Volume 7 (2009)
  Special Issue I

Plant production:
Soil fertility and nutrient management
Crop rotation, fertilisers and cultivars
Cropping Systems
Weed and pest management
Organic farming and environment

NJF seminar 422
Fostering healthy food systems through organic agriculture – Focus on Nordic-Baltic Region

International Scientific Conference Tartu, Estonia, August 25–27, 2009

Conference and volume information – PDF (148 K)
Journal information – PDF (119 K)
Contents – PDF (156 K)

Contents


Pages

143-148 A. Adamavičienė, K. Romaneckas, E. Šarauskis and V. Pilipavičius
Non-chemical weed control in sugar beet crop under an intensive and conservation soil tillage pattern: II. Crop productivity
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Non-chemical weed control in sugar beet crop under an intensive and conservation soil tillage pattern: II. Crop productivity

A. Adamavičienė¹, K. Romaneckas¹, E. Šarauskis² and V. Pilipavičius¹

¹Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Dept. of Soil Management, Studentu 11, LT-53067Akademija, Kaunas r., Lithuania; Tel.: +370 37 75 22 33, Fax: +370 37 75 22 93;e-mail: kestas.romaneckas@lzuu.lt, romanr@one.lt, vytautas.pilipavicius@lzuu.lt
²Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Dept. of Agricultural Machinery, Studentu 11, LT-53067Akademija, Kaunas r., Lithuania; Tel.: +370 37 75 23 57; e-mail: egidijus.sarauskis@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

The experiment was conducted with a silty loam (Hipogleyic Luvisol (Calcaric)) at the Experimental Station of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture during 2004-2005. The soil was of neutral pH, medium rich in humus, phosphorus and with a low content of potassium. The aim of the experiment was to establish the influence of soil tillage intensity, living and straw mulch on sugar beet yield and quality: root ramification, sucrose, sodium, potassium and alpha amino nitrogen contents. The soil of the trial was tilled (factor A) intensively (loosening, ploughing) (IT) and minimally (conservation tillage – loosening) (CT). Non-chemical weed control (factor B) was applied: hand weeding, twice (control variant) (HW); spring barley (SBM), annual ryegrass (ARM), white mustard (WMM), spring oilseed rape (SRM) living mulches and winter wheat straw mulch (WSM).According to the results of the experiment, at lower temperature and average precipitationvegetation conditions (2004), a significantly higher yield of sugar beet roots was found in intensively tilled soils. In conditions of higher temperatures and uneven rainfall distribution (2005) we observed converse results. Different soil tillage had no significant influence on the quality of the roots; however, sugar beet roots were more ramified in the intensively tilled soil. The allopathic and choking properties of annual ryegrass decreased sugar beet crop yield, sucrose content and increased the amount of sodium in the roots. The highest sugar beet crop productivity was observed in the following conditions: hand weeded, covered by straw or in the plots with oil seed rape living mulch.

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149-155 A. Arlauskienė, A. Šlepetienė, S. Maikštėnienė and D. Nemeikšienė
The variation of mobile humic acids and mineral nitrogen in the soil as affected by the use of perennial grasses for green manure
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The variation of mobile humic acids and mineral nitrogen in the soil as affected by the use of perennial grasses for green manure

A. Arlauskienė¹, A. Šlepetienė², S. Maikštėnienė¹ and D. Nemeikšienė¹

¹Joniškėlis Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture,Joniškėlis, LT–39301, Pasvalys distr., Lithuania; e-mail: joniskelio_lzi@post.omnitel.net
²Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Akademija, LT 58344, Kėdainiai distr., Lithuania;e-mail: alvyra@lzi.lt

Abstract:

The paper presents the findings of the experiments conducted on a clay loam gleyic Cambisol at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s Joniškėlis Research Station and the results of analyses done at LIA’s Laboratory of Chemical Research in 2007–2008. The tests were designed to establish the effects of the use of perennial grasses – red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), lucerne (Medicago sativa L.), their mixtures with festulolium (x Festulolium), pure festulolium and their biomass as green manure on the variation and migration of mobile humic acids and mineral nitrogen in the soil of organic farms. Experimental evidence indicated that the content of mobile humic acids depended little on the plant species, however, when mixed management of the aboveground mass of perennial grasses (herbage of the first cut is removed from the field; second and third cut herbage left for green manure) was used, it increased significantly compared with the treatment where herbage had been removed from the field. Before ploughing-in of perennial grasses, the content of Nmin. in the 0–30 cm soil layer was significantly reduced (by 18.3 and 10.1%) by the cultivation of red clover and lucerne in mixtures with festulolium, compared with pure crops of respective legumes. The averaged data suggest that the highest Nmin. content in the soil was recorded in the treatments where mixed management of herbage had been used compared with the treatments where herbage had been removed from the field. In late autumn, 2.5 months after herbage ploughing-in, Nmin. concentration in the –30 cm and 3–60 cm soil layers increased by 8.9–53.9%, 7.8–93.7%, compared with that present in the soil at the end of August. Significantly lower Nmin. concentration in the 0–30 cm soil layer was found after festulolium cultivation, compared with red clover, and its content was also the lowest in the deeper layer (30–60 cm). When the herbage of perennial grasses had been used as green manure by four–time mulching, Nmin concentration significantly increased in the topsoil layer (0–30 cm) by 23.1% and tended to increase in the deeper soil layer (30–60 cm) by 11.4%.

