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xxx B. Yameogo, R.R. Andrade, C.G.S. Teles Júnior, G.S. Laud, V. Becciolini, L. Leso, G. Rossi and M. Barbari
Analysis of environmental conditions and management in a compost-bedded pack barn with tunnel ventilation
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Analysis of environmental conditions and management in a compost-bedded pack barn with tunnel ventilation

B. Yameogo¹, R.R. Andrade², C.G.S. Teles Júnior³, G.S. Laud⁴, V. Becciolini¹, L. Leso¹, G. Rossi¹ and M. Barbari¹*

¹University of Florence, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry, Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
²Federal University of Viçosa, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n Campus University of Viçosa, BR 36570-900, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil
³Federal Rural University of the Amazon, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Av. Perimetral, Terra Firme, BR 66077830, Belém, Pará, Brazil
⁴Federal University of Viçosa, Department of Animal Science, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n Campus University of Viçosa, BR 36570-900, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil
*Correspondence: matteo.barbari@unifi.it

Abstract:

The housing system based on compost-bedded pack for dairy cows is spreading rapidly in Brazil. Completely open buildings without curtains and simple roofs are usually provided. However, in the last years some new completely closed barns have been realized. This study aims to analyse one of these closed barns, located in the State of Minas Gerais. The two main sides of the facility are provided with polyethylene curtains of blue colour and five deflectors. The barn is equipped with an evaporative adiabatic cooling system, associated with the tunnel-style ventilation, realized with exhaust fans, continuously operating 24 hours a day. 85 lactating Holstein cows were housed in the barn during the trials carried out in the winter season 2019. Microclimatic data were collected continuously. Air speed, illuminance and bedding temperature were measured during the farm visits. Pack moisture was calculated. The results state the importance of bedding management and climatic conditions inside the barn. It emerges that the cows housed in this kind of closed barn, with forced ventilation, are in good thermal conditions, which are fairly constant. The average illumination of the barn can be considered acceptable (55.06 lx), even if some areas of the barn present values below the minimum ones reported in literature. The bedding temperature varies between a maximum of 36.33 °C and a minimum of 25.44 °C with an average of 31.26 °C. The values of bedding moisture are between a maximum of 64.36% and a minimum of 60.81% with an average of 62.48%.

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xxx L. Degola, I. Jansons and V. Šterna
Effect of replacement of coated barley grain with hulless barley in diet on growth, carcass and meat quality traits of fattening pigs
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Effect of replacement of coated barley grain with hulless barley in diet on growth, carcass and meat quality traits of fattening pigs

L. Degola¹*, I. Jansons² and V. Šterna²

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Institute of Animal Sciences, Liela street 2, LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, Dizstende, Libagi parish, LV 3258 Talsi County, Latvia
*Correspondence: lilija.degola@llu.lv

Abstract:

A amount of experimental pigs were 40 crossbred pigs (Yorkshire × Landrace). The initial body weight of pigs were average 27.0 kg. The goal of research was to assess the effect of replacement of coated barley grain with hulless barley in diet on pig growth, carcass and pork quality indices. Experimental groups of pigs on the holding were conducted according to age and sex. For trial group of pigs, a compound feed with hulless barley (38.9–45.4%) was prepared, for the control with coated barley (39.3–43.3%). The feed recipes made according the pigs age. The other feed ingredients were not changed and were wheat, soybean meal and oil, premivit, and from 20 till 70 kg liveweight also fish meal. Diets were formulated with the same of metabolizable energy and crude protein content. During the study the live weight of pigs was monitored and the feed consumption was counted. At the end of the study all pigs slaughtered, determined carcasses traits and took samples of loin muscle for chemical analyses. The results showed that pig fattening indices (daily liveweight gain were in control pig group 0.686 ± 0.183 and trial 0.716 ± 0.174) did not differ significantly between groups (P > 0.05), although its were slightly lower in the control group pigs by 4.37%. Feed consumption for live weight gain in both groups ranged from 3.14 to 3.25 kg. Carcasses scores showed significant differences in lean meat and chops (P < 0.05). There were also differences in the backfat thickness. The thickness of backfat was 2.62 mm less in the control pig group, which indicates that when feeding coated barley to fattening pigs, the carcasses have a higher proportion of lean meat (62.1 ± 0.7%). Pigs were slaughtered reaching a live weight of 110 to 114 kg. The meat yield 71.7% and moisture level (70.2–75.2%), as well as protein (22.3–22.9%) indicators showed that fattening pigs are sold at the optimal age. In conclusion, results from this study suggest that feeding hulless barley to fattening pigs results in higher live weight gain. Carcass indicators showed a significantly higher proportion of lean meat and weight of chops when pigs eating coated barley. Chemical composition of pork in groups without significant differences.

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xxx L. Lepse, S. Zeipiņa, I. Missa and A. Osvalde
The effect of cultivation technology on the plant development of organically grown garlic
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The effect of cultivation technology on the plant development of organically grown garlic

L. Lepse¹*, S. Zeipiņa¹, I. Missa¹ and A. Osvalde²

¹Institute of Horticulture, Graudu iela 1, LV–3701 Dobele, Latvia
²Institute of Biology, University of Latvia, Ojāra Vācieša iela 4–201, LV–1004 Rīga, Latvia
*Correspondence: liga.lepse@llu.lv

Abstract:

The new technological solutions for the hardneck garlic production were tested to prevent the influence of unfavourable soil and climatic conditions on the rooting, sprouting and wintering ability of hardneck garlic – factors that affect significantly the hardneck garlic production in Latvia. Field studies were carried out at the experimental field of the organic farm, located at the Koknese district, Latvia, during the seasons of 2018/2019 and 2019/2020, on sandy loam soil using hardneck garlic cultivar `Liubasha` and local clones. Two variants of garlic growing were compared – traditional planting in the autumn in the field as control, and planting in the trays as an innovative solution. Results indicated that low temperature treatment (below +7 °C) for the period of at least 50 days initiates cloves primordia development. The using of trays is effective technology to prevent unfavourable agroecological conditions on the field in the case if controlled conditions are available and technically feasible in the farm.

