrences) are the words with the highest occurrence among the analyzed
documents. The present study shows the growth of research related to the theme, in addition to discriminating countries, institutions and authors, which allows monitoring the scientific expansion of the theme and guiding future studies.

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xxx M. Arak, O. Liivapuu, V.V. Maksarov and J. Olt
A justification of the choice of parameters for the picking reel tooth on a lowbush blueberry harvester
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A justification of the choice of parameters for the picking reel tooth on a lowbush blueberry harvester

M. Arak¹*, O. Liivapuu¹, V.V. Maksarov² and J. Olt¹

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
²2Saint-Petersburg Mining University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 21 Line, 2, RU199106 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: margus.arak@emu.ee

Abstract:

The functional working tool on the blueberry harvester is its rotating picking reel. Its working element is the picking rake which is attached to the picking reel. A total of four rakes are attached to the picking reel. A picking rake includes an axis which is attached in an articulated manner between the reel’s end discs, and pin-shaped teeth which are rigidly attached to it. The picking rake’s tooth must be made of a fully flexible material to prevent damage to the blueberry plant. The aim of this research was to determine the flexure of test specimens (plastic rods) which have been constructed from a fully flexible material of different conditions, along with the suitability for use of such flexible material as the teeth on the picking rake. As a result of this study, it became clear that, based on the results from flexure, durability, and residual deformation tests, it is more expedient to choose Ertacetal C (POM-C) as the material for the picking reel’s tooth, with a diameter of 4.3 mm.

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xxx V. Šķipars, D. Ruņģis, I. Ločmele, S. Seile, I. Mežaka and L. Legzdiņa
Evaluation of morphological traits, genetic diversity and major resistance genes in barley subpopulations cultivated under organic and conventional farming systems
Abstract |

Evaluation of morphological traits, genetic diversity and major resistance genes in barley subpopulations cultivated under organic and conventional farming systems

V. Šķipars¹²*, D. Ruņģis², I. Ločmele¹, S. Seile¹, I. Mežaka¹ and L. Legzdiņa¹

¹Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, 2 Zinatnes Str., LV-4126 Priekuli, Latvia
²Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, Genetic Resources Centre, 111 Rigas Str., LV-2169 Salaspils, Latvia
*Correspondence: vilnis.skipars@silava.lv

Abstract:

Most crop varieties currently grown in organic conditions have been bred for conventional farming, and are not adapted to increased environmental variability under organic farming conditions and unpredictable environmental fluctuations due to climate change. This can be mitigated by the use of heterogeneous material, increasing genetic diversity and enabling adaptation to local conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of several generations of cultivation in parallel under organic and conventional farming systems on the genetic diversity, morphological traits and frequency of major disease resistance genes as indicators of adaptation to the farming system in heterogeneous spring barley populations with differing levels of diversity. Populations in differing generations originating from crosses between two, three, 10 and 15 parental genotypes were cultivated in organic and conventional farming systems for three, four or 10 generations, thus forming subpopulations in each environment. These subpopulations were genotyped, and tested for morphological traits in both farming systems. A significant effect of cultivation environment on tillering capacity (p < 0.05) was found for all tested populations and in several cases for plant height, ear length and grain number per spike, indicating some adaptation trends. In the short term, genetic diversity parameters were not decreased in the later generation populations in comparison to the initial populations with the exception of observed heterozygosity, as expected for a self-pollinating species. No clear differences in genetic diversity parameters between populations cultivated under either organic or conventional condition for several generations were identified.

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xxx I.I. Novikova, V.B. Minin, J.A. Titova, I.L. Krasnobaeva, A.M. Zaharov and A.N. Perekopsky
Biological effectiveness of a new multifunctional biopesticide in the protection of organic potatoes from diseases
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Biological effectiveness of a new multifunctional biopesticide in the protection of organic potatoes from diseases

I.I. Novikova¹, V.B. Minin²*, J.A. Titova¹, I.L. Krasnobaeva¹, A.M. Zaharov² and A.N. Perekopsky²

¹Federal State Budget Scientific Institution "All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Protection" (FSBSI VIZR), 3, Podbelskogo shosse, RU196608 Saint-Petersburg-Pushkin, Russia
²Institute for Engineering and Environmental Problems in Agricultural Production branch of the BFSBSI “Federal Scientific AgroEngineering Centre VIM (IEEP – branch of FSAC VIM), 3, Filtrovskoe shossse, p.o. Tiarlevos, RU196625 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: minin.iamfe@mail.ru

Abstract:

Crop disease control is of particular importance in organic crop production, as the use of chemical pesticides is prohibited there. A new multifunctional biofungicide Kartofin was selected and used to optimize the phytosanitary state of organic potatoes ecosystems. Previously of studies indicated the prospects of using the biofungicide to control numerous fungal and bacterial diseases during the potato growing season and storage of tubers. The crop rotation field experiment was carried out in 2017–2020 at the Experimental Station of the IEEP – BRANCH OF FSAC VIM near Saint-Petersburg (59°65 N and 30°38 E). The soil of experimental plots is sod-podzolic light loamy. In the potatoes (variety Udacha) field, a 2-factor field experiment was established which studied:
 the action of biofungicide Kartofin;
 the effect of the compost.
The experiment was established on the plots with the size 61.6 m2 each. The experiment had four replications.
Three doses of the compost were used which corresponded to different levels of the potato productivity. Potatoes were treated with biofungicide at the time of planting and by foliar spray during the growing season. The combined use of compost at a dose of 4 t ha-1 and biofungcide made it possible to achieve the yield of standard tubers of 27.3–28.2 t ha-1 with their low incidence of fungal diseases. The biological effectiveness of the biofungicide Kartofin in reducing the prevalence and development of a complex of fungal diseases (alternariosis, late blight, stem form of rhizoctoniosis) on potato plants of the Udacha variety reached 82.2–89.9%.