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156-161 O. Auškalnienė and A. Auškalnis
The influence of tillage system on diversities of soil weed seed bank
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The influence of tillage system on diversities of soil weed seed bank

O. Auškalnienė and A. Auškalnis

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture,Instituto Alėja 1, LT – 58344, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr.;e-mail: ona@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Field experiments with different soil tillage systems were conducted in 2003–2006 at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture. Investigations to evaluate effects of soil tillage regime on weed seed bank and distribution in the soil layers were made after four years of experimentation. A total of 17 weed species were found in the soil seed bank; 98 % – annual dicotyledonous. The most abundant weed species in the seed bank were Chenopodium album, Lamium purpureum and Stellaria media. The highest number of weed seed species was found in treatments with reduced and no-tillage treatments in a soil layer of 0–5cm. In deeper soil layers, 5–10, 10–20, no differences in species number of weed seeds were found.

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162-168 A. Auškalnis and O. Auškalnienė
Harrowing timing for winter wheat and spring barley under organically growing conditions
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Harrowing timing for winter wheat and spring barley under organically growing conditions

A. Auškalnis and O. Auškalnienė

Lithuanian Institute of AgricultureInstituto Alėja 1, LT – 58344, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr.; e-mail: albinas@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Field trials were conducted over the period of 2005–2007 at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture to test the efficacy of harrowing on weeds at different growth stages of ecologically grown winter wheat and spring barley. The main weeds in winter wheat were: Lamium sp., Chenopodium album, Tripleurospermum inodorum, Capsella bursa-pastoris and in spring barley Ch.album, Sinapis arvensis, Stellaria media, T. inodorum. The weeds most vulnerable to harrowing in winter wheat were: Veronica sp., Chenopodium album and Capsella bursa pastoris. Chenopodium album and Sinapis arvensis were vulnerable to harrowing in spring barley. Early harrowing pre-emergence followed with harrowing at the 3–4 leave stage of spring barley was the most optimal.Winter wheat grain yield reduction tendencies were obtained in plots harrowed threetimes. No statistical difference in spring barley grain yield was found among the treatments. The decrease in weed number and mass depended on harrowing timing and frequency, meteorological conditions and weed species composition.

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169-174 O. Auškalnienė, A. Kadžys, A. Auškalnis and G. Pšibišauskienė
Weed emergence and survival in spring barley
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Weed emergence and survival in spring barley

O. Auškalnienė, A. Kadžys, A. Auškalnis and G. Pšibišauskienė

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture
Instituto Alėja 1, LT – 58344, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr.;
e-mail:algis@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Weed emergence and survival in spring barley was investigated in field trials at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in 2003–2005 and 2008.The soil of the experimental site – Endocalcary-Endohypogleyic Cambisol, loam.Conventional soil tillage moldboard ploughing in the autumn and pre-sowing soil tillage in spring – was used. Spring barley var ‘Luokė’ during 2003–2005 and ‘Aura DS’ in 2008 was sown in the second half of April, at a rate of 4.0 million seed ha-1. Weed emergence was observed in nine unsprayed plots of barley, in 4 places per plot (total 36 places), sites of 50 x 50 cm in size were marked, where all weeds present were counted weekly from sowing until the end of heading.There were found 11–20 weed species in the spring barley stands. In an extremely dryspring the weed species number was lowest. 36% of all the weeds that emerged in the spring barley growing period emerged during the first assesment performed at the second decade of May.Weed survival depends on the general weed number in the field and cropdevelopment. When weediness was quite low, later emerged weeds were not able to compete with barley and earlier-emerged weeds.

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175-182 E. Baksiene
The influence of lake sediments on the fertility of Cambisol
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The influence of lake sediments on the fertility of Cambisol

E. Baksiene

Voke Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Žalioji aikštė 2, Trakų Vokė,LT-02232 Vilnius; e- mail: eugenija.baksiene@voke.lzi.lt

Abstract:

Lake sediments as a potential fertilizer were studied at the Voke Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during 1994–2004. The aim of the research was to establish the influence of lake sediments and their mixtures with other organic matter (manure, sewage) on the crop yield and soil agrochemical and physical properties; to compare the effect of sediments with that of a sediment-manure mixture.Experimental evidence suggests that lake sediments had no effect on soil acidity. Thehigher rate of sediments (100 t ha-1) increased the content of total nitrogen in the soil by 0.002–0.021 and humus by 0.53 percentage units. Application of lake sediments had a positive impact on the quality of physical properties of sandy loam Cambisol. Various rates of sediments increased the soil moisture content and porosity, and declined soil bulk density. The rate of lake sediments 50,100 t ha-1 increased the productivity of crop rotation by 8–30%, manure – by 21–25%. Fertilization with lake sediments at a rate of 100 t ha-1 and pure manure produced 25–30% of the yield of energy units per year.