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xxx V.P. Aravani, K. Tsigkou, M. Kornaros and V.G. Papadakis
Laboratory analyses for assessing the potential for biogas production of various agricultural residues in Greece
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Laboratory analyses for assessing the potential for biogas production of various agricultural residues in Greece

V.P. Aravani¹, K. Tsigkou², M. Kornaros²* and V.G. Papadakis¹*

¹Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Patras, 2 Seferi Str., GR30100 Agrinio, Greece
²Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 1 Karatheodori Str., University Campus- Rio, GR26504 Patras, Greece
*Correspondence: kornaros@chemeng.upatras.gr; vgpapadakis@upatras.gr

Abstract:

Greece produces significant amounts of agricultural and livestock waste. For the needs of this study, Greece was divided into a Northern and a Southern part and relevant proposals were made for residues that can be used for energy production, through anaerobic digestion. For Northern Greece, this study concluded that the most abundant residues and potential substrates for anaerobic digestion valorisation are those of maize, inedible vegetables (including greenhouse vegetables), cattle manure, as well as the residues of beer and wine industry. For Southern Greece, the corresponding substrates are those of maize, inedible vegetables, sheep/goat manure and residues of wine, tomato, orange and olive processing, respectively. Based on the physicochemical characterization of individual feedstocks, corn silage, tomato husks, watermelon, malt, cattle manure, orange, and olive processing residues (olive pomace) were considered as the most suitable feedstocks for anaerobic digestion. Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) assays for Northern Greece were also performed, testing the most abundant and appropriate residues for anaerobic digestion (of this area), namely corn silage, cattle manure and malt, in order to define their BMP yield as well as their prospective optimum mixtures. It was concluded that the BMP of the mono-substrates is in accordance with literature, while there were no statistically significant differences in the methane yield of all tested mixtures. The residual biomass originating from the three main categories of the agricultural sector (crop residues, agro-industrial residues, and animal manure) in Northern Greece can be efficiently valorised via anaerobic co-digestion, without observing, though, any synergistic effects on methane production.

 

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xxx M.V. Radchenko, V.I. Trotsenko, Z.I. Hlupak, E.A. Zakharchenko, O.M. Osmachko, V.V. Moisiienko, V.Z. Panchуshуn and S.V. Stotska
Influence of mineral fertilizers on yielding capacity and quality of soft spring wheat grain
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Influence of mineral fertilizers on yielding capacity and quality of soft spring wheat grain

M.V. Radchenko¹*, V.I. Trotsenko¹, Z.I. Hlupak¹, E.A. Zakharchenko², O.M. Osmachko³, V.V. Moisiienko⁴, V.Z. Panchуshуn⁴ and S.V. Stotska⁴

¹1Sumy National Agrarian University, Faculty of Agrotechnology and Nature Management, Plant Growing Department, 160 G. Kondratieva street, UA40021 Sumy, Ukraine
²Sumy National Agrarian University, Faculty of Agrotechnology and Nature Management, Department of Arable farming, soil science and agrochemistry, 160 G. Kondratieva street, UA40021 Sumy, Ukraine
³Sumy National Agrarian University, Faculty of Agrotechnology and Nature Management, Department of Plant Protection named after Associate Professor Mishnev A.K., 160 G. Kondratieva street, UA40021 Sumy, Ukraine
⁴Polissia National University, Agronomy Faculty, Plant Growing Department, 7 Staryi Buljvar street, UA10008 Zhytomyr, Ukraine
*Correspondence: radchenkonikolay@ukr.net

Abstract:

The aim of the study is optimization of nutrition system for soft spring wheat plants through the use of mineral fertilizers in order to obtain high quality grain with simultaneous yield increase. Different doses of mineral fertilizers were tested in the study. The object of study was a variety of soft spring wheat ‘Uliublena’. The structure of the crop was determined by the method of selecting sheaf samples from each accounting area. The leaf surface area was determined by calculation method. According to the results of research, yield capacity of soft spring wheat on average ranged from 2.43 to 4.51 t ha-1. The highest index of gluten amount was obtained in the variant with fertilizers dose N64P64K64 – 28.19%, which is higher than in the variants with fertilizer doses N16P16K16 and N32P32K32 by 6.11 and 0.15%. The highest increase in the yield of soft spring wheat grain (2.08 t ha-1) was obtained with application of N64P64K64, slightly lower yield increase was obtained with application of N32P32K32 – 1.64 t ha-1, and N16P16K16 – 0.99 t ha-1 comparing with the control. With fertilizer dose of N64P64K64 soft spring wheat provided the maximum yield – 4.51 t ha-1, gluten content – 28.19% and protein content – 14.21%.