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xxx І. Diordiieva, V. Kochmarskyi, Ia. Riabovol, L. Riabovol and O. Serzhyk
Enrichment of the winter triticale gene pool under intergeneric hybridization
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Enrichment of the winter triticale gene pool under intergeneric hybridization

І. Diordiieva¹*, V. Kochmarskyi², Ia. Riabovol³, L. Riabovol¹ and O. Serzhyk¹

¹Uman National University of Horticulture, Uman, Ukraine, Faculty of Agronomy, Department of Genetics, Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, 1 Institytska Str., UA20300 Uman, Ukraine
²State Enterprise «Experimental Farm «Elite» of Mironovskyi Institute of Wheat named after V.N. Remeslo NAAS of Ukraine, v. Central, UA08853 Mironovskyi region, Ukraine
³Uman National University of Horticulture, Uman, Ukraine, Faculty of Agronomy, Department of Plant Growing, 1 Institytska Str., UA20300 Uman, Ukraine
*Correspondence: diordieva201443@gmail.com

Abstract:

The purpose of the research was to expand the genetic diversity of winter triticale under intraspecific and remote hybridization and to obtain new valuable forms for their involvement in the breeding process of creating high-yielding crop varieties. For this purpose interspecific and remote hybridization of different species of wheat, rye, triticale, Elimus arenarius L. and evaluation of obtained hybrids were carried out from 2013 to 2020. According to the results of our research it is proved that the species Triticum spelta L. and Triticum petropavlovskyi Udacz. had dominant genes of incompatibility with rye. Crossing Triticum compactum Host. and Triticum sphaerococcum Perciv. species with rye allowed obtaining a higher level of seed setting, but the grain obtained with the participation of Triticum sphaerococcum Perciv. species was not viable. Compatibility of triticale with spelt and Elimus arenarius L. was low. The level of seed formation in F1 hybrids under artificial pollination was higher than under spontaneous pollination. Seed germination obtained from pollination of F1 hybrids by fertile forms of triticale – was low. It was found that hybridization of three-species triticale with spelt had a positive effect on grain quality indicators in the offspring. Crossing triticale with Elimus arenarius L. led to ear elongation, but caused a significant reduction in all indicators of grain quality in the offspring. As a result of remote hybridization of three-species triticale and spelt wheat, winter triticale varieties Navarra and Strateh were created and included in the State register of plant varieties suitable for distribution in Ukraine since 2018.

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xxx S.M.P. Teixeira, C.S.A.M. Maduro Dias, C.F.M. Vouzela, J.S Madruga and A.E.S. Borba
Nutritive characterization of Musa spp and its effects on in vitro Rumen fermentation characteristics
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Nutritive characterization of Musa spp and its effects on in vitro Rumen fermentation characteristics

S.M.P. Teixeira*, C.S.A.M. Maduro Dias, C.F.M. Vouzela, J.S Madruga and A.E.S. Borba

University of the Azores, FCAA, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Research and Technology, Rua Capitão João d’Ávila, 9700-042 Angra do Heroísmo, Açores, Portugal
*Correspondence: sofia.mp.teixeira@uac.pt

Abstract:

This research aims to study the effect of nutritive value of Musa spp on animal feed. Residues of banana culture, leaves and stems, could be used as a fibre source for animal feeding, especially in Banana producing areas, such as Macaronesia Archipelagos, avoiding wastes and supplementing periods of scarcity of food.
Musa spp were collected and dried at 65 °C in an oven with controlled air circulation. The pseudostems were divided in three different portions and chemical composition, in vitro digestibility, and in vitro gas production were determined. Regarding dry matter results, they were low (16.54% in leaves and 6.54% DM% in pseudostem), crude protein raging 11.25 DM% in leaves and 7.25% in pseudostem. Concerning fiber values, NDF is higher in leaves (70.07 DM%) than in pseudostems (52.11 DM%) and ADL is higher in leaves (9.90 DM%) comparing with pseudostems (6.21 DM%). In vitro DM digestibility is low, (24.42% in leaves and 42.69% in pseudostem), corroborating the NDF values. Cumulative gas production was recorded at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of incubation. The results showed that the gas production in leaves was lower (11.36 mL 200 mg˗1 DM) when compared to pseudostem (23.81 mL 200 mg˗1 DM), being so in accordance with the digestibility results.
The current study suggested that this by-product can be used in animal feed, however, it will be necessary to carry out tests to improve its nutritional value, namely with NaOH and/or with Urea, being a promising strategy for improving ruminant feed efficiency.

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