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183-190 E. Bakšienė, A. Ražukas and T.L. Nedzinskienė
Effects of organic farming and crop rotations on crop productivity and nutrient amount in the soil
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Effects of organic farming and crop rotations on crop productivity and nutrient amount in the soil

E. Bakšienė, A. Ražukas and T.L. Nedzinskienė

Voke Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Žalioji aikštė 2, Trakų Vokė,LT-02232 Vilnius Lithuania; e-mail: eugenija.baksiene@voke.lzi.lt

Abstract:

The trials were carried out at the Voke Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during the period 2003–2007 and were designed to investigate the influence of organic (without fertilizers) and sustainable farming systems on plants (the plants were fertilized only with bonemeal as a source of phosphorus and magnesia of potassium as a source of potassium) and to explore their productivity, chemical properties of soil and balance of nutrients in the soil.The experiments were conducted in the trial field with 4 treatments, in various croprotations with the plants grown for green manure for the soil supply with nitrogen (the main nutritional element of sandy loam soil) without mineral fertilizers.The experimental results show that higher productivity was achieved when cultivatingplants after green manure of lupines and white mustard. We established negative nitrogen, phosphorus (except in the sustainable farming system) and potassium balance in the soil. The use of various crop rotations in all farming systems on sandy loam Haplic Luvisol showed that there was no definite effect on soil acidity but an increase in the total nitrogen and organic carbon content in the soil was observed. The amount of phosphorus increased and potassium decreased only in the organic farming system. Phosphorus and potassium amounts in the soil increased in the sustainable farming system.

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191-197 L. Balezentiene and E. Klimas
Effect of organic and mineral fertilizers and land management on soil enzyme activities
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Effect of organic and mineral fertilizers and land management on soil enzyme activities

L. Balezentiene and E. Klimas

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentų 11, Akademija LT– 53361, Kaunas distr.;e–mail: ligita.balezentiene@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

Sustainable and rational management of agrophytocenoses depends on various bio-indices and methods of application, particularly the development and protection of soil resources (Lai et al., 2002). Among other indices, enzyme activity is proposed as a universal index of soil fertility and contamination (Dilly et al., 2003). To ascertain and to make a comparison of bioactivity variation during the vegetation period, soil (Endophypogleyi-Eutric Planasols-Ple-gln-w, artificial drainage) samples were collected from rotation fields of different fertilizing and farming systems (intensive (IF) and organic (OF)) at the Training farm of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture during 2007–2008. N application stimulated urease and saccharase activity in different farming systems (OF and IF) and fertilizing management (manure and mineral fertilizers). When comparing mean soil bioactivity values of 2 years the highest manure effect was detected in the application year (winter wheat treatment) and conditioned the highest urease (8.21 mg NH +–4N g-1) and saccharase (24.52 mg CG g-1 24 h-1)activity but gradually decreased later. The lowest mean of urease (3.62 mg NH +–4N g-1) andsaccharase (22.07 mg CG g-1 24 h-1) activity occurred in IF soil where mineral fertilizers were applied. Soil bioactivity properties (urease and saccharase activity) were positively correlated with soil nutrients (Corg., Ntotal). Urease and saccharase activity properties reflect changes of fertilizer type and management and thus can be used as bio-indicators of soil fertility.

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198-203 B. Bankina and Z. Gaile
Evaluation of barley disease development depending on varieties
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Evaluation of barley disease development depending on varieties

B. Bankina¹ and Z. Gaile²

¹Institute of Soil and Plant Science, Latvia University of Agriculture, Liela 2, Jelgava, Latvia;e-mail: Biruta.Bankina@llu.lv
²Institute of Agrobiotechnology, Latvia University of Agriculture, Liela 2, Jelgava, Latvia;e-mail: Zinta.Gaile@llu.lv

Abstract:

Resistance against diseases is one of the key factors for plant varieties used in organic farming systems. Official variety trials in a certified organic field were inspected during 2004–2008 in the Research and Study farm “Vecauce”of LLU.Net blotch (caused by Pyrenophora teres) and mildew (caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei) were the most significant diseases in spring barley. Rust (caused by Puccinia hordei (syn. P. anomala) was observed very seldom and leaf scald (caused by Rhynchosporium secalis) was noted only in 2008 for a new breeding line, G 131.The incidence of net blotch fluctuated from 0–100% depending on year and variety, butthe incidence of mildew was 3–100%. The incidence of barley rust did not exceed 29% (severity only 0.7%).The obtained data gave general information about the spectrum of diseases, but they areinconsistent and are seriously influenced by meteorological conditions: artificial inoculation is necessary for better variety selection, especially for organic farming.

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204-209 N. Burbulis, A. Blinstrubienė, R. Kuprienė and L. Žilėnaitė
Effect of genotype and medium composition on flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) anther culture
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Effect of genotype and medium composition on flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) anther culture

N. Burbulis, A. Blinstrubienė, R. Kuprienė and L. Žilėnaitė

Department of Crop Science and Animal Husbandry, Lithuanian University of Agriculture,Studentu St. 11, LT-53361 Akademija, Kaunas distr. Lithuania;e-mail: natalija.burbulis@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), a member of the family Linaceae, is an important crop in Europe for the production of both oil and fibre. Organic agriculture is based on minimizing the use of external inputs and avoiding the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, therefore resistant genotypes are preferable in an organic agriculture system. Breeding flax using haploid techniques allows breeders to develop new varieties in a shorter time period. However the overall efficiency of plant regeneration is not efficient, therefore identification of responsible genotypes and improvements of protocols are prerequisites for applied breeding programs. The effect of the combination of genotype and growth regulators on callus induction and shoot regeneration in anther culture of flax was investigated. Anther culture response in nine flax cultivars was studied, and four responsible genotypes have been selected. The results suggested that specific combinations of growth regulators must be designed for each genotype. The highest rate of shoots per plant has been obtained in second subculture.