 

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xxx P.R.L. Pascual, D.E. Carabio, N.F.H. Abello, E.A. Remedios and V.U. Pascual
Enhanced assimilation rate due to seaweed biostimulant improves growth and yield of rice bean (Vigna umbellata)
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Enhanced assimilation rate due to seaweed biostimulant improves growth and yield of rice bean (Vigna umbellata)

P.R.L. Pascual¹²*, D.E. Carabio¹, N.F.H. Abello², E.A. Remedios¹ and V.U. Pascual³

¹Cebu Technological University, Crop Science Department, College of Agriculture, - Barili Campus, Cagay, Barili 6036, Cebu, Philippines
²Cebu Technological University, Crop Biotechnology Unit, Center for Studies in Biotechnology, - Barili Campus, Cagay, Barili 6036, Cebu, Philippines
³Cebu Technological University, Department of Agricultural Economics and Development Studies, - Barili Campus, Cagay, Barili 6036, Cebu, Philippines
*Correspondence: petroey.pascual@ctu.edu.ph

Abstract:

Rice beans are traditionally planted as intercrop to corn or as the main crop during dry season when corn production is difficult. The use of biostimulants is widely studied to ameliorate the adverse effects of biotic and abiotic stresses. Three possible fermented biostimulants: seaweed, bamboo shoot, and Japanese snail were compared to a commercial organic liquid fertilizer (10 mL L-1) based on morphological, photosynthetic, and yield responses. Fermented seaweed-treated rice bean registered the greatest average vapor pressure deficit (VPD) at 4.33 KPa on the first month and is comparable to the highest average VPD of 4.39 KPa registered by plants applied with fermented Japanese snail on the second month. This interestingly, did not result in difference of transpiration rate (μmol H2O m-2 s-1). Such could be attributed to the plants reduced stomatal aperture when applied with fermented seaweed at 406.80 μmol CO2 mol stomatal conductance and 38.59 Pa total conductance on the second month. Despite this, the average carbon dioxide assimilation rate of rice beans still increased in both the first (15.26 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) and second (16.51 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) month. This increased assimilation rate of fermented seaweed-treated rice beans resulted to about 12 cm increase in height at 128.53 cm (R2 = 0.894), 0.02 g pod-1 (R2 = 0.978) heavier and 0.90 seeds pod-1 (R2 = 0.978) more when compared to those applied with the commercial liquid organic fertilizer. Thus, by limiting stomatal conductance, despite the differences in VPD, transpiration rate was not affected while significantly increasing assimilation rate to improve production of rice beans, thereby taking full advantage of available seaweed by-products.

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xxx B. Kulishov, D. Minkin, A. Fedorov and A. Novoselov
Development of the mathematical model of the electric resistance baking process
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Development of the mathematical model of the electric resistance baking process

B. Kulishov¹*, D. Minkin², A. Fedorov¹ and A. Novoselov¹

¹ITMO University, Saint Petersburg, Faculty of Food Biotechnologies and Engineering, School of Biotechnology and Cryogenic Systems, Kronverkskiy ave.49, RU197101 St. Petersburg, Russia
²Saint Petersburg University of State Fire Service of Emercom of Russia, Department of Physical and Technical Fundamentals of Fire Safety, Moskovskiy ave.149, RU 196105 St. Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: kulishov.b@list.ru

Abstract:

The work is dedicated to the development of the mathematical model of the electric resistance baking process for the purpose of predicting temperature changes during baking of dough pieces of arbitrary sizes. The equation for the non-stationary thermal regime of a body with an internal heat source was used with a number of assumptions. The dynamics of the dough temperature changes was determined by numerical solution of the equation in Comsol Multiphysics.
Due to the complexity of the dough baking process and the impossibility of solving the equation by analytical method only, a number of values included in the energy balance of ER baking were determined experimentally. A dough piece with dimensions of 100×50×80 mm was baked during the experiment. After the adjustment, the adequacy of the model was checked by comparing the data on the dough temperature changes during baking dough pieces of the same recipe, but of different sizes (150×49×80, 80×62×80, and 65×75×80). Statistical analysis using Fisher’s criterion confirmed the adequacy of the model.

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xxx S. Simonini, G. Rossi, V. Becciolini, S. Camiciottoli, L. Conti, P.F.P. Ferraz, G.A.S. Ferraz and M. Barbari
Building performance analysis of a dairy factory in South Iraq: appraisal of a local bio-based envelope
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Building performance analysis of a dairy factory in South Iraq: appraisal of a local bio-based envelope

S. Simonini¹, G. Rossi¹*, V. Becciolini¹, S. Camiciottoli¹, L. Conti¹, P.F.P. Ferraz², G.A.S. Ferraz² and M. Barbari¹

¹University of Firenze, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry, 13 Via San Bonaventura, IT 50145 Firenze, Italy
²2Federal University of Lavras, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Campus Universitário, PO Box 3037 - CEP 37200-000 Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
*Correspondence: giuseppe.rossi@unifi.it

Abstract:

Buildings have a relevant impact on the environment, and building materials cause environmental impacts during all life cycle stages: production, utilization, management and demolition. The global request for more efficient buildings with less environmental impacts has grown during the last years. Among various technologies, thermal insulation has proven to be helpful in reducing emissions by increasing energy conservation. This paper intends to show how the Building Performance Analysis (BPA) supports the decision-making process in many areas where common insulation materials are not available and there is a general reluctance to use local natural materials. A building located in the city of Al Chubaish in Dhi Qar Province in Iraq is examined as a case study. The construction is designed for processing buffalo milk. It was built in the first decade of the century, during the Iraqi conflict, using only the materials available at that time, most of which, concrete bricks, mortar and plaster. Currently, this dairy factory is a very inefficient structure in terms of energy saving. But because its elementary form, it is a perfect example to investigate how a simple exterior wall insulation can improve building performance in extreme environmental conditions. Accordingly, two different models have been created. One is the replica of the real building without any upgrading. The second instead presents a thermal insulation realized with reed bio-based material locally available. Through advanced simulation engines and building performance analysis data integrated into Autodesk Revit, each model has been tested to identify significant improvements in terms of energy savings in this particular stressed background.