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210-216 R. Butkutė, N. Daugėlienė and E. Butkuvienė
The effect of soil pH and natural fertilizers on the productivity of different mixtures and nitrogen accumulation in plant biomass
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The effect of soil pH and natural fertilizers on the productivity of different mixtures and nitrogen accumulation in plant biomass

R. Butkutė¹, N. Daugėlienė² and E. Butkuvienė¹

¹Vėţaičiai Branch, Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Gargţdų 29, LT-96216, Vėţaičiai,Klaipėda District, Lithuania;phone no.: +370 46 458233, fax no.: +370 46 458777;e-mail: ruta@vezaiciai.lzi.lt
²Faculty of Forestry and Ecology, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentų 11,LT-53356, Akademija, Kaunas District, Lithuania

Abstract:

Research aimed at comparing the productivity and nitrogen (N) accumulation in plant biomass of different mixtures and permanent meadow grown in soils with different pH was performed. Most of the N was accumulated in permanent meadow grass biomass. Barley/lupine and barley/pea mixtures accumulated considerably less N. In most cases, soil pH had no significant effect on N accumulation. In fact, N accumulation strongly depended on plant productivity. In 2008, there was a more significant decrease in the productivity of barley/lupine mixture, compared to that of 2007. Permanent meadow was a more stable agroecosystem compared with annual mixtures; therefore different agroclimatic conditions had little effect on yield formation (somewhat bigger in 2008, but insignificantly), whereas increase in grass productivity was obtained. Average data for 2007 and 2008 showed that barley/pea mixture was the most productive.

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217-223 J. Cesevičienė, A. Leistrumaitė and V. Paplauskienė
Grain yield and quality of winter wheat varieties in organic agriculture
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Grain yield and quality of winter wheat varieties in organic agriculture

J. Cesevičienė, A. Leistrumaitė and V. Paplauskienė

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto al. 1, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr., LT-58344,Lithuania; e-mail: jurgita@lzi.lt

Abstract:

During the period 2004–2006, grain yield and quality characteristics of ten winter wheat (Triticum aestive L.) varieties from the very good, good and satisfactory baking quality groups were investigated at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture under the conditions of organic agriculture. Results showed a marked influence of climatically different years on the winter wheat varieties’ grain yield and quality characteristics (protein and gluten content, gluten quality by gluten index, sedimentation index according to Zeleny). When the growing conditions were rather dry and warmer (2006), compared with the long-term mean, grain yield was the poorest but grain quality was the best and grain of most of the winter wheat varieties met the requirements set for bread-making. The varieties ‘Lars’ and ‘Zentos’ combined high yield with stability, their sum of integral assessment of grain yield was respectively (11+) and (10+). From quality parameters in varieties a higher variability was noted for sedimentation (26.6–29.7%), but similar variation in separate years showed that this quality parameter was most stable over years. In overall high-quality varieties from the very good / good baking quality groups, an ecological way of growing may give good baking utilization possibilities but this strongly depends on environmental conditions. Varieties ‘Širvinta 1’ and ‘Ada’ were more stable concerning wet gluten content and sedimentation, ‘Zentos’ and ‘Alma’ – concerning gluten index. Glu-1 score corresponded significantly and positively with higher sedimentation, hectolitre weight and gluten index.

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224-232 L. Česoniene and V. Rutkoviene
Lysimetric research of nutrient losses from organic fertilizers
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Lysimetric research of nutrient losses from organic fertilizers

L. Česoniene¹ and V. Rutkoviene²

¹Institute of Environment, Lithuanian University of Agriculture. Studentų 11, LT-53356,Kaunas-Akademija, tel./fax. +370 37 752 202; e-mail: laima.cesoniene@lzuu.lt.
²Institute of Environment, Lithuanian University of Agriculture. Studentų 11, LT-53356,Kaunas-Akademija, Kaunas district. Lithuania, tel./fax. +370 37 752 202;e-mail: vida.rutkoviene@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

In organic agricultural production high quality and safe agricultural products and foodstuffs are produced. It is believed that organic fertilizers are slower to wash out into water, because their mineralization is slow and hence water contamination with nitrogen compounds is smaller. The aim of this research is to assess the migration of nitrogen compounds in the soil-water system after application of organic fertilizers. The investigations were performed in an established site of eight lysimeters. They are filled with monoliths of equal soil. In July, plants growing in the lysimeters were fertilized with the following organic fertilizers: Biokalis, Biojodis, Provita, Horn Shavings, Horn Core Powder and different amounts of slurry. No fertilizers were used in lysimeter No. 8. Water quality parameters NO+2¯, NO3¯ and NH4 valueswere determined. Results show the influence of different organic fertilizers on the dynamics of nutrients in soil- water systems.

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233-238 A. Dastikaitė, A. Sliesaravičius and N. Maršalkienė
Sensibility of two hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) genotypes to soil acidity
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Sensibility of two hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) genotypes to soil acidity

A. Dastikaitė¹, A. Sliesaravičius¹ and N. Maršalkienė²

¹Department of Crop Science and Animal Husbandry
²Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentų 11,LT-4324, Akademija, Kaunas distr., Lithuania;e-mail: nijole.petraityte@delfi.lt

Abstract:

Vetches are grown for pastures and mixtures with grain for forage. Hairy vetch is a legume primarily used for soil improvement and bank stabilization, is well adapted to organic cultivation and grows well on a wide range of soil types – on sandy, nitrogen depleted and lightly acidic soils. The analysis of hairy vetch sensibility to soil pH parameters was performed with phyto-cameras at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture in 2005–2006. The experiments were conducted with hairy vetch variety „Pūkiai‟ and wild population sample No.34, and covered investigation of vetch sensibility to the substrates with pH from 6.5 down to 3.3. The greatest hairy vetch viability and productivity were observed in the substrates with pH 5.8–5.5, and were most inhibited in the substrates with pH 3.3–3.5. Vetch No.34 tolerated substrates with pH 5.8–5.2 better than vetch „Pūkiai‟, whereas vetch „Pūkiai‟ tolerated substrates with pH 6.5 and 3.3 relatively better than vetch No.34.

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239-244 I. Deveikyte, Z. Kadziuliene and L. Sarunaite
Weed suppression ability of spring cereal crops and peas in pure and mixed stands
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Weed suppression ability of spring cereal crops and peas in pure and mixed stands

I. Deveikyte, Z. Kadziuliene and L. Sarunaite

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto aleja 1, Akademija, Kedainiai distr.,LT-58344, Lithuania; e-mail: irenad@lzi.lt, zkadziul@lzi.lt, lina@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Weeds were investigated in the stands of field pea (Pisum sativum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.) and triticale (Triticale hexaploide Lart.) grown as pure and as mixtures at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture. Results revealed that annuals dominated in the weed flora composition (7–19 species) while perennials were more recessive (2–11 weed species). The total weed number was higher by 1.3–1.6 fold in the peas stand compared to the weed number in peas-cereals stands. In barley, wheat, oat and triticale stands the number of weeds was significantly lower than that for peas. Cereals and their mixtures with peas had the best suppressing ability compared to peas investigated. The dry mass of weeds in the peas stand was essentially higher than in the other stands of crops. The effect of pea mixtures with cereals crops on weed mass was similar as compared to that of pure cereals crops.

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245-250 V. Eremeev, I. Keres, B. Tein, P. Lääniste, A. Selge and A. Luik
Effect of different production systems on yield and quality of potato
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Effect of different production systems on yield and quality of potato

V. Eremeev, I. Keres, B. Tein, P. Lääniste, A. Selge and A. Luik

Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Science, Estonian University of Life Sciences,Kreutzwaldi St. 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: Viacheslav.Eremeev@emu.ee

Abstract:

In the experimental field of the Department of Field Crops and Grassland Husbandry the late maturing potato variety „Ants‟ was grown in the following variants: conversion to organic, N0P0K0, N50P25K95, N100P25K95 and N150P25K95. Pesticides were used in mineral fertilizer variants. In N0P0K0 and mineral fertilizers variants insecticide Fastac 50 was used. The total yield of tubers as well as the proportion of marketable tubers increased significantly with the use of mineral fertilizers (N50P25K95, N100P25K95 and N150P25K95). Tubers from conversion to organic and N0P0K0 variants had significantly higher starch content, compared to the variants where mineral fertilizers were used, but the overall yield of starch remained lower. Increasing the amount of nitrogen fertilizer is positively correlated with the nitrate content in the tubers. The number of tubers infected by potato brown rot and potato soft rot did not differ significantly, but there were fewer tubers infected with black scurf in conversion to the organic variant.

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251-256 K. Hiiesaar, E. Švilponis, L. Metspalu, K. Jõgar, M. Mänd,A. Luik and R.Karise
Influence of Neem-Azal T/S on feeding activity of Colorado Potato Beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say)
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Influence of Neem-Azal T/S on feeding activity of Colorado Potato Beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say)

K. Hiiesaar, E. Švilponis, L. Metspalu, K. Jõgar, M. Mänd,A. Luik and R.Karise

Institute of Agricultural and Environmental SciencesEstonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi St. 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia;e-mail: kylli.hiiesaar@emu.ee, fax: 372 7 313 351

Abstract:

The influence of 0.3% water emulsion of Neem-Azal T/S on the behaviour and feeding activity of Colorado Potato Beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) has been investigated. In choice test beetles mostly choose clean leaves, but did not avoid Neem-treated leaves entirely. In no-choice test beetles did not refuse to eat the Neem-treated food, although fed reluctantly. Consumption of Neem-treated leaf areas was reduced by 3–5 times in both, as in choice as in no-choice variants in comparison with control. Regarding the Colorado Potato Beetles, Neem-Azal T/S belongs to the category of relative antifeedant: it was not able completely deter beetles from visiting and eating the treated food. The antifeedant activity of preparation, which was expressed by the total coefficient of deterrence, exceeded 100. The interaction of time and treatment had no significant effect on feeding activity. Beetles did not become habituated to Neem-Azal T/S during one week.

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257-262 S. Hokazono, K. Hayashi and M. Sato
Potentialities of organic and sustainable rice production in Japan from a life cycle perspective
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Potentialities of organic and sustainable rice production in Japan from a life cycle perspective

S. Hokazono, K. Hayashi and M. Sato

National Agricultural Research Center, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization,3-1-1 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8666, Japan; e-mail: hokazo@affrc.go.jp

Abstract:

Many cultivation practices have been improved in order to decrease environmental burdens of paddy rice production in Japan. Therefore, the importance of life cycle assessment (LCA) to assess the environmental impacts of whole production systems particularly that of rice production has increased. However, the applications of LCA to rice production are still limited, although rice is the staple food in Asian countries. In this study, we apply LCA to organic and sustainable (environmentally-friendly) rice production and compare the two systems by using global warming and eutrophication potentials as indicators. Although both of these production systems generally outperform conventional farming, our results indicate that the environmental superiority of organic and sustainable farming depends on the functional unit. Our results imply that organic and sustainable farming have the potential to reduce environmental burdens depending on the functions of farming systems used for the analysis.