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xxx L. Proskina and S. Cerina
Economic assessment of use of pulses in diets for captive red deer
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Economic assessment of use of pulses in diets for captive red deer

L. Proskina¹* and S. Cerina²

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Economics and Social Development, 18 Svetes Street, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, 2 Zinatnes street, Priekuli, Priekulu parish, LV-4130 Priekulu district, Latvia
*Correspondence:liga.proskina@llu.lv

Abstract:

The quality of compound feeds used in livestock diets could be enhanced by means of domestically produced pulses. Nevertheless, there are available few research studies that would allow us to identify the economic efficiency of livestock diets with pulses and the digestibility of protein by livestock for deer farming. Accordingly, the present research aims to identify the economic efficiency of diets supplemented with domestically produced pulses – faba beans, peas and lupine beans – for captive deer. The research conducted a feeding experiment on captive deer (Cervus elaphus) kept in fenced areas to identify the economic efficiency of diets supplemented with three legume species: peas (variety ‘Vitra’), faba beans (variety ‘Fuego’) and narrow-leaved lupin seeds (variety ‘Boregine’). Deer productivity was assessed by live weight, live weight gain, feed intake and protein efficiency ratio during the experimental period, as well as feed cost per live weight gain unit. The research found that feeding deer diets containing peas, faba beans and lupine beans as protein-rich feedstuffs was economically advantageous – at the same cost of feed, deer productivity increased and per-unit production costs decreased. Live weight gains during the experimental period were 1.02% higher in group 2 (pea diet), 1.78% higher in group 3 (faba bean diet) and 2.91% higher in group 4 (lupine diet) than in the control group. During the experimental period, the highest protein efficiency ratio was found in group 4 fed a diet containing lupine beans – a unit of protein fed (1 kg) yielded the highest weight gain or 0.43 kg. Feed costs per kg of live weight gain were the lowest in group 4 (2.32 EUR kg-1), 2.48 EUR kg-1 in group 3 and 2.70 EUR kg-1 in group 2, which was 20.56%, 14.81% and 7.39%, respectively, lower than those in the control group.

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xxx D. Ruska and D. Jonkus
Effect of dietary crude protein concentration on milk productivity traits in early lactation dairy cows
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Effect of dietary crude protein concentration on milk productivity traits in early lactation dairy cows

D. Ruska* and D. Jonkus

Latvia University of Life sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Animal Sciences, Liela Street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: diana.ruska@llu.lv

Abstract:

The evaluation and control of nitrogen balance at the farm and its relation to milk productivity traits are becoming essential in dairy farming. Increasing in milk productivity farmers tend to increase protein content in feed. The research complied into three (A, B, C) dairy cow groups (8 cows in each group) with LB and HM breed’s cows in the early lactation period divided into three phases (I, II, III) from 10 till 30 lactation days and lasting to 90 lactation days. Each group cows were feeders with total mixed ration (TMR) with different CP content (approx. 17.0%; 16.0%; 15.0% accordingly). The amount of feed consumed by each cow were recorded and feed samples collected during the study. Feed samples were analysed for CP and other feed quality descriptive traits. Milk yield ( kg d-1) and milk samples were collected at day 21 of each phase for analysis. Milk samples were analysed for fat (%), total protein (%), casein (%), and urea content (mg dL-1). The statistical analyses were conducted using ANOVA and descriptive parameters. To evaluate the feed CP conversion efficiency estimated part of that in the yield of milk protein for each cow and on average for the study group in each study phase. The conversion efficiencies of feed CP in milk were ranged from 28.5% to 40.7% in study phase I, and from 33.0% to 39.9% in phase II, and the differences were statistically significant. In phase III, the range from 30.4% to 36.3% were not statistically significant.
The objective of this study was to evaluation of feed protein conversion efficiency for dairy cows in the early lactation phase and define the optimal crude protein (CP) content in the feed.

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xxx L. Zarina, L. Zarina, D. Piliksere and S. Cerina
Gross margin comparison of cultivation of different legume species in the organic farming system
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Gross margin comparison of cultivation of different legume species in the organic farming system

L. Zarina¹*, L. Zarina², D. Piliksere¹ and S. Cerina¹

¹Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, Zinatnes street 2, LV 4126 Priekuli, Latvia
²Latvia University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Liela street 2, LV 2001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: livija.zarina@arei.lv

Abstract:

In order to identify the most suitable varieties for organic farming, the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics in 2018 started study four legume species. The independent variables of the study were the legume genotypes: faba bean (Vicia faba L., cv. ‘Isabell’, ‘Lielplatone’, ‘Laura’, ‘Boxer’), field pea (Pisum sativum L, cv. ‘Astronaute’, ‘Bruno’, ‘Rebekka’, ‘Zaiga’), narrow lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L., cv. ‘Sonet’, ‘Probor’, ‘Derliai’, ‘Haags Blau’), and soya (Glycine max L., cv. ‘Annucha’, ‘Sculptor’, ‘Augusta’). The soil types of the experimental organic field were sod–podzolic, sandy loam, and loamy sand. At the start of the study the organic substance concentration was 15–18 mg kg-1, pHKCl was 5.3–5.98, the concentration of plant – available phosphorus (P205) was 133.2–182.9 mg kg-1, and the concentration of potassium (K2O) – 69.2–109.7 mg kg-1. Green manure (buckwheat) was a pre-crop, incorporated in autumn. For the comparison of economic indicators, the gross coverage calculation was used, which based on the difference obtained by subtracting variable costs from the valuation of gross output. All variable costs and revenues were included in the gross margin calculation without value added tax. The study indicated large differences in yields between genotypes. From the economic point of view, the most suitable cultivars for cultivation according to the organic farming method were: field beans – ‘Isabell’ and ‘Lielplatone’ with average gross cover (GC), 505.40 and 504.60 EUR, respectively, field peas – ‘Bruno’ (GC 379.60 EUR), narrow-leaved lupin – ‘Derliai’ (GC 647.70 EUR), soybeans – ‘Sculptor’ (GC 204.40 EUR). Among the legume species studied, lupine showed the highest economic performance, among the genotypes – cultivar ‘Derliai’ (α = 0.05).

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xxx G.P. Slesarev, T.V. Glukhareva, K.C. Duru, V.A. Shevyrin, P.N. Lyubyakina and E.G. Kovaleva
Comparative study of extraction of soy molasses isoflavones and in vivo bioconversion of daidzein into S-equol in rats models
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Comparative study of extraction of soy molasses isoflavones and in vivo bioconversion of daidzein into S-equol in rats models

G.P. Slesarev*, T.V. Glukhareva, K.C. Duru, V.A. Shevyrin, P.N. Lyubyakina and E.G. Kovaleva

Ural Federal University named after the First President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Mira Str. 19, 620002 Yekaterinburg, Russia *Correspondence: grigory.slesarev@urfu.ru

Abstract:

We compared different extraction methods for isolation of isoflavones from soybean molasses. Since conventional extraction methods are time-consuming, expensive and unsustainable, we have compared them with the NADES extraction method, which does not have these disadvantages. Fermentation-assisted technique and extraction with Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NADES) were compared to the conventional extraction methods. Based on the results obtained, we selected the optimal technique for isoflavones isolation. Isoflavones were identified by gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometer (GC-MS), whereas their quantities were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In vivo metabolism of daidzein to S-equol was performed in rats with quantification of a yield of S-equol as a result of daidzein in vivo conversion in rats’ intestines.

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xxx L. Prysiazhniuk, O. Topchii, Z. Kyienko, S. Tkachyk and S. Melnyk
The ecological adaptation of new spring canola varieties in different environmental conditions
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The ecological adaptation of new spring canola varieties in different environmental conditions

L. Prysiazhniuk*, O. Topchii, Z. Kyienko, S. Tkachyk and S. Melnyk

Ukrainian Institute for Plant Variety Examination, Henerala Rodimtseva 15, RU 0341 Kyiv, Ukraine
*Correspondence: prysiazhniuk_l@ukr.net

Abstract:

The study of phenotypic plasticity and stability, according to which the potential of new spring canola varieties adaptability for agroecological technology of spring canola growing in the strategy of intensification of plant production is actual. The new canola varieties, which were included in the State register of plant varieties suitable for dissemination in Ukraine was studied. Field studies were carried out in 2018–2019 on the testing sites of the Ukrainian Institute for Plant Variety Examination in Forest and Forest Steppe zones of Ukraine. The phenotypic plasticity and stability analysis for yield, 1,000 seeds weight, protein and oil content were carried out according to the Eberhart and Russell approach. As results of this study, it was determined that for yield Cleopatra and SAOKER CL varieties are considered as stable. CEBRA CL and Lavina varieties are characterized stability of 1,000 seeds weight during studied years. According to the Wricke’s ecovalence deviation and standard deviation Lavina, Lakritz and CEBRA CL varieties consider as intensive type varieties for yield; for 1,000 seeds weight – Cleopatra and SAOKER CL varieties. According to standard deviation for protein and oil content CEBRA CL and SAOKER CL varieties are considered as highly adapted. Cleopatra, Lavina and Lakritz are stable for protein content. For oil content CEBRA CL and SAOKER CL varieties are considered as stable. For protein content CEBRA CL and SAOKER CL varieties are intensive. Thus, spring canola varieties, which are intensive for studied characteristics, respond positively to an improvement of growing conditions.

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xxx N. Patel, L. Zihare, and D. Blumberga
Evaluation of bioresources validation
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Evaluation of bioresources validation

N. Patel*, L. Zihare, and D. Blumberga

Riga Technical University, Faculty of Environmental Science, Department of Environmental Protection and Heat Systems, Azenes street 12-K1, LV1048 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: nidhiben-arvindbhai.patel@rtu.lv

Abstract:

A major worldwide problem is the degradation of energy sources and the wide amount of waste products from industries, households, or from any other human activities. But what if both problems can be solved by one solution? Extensive data show that validation of bioresources increases the production of the value-added product. The assessment is based on a scenario approach. A vast literature review was performed, to investigate the alternative application pathways for various types of non-primary bioresources. Multicriteria analysis is considered as the current gold standard technique for bioresources valorisation and is proved for two cases. Firstly, we present tests that evaluate the performance of different pre-treatment methods in order to extract fibre from Hogweed biomass. Secondly, we assess the resilience of our approach using Multi-criteria analysis for brewers’ spent grain to find out the best value-added product. The results demonstrate the adequacy of the method for Hogweed biomass and brewers’ spent grain valorisation.