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263-268 E. Ilumäe, E. Akk, A. Hansson and V. Kastanje
Changes the content of organic matter in soil during the whole cycle of crop rotation
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Changes the content of organic matter in soil during the whole cycle of crop rotation

E. Ilumäe*, E. Akk, A. Hansson and V. Kastanje

Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, 13 Teaduse St. 75501 Saku, Estonia;
*Corresponding author; e-mail: ene.ilumäe@eria.ee

Abstract:

The ecological crop rotation in the present trial has been established as a 10-field rotation. The crop sequence was based on calculation of how much of the nutrients does one or another crop take from the soil and how much will be left in the soil after yield harvesting. The crop sequence in ecological crop rotation was: spring wheat, barley with undersown clover, clover, clover, potato, oat, pea, barley with undersown clover, spring turnip rape. The field experiments were carried out in northem Estonia during 2003–2008.After having analyzed the soil organic matter content throughout all the fields of croprotation it became evident that the alterations of organic matter content in soil were dissimilar. The alterations of organic matter content in all fields were in linear correlation (r 95 higher than 0.549, number of pairs 10). Although more than a half rotation has already passed after the beginning of the trial the results are still probably affected by the number of times the clover has been grown on any particular field.

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269-276 E. Jakiene, V. Venskutonis and V. Liakas
Fertilization of sugar beetroot with ecological fertilizers
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Fertilization of sugar beetroot with ecological fertilizers

E. Jakiene, V. Venskutonis and V. Liakas

Lithuanian University of Agriculture

Abstract:

Field trials were carried out on Balhihylogleyi-Calc(ar)ic Luvisol soils of the experimental station of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture. The aim of field trials was to estimate the influence of additional fertilization on sugar beetroot productivity. ‘Ernestina’ variety sugar beetroots were grown. At the stage of six paired leaves (BBCH 18 – 19) trial variants were additionally leaf-spray fertilized with Humicop solution, a solution of growth stimulator Penergetic-P and a solution of liquid complex fertilizers Atgaiva-P. Control variants were leaf-sprayed with water.The findings of the research revealed that additional leaf-spray fertilization with humicfertilizers Humicop resulted in by 4.5 t ha-1 or 7.4% significantly higher root productivity, significant increase in saccharinity by 0.07 percent units, and by 0.61 t ha-1 higher than in the control white sugar yield. Leaf-spray of the sugar beetroot seedlings with Penergetic-P solution resulted in significant sugar beetroot productivity increase by 8.8 t ha-1 or by 14.5%, and saccharinity increase by 0.31 percent units, and by 1.34 t ha-1 higher than in the control white sugar yield. Additional leaf-spray fertilization with the solutions of the liquid complex fertilizer Atgaiva-P resulted in significant sugar beetroot productivity increase by 11.5 t ha-1 or by 18.9%, and saccharinity increase by 0.91%, and by 2.13 t ha-1 or 27% higher than in the control white sugar yield.

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277-282 S. Jasinskaite, V. Pilipavicius and P. Lazauskas
Perennial weed control by two layer ploughing
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Perennial weed control by two layer ploughing

S. Jasinskaite, V. Pilipavicius* and P. Lazauskas

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentu g.11, LT-53361 Akademija - Kaunas r.,Lithuania; e-mail: sonata.jasinskaite@lzuu.lt, *vytautas.pilipavicius@lzuu.lt,petras.lazauskas@lzuu.lt,
*Corresponding author

Abstract:

Experiments on methods of perennial weed control were carried out at the Kazliškiai organic farm of Lithuanian University of Agriculture in the period 2002-2003. The aim of the work was to investigate the influence of conventional ‘cultural’ cylindrical and two-layer plough technologies on perennial weed control in organic agriculture. The advantage of two-layer ploughing in decreasing perennial weed density and biomass in spring wheat and buckwheat crop was established. Elytrigia repens, Cirsium arvense, Tussilago farfara and Plantago major density and biomass had a tendency to decrease in different years of the trial.

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283-288 K. Jõgar, L. Metspalu, K. Hiiesaar, A. Ploomi, E. Svilponis, A. Kuusik,N. Men´shykova, I. Kivimägi and A. Luik
Influence of white cabbage cultivars on oviposition preference of the Pieris rapae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)
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Influence of white cabbage cultivars on oviposition preference of the Pieris rapae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)

K. Jõgar, L. Metspalu, K. Hiiesaar, A. Ploomi, E. Svilponis, A. Kuusik,N. Men´shykova, I. Kivimägi and A. Luik

Department of Plant Protection, Institute Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, EstonianUniversity of Life Sciences; Kreutzwaldi 1, Tartu, 51014, Estonia;e-mail: katrin.jogar@emu.ee

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to determine the oviposition preference of Small White (Pieris rapae L.) on five different white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. alba) cultivars. The experiment showed that in first year butterflies preferred late-matured cultivar ′Krautkaizer′ as the site for oviposition; 35.8% of eggs counted during the observation period were gathered from this plant. The next choice was mid-season cultivar ′Lennox′ by 21.6%. In second year the preferred cultivars were late-matured ′Turquoise′ (26%), ′Lennox′ (22.1%) and ′Krautkaizer′ (20%). The egg laying activity was high during whole test period in both years of those variants.