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xxx E. Shalavina, A. Briukhanov and R. Uvarov
Effective application of mass balance method: case of organic fertiliser produced from pig slurry
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Effective application of mass balance method: case of organic fertiliser produced from pig slurry

E. Shalavina*, A. Briukhanov and R. Uvarov

Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution “Federal Scientific Agroengineering Center VIM”, branch in Saint Petersburg, Department of Agroecological Engineering, Filtrovskoje shosse, 3, p.o. Tiarlevo, RU196625 Saint Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: shalavinaev@mail.ru

Abstract:

The study aimed to verify the applicability of the mass balance method in calculating quantity and quality of an organic fertiliser produced from unseparated pig slurry in a pig-fattening complex in the Leningrad Region. The amount of manure at ex-animal level and its nutrient content, required for further calculations of ex-housing manure and resulting organic fertiliser at ex-storage, were calculated by applied diets and feed DM digestibility. Calculated values were compared with the norms from relevant Russian regulatory documents. The regulatory values of manure nitrogen were 22% smaller than the calculated ones. On the contrary, the standard values of manure phosphorus and potassium exceeded the calculated ones by 72% and 73%, respectively. The nutrient content of the organic fertiliser was calculated by the farm data on pig housing and slurry processing systems. The values calculated by the mass balance method were compared with those from the analysis reports issued by the certified laboratory. The difference did not exceed 20%: 11.2% for N, 13.3% for P, and 18.7% for K. This way, the mass balance method can be effectively used for calculating the characteristics of pig slurry-based organic fertiliser. On the contrary, the data from the current regulatory manure management documents showed the low reliability in the part of the physicochemical properties of fattening pig manure. These documents do not take into account the changes in the fattening pig diets with modern special concentrated feeds, which have a major effect on the manure nutrient content.

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xxx K. Naglis-Liepa, L. Proškina, L. Paula and D. Kaufmane
Modelling the multiplier effect of a local food system
Abstract |
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Modelling the multiplier effect of a local food system

K. Naglis-Liepa¹*, L. Proškina¹, L. Paula² and D. Kaufmane²

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Economics and Social Development, Institute of Economics and Regional development, 18 Svetes street, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Economics and Social Development, Institute of Social and Human Sciences, 18 Svetes street, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: ef08389@llu.lv

Abstract:

Revitalisation of rural communities, benefits for local farmers and environment are expected outcomes of local food initiatives which are emerging as an opposition to the adverse social and economic effects of globalization. Local food networks diversify the rural economy, promote greater economic independence and local potential, improve the area’s image and reduce GHG emissions. The purchase of local food increases incomes of both the community and local producers, as well as increases employment and related multiplier effects at the local level, for example, increased value of new production, import substitution, increased incomes, and created additional jobs. Revitalisation of rural communities, benefits for local farmers and environment are expected outcomes of local food initiatives which are emerging as an opposition to the adverse social and economic effects of globalization It has been revealed that much of current research on local and regional food networks lacks a strong theoretical grounding and quantitative rigor; however, community development practitioners and planners need objective and research-based information for food system design and implementation in order to produce community or regional wellbeing. The aim of the paper is to develop the concept of an integrated assessment model of local food systems based on the analysis of the literature, which would provide a basis for empirical analysis. The analysis model contains dimensions of sustainable development, allowing us to assess not only direct effects (income, reduced greenhouse gas emissions etc.) but also indirect ones (economic, social and environmental resilience of local communities).

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xxx V. Bisters, J. Kalviss, J. Burlakovs and M. Klavins
Algae processing for energy production: development of waste pyrolysis technology
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Algae processing for energy production: development of waste pyrolysis technology

V. Bisters, J. Kalviss, J. Burlakovs and M. Klavins*

Department of Environmental Science, University of Latvia, Raina bulv. 19, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: maris.klavins@lu.lv

Abstract:

Waste processing accordingly to waste-to-energy concept remains a major challenge to deal with growing amounts of different waste types. The aim of the study is to expand the knowledge base for biomass waste thermochemical processing into syngas and biochar on example of algae waste treatment. In accordance to this concept, waste pyrolysis technology is further advanced by evaluating, studying and adapting the most technologically and economically feasible approach and by developing a pilot scale facility with the aim to demonstrate its potential to offer the industry an innovative solution for solid waste processing. The study includes theoretical background for thermal recovery of organic waste, with application of specifics of algae waste (beach wrack). Algae waste thermochemical processing and gas analysis are tested both for process of torrefied material and with full ash content characterisation. Additional algae waste proximate/ultimate analysis were done. The synthesis gas produced by the pyrolysis process contain 30–60% CH4, 5–12% H2, 20–40% CO (remaining CO2, N2) and thus can be used for heating purposes. The another algae waste pyrolysis product – biochar is enriched with mineral components thus increasing its application potential in agriculture, however in can be used also for energy production purposes. Thermal analytics of beach wreck undertaken on different type of samples to be common for the Baltic Sea area and projections on application of gasification technology for upscale at municipality level is analysed with a view to application for municipality larger amount material.