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289-299 M. Järvan and L. Edesi
The effect of cultivation methods on the yield and biological quality of potato
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The effect of cultivation methods on the yield and biological quality of potato

M. Järvan and L. Edesi

Department of Plant Sciences, Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse St. 13,EE75501 Saku, Estonia; e-mail: malle.jarvan@eria.ee

Abstract:

The effect of organic and conventional methods on the yield and biological quality of potato in two field crop rotations was identified. The field trials were performed in Central-Estonia in Olustvere (58º 33΄ N, 25º 34΄ E) during two years and in North-Estonia in Saku (59º 18΄ N, 24º 39΄ E) during three years. In Olustvere the following cultivation methods were compared: organic I – without manure, organic II – with cattle manure (at the rate 60 t ha-1), and conventional (manure, mineral fertilizers and pesticides were used). In organic cultivation the fertilization with manure increased the potato yield on average 36.5%. At that, the dry matter content in tubers decreased and the nitrate content increased. In conventional farming the yield was 127% higher than in the variant organic II. In organic cultivation the tubers’ content of dry matter, starch and minerals was higher than in conventional cultivation. As to the content of reducing sugars, crude protein and nitrates no significant differences were found between the cultivation methods.In Saku, the yields and biochemical composition of potato were compared in trial areasfertilized with plant compost and mineral fertilizers. Equivalent rates of NPK to both trial variants were applied during three years. With compost the yield of potato was on average 32.1% lower than with mineral fertilizers. There were no significant differences in the effect of compost and mineral fertilizers on the biological quality of potato tubers.

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300-304 D. Karcauskiene and R. Repsiene
Long-term manuring and liming effect on moraine loam soil fertility
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Long-term manuring and liming effect on moraine loam soil fertility

D. Karcauskiene and R. Repsiene

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Vezaiciai branch, Vezaiciai, Gargždu 29,LT-96216, Lithuania; e-mail: danuteo@vezaiciai.lzi.lt

Abstract:

Soil fertility is influenced by different forms of land use. In a field trial (Western Lithuania, Vezaiciai branch of the Lithuanian Agriculture Institute) two manure rates (40 t ha-1 and 60 t ha-1) were introduced in acid and limed soil. The mineral fertilization in both acid and limed soil was the same: N60P60K60 for cereals, N120P90K150 for forage beet, N40P60K60 for barley with undercrop, P60K90 for perennial grasses in the 1st usage year, N60P60K90 for perennial grasses in the 2nd usage year. It was revealed that the long-term manuring and liming combination had a positive effect on moraine loam Dystric Albeluvisol fertility. Application of manure in acid and limed soil increases the nutrient stocks in the rooting zone of crops, increases pH value, amount of organic carbon and thus improves the topsoil structure. Long term manuring at rate 60 tha-1 resulted in the highest amount of mobile phosphorus (329 mg kg-1) in limed topsoil. The amount of mobile aluminium was reduced from 112.9 to 16.6 mg kg-1 if manure at a rate of 60 t ha-1 was applied. The combination of liming and fertilization ensure soil chemical indicators at the optimal level for more plant growth.

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305-310 R. Karklelienė, A. Radzevičius, E. Dambrauskienė, L. Duchovskienė,Č. Bobinas and D. Kavaliauskaitė
Reproduction features of organically grown edible carrot cultivars (Daucus sativus Röhl.) in Lithuania
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Reproduction features of organically grown edible carrot cultivars (Daucus sativus Röhl.) in Lithuania

R. Karklelienė, A. Radzevičius, E. Dambrauskienė, L. Duchovskienė,Č. Bobinas and D. Kavaliauskaitė

Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, LT-54333 Babtai, Kaunas distr.,Lithuania; e-mail: r.karkleliene@lsdi.lt

Abstract:

Absract. Investigations were carried out in the organic seed-growing greenhouse at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture. Seed stalks of two edible carrot (Daucus sativus Röhl.) hybrids („Svalia‟ and No 2030) and two carrot cultivars („Garduolės‟, „Šatrija‟) were grown. Plantings of carrots‟ root-crop were stored in a stationary cellar. Investigations showed that cultivar genotype and growing conditions influenced morphological characteristics of the grown carrot seeds. An abundance of the pests and their natural enemies were found in the seed stalks of carrot cultivars, but they didn‟t differ significantly. It was established that cultivar „Garduolės‟ is suitable for organic seed growing on organic farming. Good quality and high viability (viable – 75.0–83.0%) seeds are possible to grow in an organic seed-growing greenhouse.