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xxx B. Yameogo, R.R. Andrade, C.G.S. Teles Júnior, G.S. Laud, V. Becciolini, L. Leso, G. Rossi and M. Barbari
Behavioural patterns of cows housed in two different typologies of compost-bedded pack barns
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Behavioural patterns of cows housed in two different typologies of compost-bedded pack barns

B. Yameogo¹, R.R. Andrade², C.G.S. Teles Júnior³, G.S. Laud⁴, V. Becciolini¹, L. Leso¹, G. Rossi¹ and M. Barbari¹*

¹University of Florence, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry, Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
²Federal University of Viçosa, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n Campus University of Viçosa, BR 36570-900, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil
³Federal Rural University of the Amazon, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Av. Perimetral, Terra Firme, BR 66077830, Belém, Pará, Brazil
⁴Federal University of Viçosa, Department of Animal Science, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n Campus University of Viçosa, BR 36570-900, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil
*Correspondence: matteo.barbari@unifi.it

Abstract:

The compost-bedded pack barn (CBP) is an innovative housing technique which has the improvement of animal welfare as main objective. A comparative study of the behaviour of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows housed in two different compost-bedded pack barns located in the State of Minas Gerais (Brazil) was carried out during the winter season. One barn (CBP A) is closed and applies a wind tunnel ventilation (negative pressure). A second barn (CBP B) is open with natural ventilation, without curtains on the sides, and has fans placed in the resting area. Infrared video cameras were installed in the two barns to allow continuous and simultaneous monitoring of cows’ behaviour. Air temperature and relative humidity inside the barns were monitored continuously and Temperature-Humidity Index was consequently calculated. The results show that the cows housed in the closed barn, with forced ventilation (CBP A), were in good thermal conditions, which were fairly constant, while in the open barn (CBP B) the internal microclimatic conditions were more subject to outside climatic conditions. A close relationship was found between the trend of air temperature and relative humidity inside the facilities and the behaviour of the cows. The number of cows at rest, in CBP B, decreased as the THI value rose. In CBP A, the behaviour of the cows in relation to THI was much more constant.

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xxx J.A. Osorio S, V. González, P.F.P. Ferraz, G.A.S. Ferraz and F.A. Damasceno
Thermal comfort assessment in a typological non-isolated maternity pig sheds with different types of farrowing systems
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Thermal comfort assessment in a typological non-isolated maternity pig sheds with different types of farrowing systems

J.A. Osorio S¹*, V. González², P.F.P. Ferraz³, G.A.S. Ferraz³ and F.A. Damasceno⁴

¹Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Department of Food and Agricultural Engineering, Medellín campus, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Carrera 65 #59A-110, Postal code 050034 Medellín, Colombia
²Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Department of animal production, Medellín campus, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Grupo de Investigación en Biodiversidad y Genética Molecular (BIOGEM), Carrera 65 #59A-110, Postal code 050034 Medellín, Colombia
³Federal University of Lavras (UFLA), Department of Agricultural Engineering, Campus Universitário, PO Box 3037, CEP 37200-000 Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
⁴Federal University of Lavras (UFLA), Department of Engineering, Lavras, Câmpus Universitário, Caixa Postal 3037, CEP 37200-000 • Lavras/MG
*Correspondence: aosorio@unal.edu.co

Abstract:

Swine facilities in tropical climates, especially the maternity, have worked with typological systems that have been little studied to determine the influence of the type of farrowing on microenvironmental conditions and its effect on both the sows and the piglets’ physiological parameters. Therefore, the aim of the research was evaluate the thermal environment (Temperature Humidity Index – THI and Radiant Thermal Load – RTL) and its influence on some physiological parameters (respiratory frequency – RF and rectal temperature – TRectal) in the sows and piglets in two different types of farrowing systems (Traditional and Slatted), in a typological swine facility located in tropical climates in Colombia. The findings showed that in the two systems, both for sows and piglets, the type of farrowing system did not generate significant differences in the physiological responses RF and TRectal. Also, the RTL did not show significant differences in the two types of farrowing system at the piglets and the sows’ level, without exceeding the maximum allowed levels. Temperature-Humidity Index was above the threshold during all experimental time, being slightly higher at the piglets’ level with Slatted systems. These results show that the type of floor has little impact on the conditions of animal thermal comfort at the sows and piglets’ level. However, variables like low-temperature, low radiant energy exchange, and high humidity, which were found mainly at the piglets’ level, could have the highest incidence for not achieving a suitable microenvironment. This means that almost all Colombian pig farming facilities require a redesign of their farrowing system to guarantee better thermal conditions for both piglets and sows.

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xxx T. Saller, D. Herak, C. Mizera and A. Kabutey
Linear compression behaviour of oil palm empty fruit bunches
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Linear compression behaviour of oil palm empty fruit bunches

T. Saller, D. Herak*, C. Mizera and A. Kabutey

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kamycka 129, CZ16500 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: herak@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The study describes the mechanical behaviour of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) as a promising product for pyrolysis production. The EFB samples mixture of moisture content 6.3 ± 0.3 (% d.b.) were grouped into different fraction sizes of 10, 20, 40 and 100 mm. The initial pressing height of each fraction size was measured at 60 mm and compressed at a maximum force of 4,500 N and speed of 10 mm min-1 to obtain the force-deformation dependencies using the universal compression machine and pressing vessel of diameter 60 mm with a plunger. Deformation, deformation energy, volume energy and strain were calculated. While deformation decreased with fraction sizes, deformation energy increased. The deformation energies at fraction sizes from 10 mm to 100 mm indicated energy savings of approximately 23%. The optimal fraction size in relation to energy efficiency was observed at 10 mm. The tangent model accurately described the mechanical behaviour of the EFB samples mixture. The results provide useful information for the design of optimal technology for processing EFB for energy purposes.

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xxx A. Valge, A. Sukhoparov and E. Papushin
Strategic planning of grass forage production in North-West Russia
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Strategic planning of grass forage production in North-West Russia

A. Valge, A. Sukhoparov and E. Papushin*

Federal Scientific Agroengineering Center VIM, branch in Saint Petersburg, Filtrovskoje Shosse 3, p.o. Tiarlevo, RU196625 Saint Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: papushinea@yandex.ru

Abstract:

Energy and nutritional value of harvested forage rely heavily on grass vegetative phase and harvesting time. The study aimed to identify rational forage harvesting options in terms of harvesting time. The data for modelling were taken from the literature based on the results of many years’ research. The mathematical models of variation of grass mass and quality depending on days after emergence were created. The possible options of two-step harvesting of forage grass (cocksfoot, Dactylis glomerata) were considered using mathematical methods of nonlinear programming: (1) obtaining maximum hay mass with maximum feed units from specified area of 400 ha and maximum forage yield at full flowering of 15.0 t ha-1; and (2) identifying the harvesting timing and area to obtain the required amount of hay (2,500 t) with a target nutrient content (1,200 feed units). Problem 1 solution was harvesting 1 scheduled for the 45th day after emergence at full earing on 170 ha; harvesting 2 scheduled for the 69th day after emergence at full flowering on 230 ha. In this case, 2,066.5 t of hay with 947 feed units would be obtained. Problem 2 solution was harvesting 1 scheduled for the 43th day after emergence at middle earing on 250 ha; harvesting 2 scheduled for the 65th day after emergence at early flowering on 156 ha. The created models can be effectively applied for forage harvesting in any grassland area required and in any regions.

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xxx E. Timofeev and A. Erk
Perspectives for biogas generation from manure on the farms in the Leningrad Region of the Russian Federation
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Perspectives for biogas generation from manure on the farms in the Leningrad Region of the Russian Federation

E. Timofeev* and A. Erk

Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution ‘Federal Scientific Agroengineering Center VIM’, branch in Saint Petersburg, Filtrovskoje shosse, 3 p.o. Tiarlevo, RU 196625 Saint Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: timofeev_ev84@mail.ru

Abstract:

The interest in biogas in the Leningrad Region is consistently growing. Biogas can replace fossil fuels in different applications and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The study aimed to demonstrate the perspectives for its generation from livestock waste and further farm application. The farm energy audits identified the pattern of fuel and energy consumption. Computational and statistical methods were applied to estimate the biogas generation. First, the study considered a cattle farm with 1,800 head and manure output of 43,300 t year-1. According to calculations, the farm can fully meet its own needs for electricity or motor fuel by converting the manure into biogas. Meanwhile, the fuel use of biogas can reduce pollutant emissions by almost 30% against conventional fuel. Secondly, the study estimated the biogas production potential from the farm organic waste in the whole Leningrad Region with the total cattle stock of 165,000 head, pig stock of 184,000 head, and poultry stock of 29,180,000 head, producing about 8 million t year-1 of animal/poultry manure. According to calculations, the livestock waste processing will yield up to 500 million m3 of biogas. This is enough to fully cover the energy inputs of the farms in this region. However, the payback period for biogas plants is above eight years. The positive aspects of biogas application are introducing biogas in the farm energy balance as an energy resource; reducing the hazardous emissions owing to the improved processing of organic farm waste; obtaining high-quality fertilisers to consequently increase crop yields.

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xxx S.M.P. Teixeira, C.S.A.M. Maduro Dias, C.F.M. Vouzela, J.S Madruga and A.E.S. Borba
Nutritive characterization of Musa spp and its effects on in vitro Rumen fermentation characteristics
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Nutritive characterization of Musa spp and its effects on in vitro Rumen fermentation characteristics

S.M.P. Teixeira*, C.S.A.M. Maduro Dias, C.F.M. Vouzela, J.S Madruga and A.E.S. Borba

University of the Azores, FCAA, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Research and Technology, Rua Capitão João d’Ávila, 9700-042 Angra do Heroísmo, Açores, Portugal
*Correspondence: sofia.mp.teixeira@uac.pt

Abstract:

This research aims to study the effect of nutritive value of Musa spp on animal feed. Residues of banana culture, leaves and stems, could be used as a fibre source for animal feeding, especially in Banana producing areas, such as Macaronesia Archipelagos, avoiding wastes and supplementing periods of scarcity of food.
Musa spp were collected and dried at 65 °C in an oven with controlled air circulation. The pseudostems were divided in three different portions and chemical composition, in vitro digestibility, and in vitro gas production were determined. Regarding dry matter results, they were low (16.54% in leaves and 6.54% DM% in pseudostem), crude protein raging 11.25 DM% in leaves and 7.25% in pseudostem. Concerning fiber values, NDF is higher in leaves (70.07 DM%) than in pseudostems (52.11 DM%) and ADL is higher in leaves (9.90 DM%) comparing with pseudostems (6.21 DM%). In vitro DM digestibility is low, (24.42% in leaves and 42.69% in pseudostem), corroborating the NDF values. Cumulative gas production was recorded at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of incubation. The results showed that the gas production in leaves was lower (11.36 mL 200 mg˗1 DM) when compared to pseudostem (23.81 mL 200 mg˗1 DM), being so in accordance with the digestibility results.
The current study suggested that this by-product can be used in animal feed, however, it will be necessary to carry out tests to improve its nutritional value, namely with NaOH and/or with Urea, being a promising strategy for improving ruminant feed efficiency.

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