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311-316 K. Kauer, H. Raave, R. Viiralt, T. Köster, M. Noormets-Shansky,T. Laidna, I. Keres, A. Parol and A. Selge
Effect of clippings management on turfgrass sward productivity and nitrogen content in the clippings and soil
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Effect of clippings management on turfgrass sward productivity and nitrogen content in the clippings and soil

K. Kauer¹, H. Raave², R. Viiralt², T. Köster³, M. Noormets-Shansky²,T. Laidna², I. Keres², A. Parol² and A. Selge²

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences,Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: karin.kauer@emu.ee
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences,Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
³Agricultural Research Centre, Teaduse 4/6, 75501 Saku, Estonia

Abstract:

The maintenance of turfgrass sward includes mowing and fertilization. Every year turfgrass sward produces a sizeable amount of clippings containing large amounts of nutrients which will be available for plants during the decomposition process. The aim of this research was to study clippings decomposition speed, the effect of returned clippings to the turfgrass sward’s clippings yield and total nitrogen content in clippings and soil. The study was carried out on turfgrass sward (seed mixture composition Festuca rubra rubra 50% and Poa pratensis 50%). The turfgrass clippings were either removed after cutting or returned to the plots. The clippings yield and nitrogen content in the clippings were measured after every cutting. The soil samples from different plots were analyzed for total nitrogen at the beginning and the end of the growing season. The decomposition dynamics of clippings was studied using the litterbag technique. Also the nitrogen mineralization from decaying material and the concentration changes of cellulose and lignin were studied during 12 weeks.The results showed that the turfgrass clippings mass and the content of nitrogen decreasedduring the decomposition process very quickly. The degradation of cellulose takes place after about 30% of initial weight decomposition. During the 12 week study period we did not fix the beginning of lignin decomposition. Higher productivity was obtained in treatments where clippings were removed. N content did not differ in plant from plots where clippings returned or removed but N content in soil of plots with clippings returned decreased compared to N content in soil of plots where clippings were removed.

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317-322 D. Kavaliauskaitė, J. Jankauskienė, E. Survilienė, O. Bundinienė,R. Starkutė, V. Zalatorius and R. Karklelienė
Competitive interaction between red beet and weeds, as affected by different weeding time
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Competitive interaction between red beet and weeds, as affected by different weeding time

D. Kavaliauskaitė, J. Jankauskienė, E. Survilienė, O. Bundinienė,R. Starkutė, V. Zalatorius and R. Karklelienė

Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Kauno str. 30, LT-543333, Babtai, Kaunas distr., Lithuania,telephone: +370-37-555-226, fax: +370-37-555-176, e-mail: d.kavaliauskaite@lsdi.lt

Abstract:

The competitive interactions between two red beet cultivars (‘Pablo F ’, prostrate,1and ‘Kamuoliai’, ect.) and weeds, affected at different weeding times, were studied for three years at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture. In all years, a long period of weeding gave lower crop biomass reduction of both cultivars. When weeding was delayed from 2 to 12 weeks after red beet germination the crop biomass of both cultivars was reduced by much more than half. From weed density studies, crop competition during long period of weeding reduced the number of germinating weed species and lowered seed germination of Chenopodium album L., Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Cappsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., Stellaria media (L.) Vill. The two cultivars of red beet showed the same response to competition.

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323-327 P. Kerpauskas, A. P. Sirvydas, R. Vasinauskienė and A. Tamošiunas
Influence of thermal effect duration on onion yield
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Influence of thermal effect duration on onion yield

P. Kerpauskas, A. P. Sirvydas, R. Vasinauskienė and A. Tamošiunas

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, LT 53356, Kauno r. Studentu 15, Lithuania;tel: (+370) 37 75 23 17; e-mail: paulius.kerpauskas@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

Organic Agriculture development is directly linked to ecologically pure weed removal. One of the ecological weed control processes is thermal weed control using wet water vapour. The analysis of different thermal weed control technologies is presented in the article while using wet water vapour for weed removal in the onion crop. The influence of thermal exposure duration on fertility of the onion crop is presented. It was established, while approximating dependence of onion crop yield on the thermal exposure to wet water vapour duration that the maximal fertility increase was caused by the thermal exposure time of 2.2 s. Two factors influence yield increase, which reached in our experiment 137 to 146%, using weed control technology: the onion root system was left intact during the vegetative season and some thermal stress, caused by partial injury of onion neck tissues. Key words: Organic Agriculture, thermal effect, onion, plant temperature, high temperature medium.INTRODUCTION

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328-334 I. Kivimägi, A. Ploomi, L. Metspalu, E. Svilponis, K. Jõgar, K. Hiiesaar,A. Luik, I. Sibul and A. Kuusik
Physiology of a carabid beetle Platynus assimilis
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Physiology of a carabid beetle Platynus assimilis

I. Kivimägi¹, A. Ploomi¹, L. Metspalu¹, E. Svilponis¹, K. Jõgar¹, K. Hiiesaar¹,A. Luik¹, I. Sibul² and A. Kuusik¹

¹Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences,Kreutzwaldi 1, Tartu 51014, Estonia; e-mail: irja.kivimagi@emu.ee
²Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences,Kreutzwaldi 5, Tartu 51014, Estonia

Abstract:

Predacious carabid beetle Platynus assimilis Paykull (Coleoptera: Carabidae) is a fast-moving insect which should be considered as an important component of biological control in organic farming. In this study we tested some factors of potentially dangerous influence of pesticide Fastac (synthetic pyrethroid) on overwintering physiology of adult ground beetle under laboratory conditions. Cold-hardiness (measured by supercooling point SCP) was determined 2 weeks after exposure to pesticide treated-food. Pesticide had decreased cold-hardiness of the ground beetles. Weak supercooling capacity could be harmful to overwintering insects in cold winters without snow cover.

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335-340 M. Klimeková and Z. Lehocká
Comparison of yields and qualitative characters of spring barley grown after three preceding crops in an organic farming system in the years 2003–2008
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Comparison of yields and qualitative characters of spring barley grown after three preceding crops in an organic farming system in the years 2003–2008

M. Klimeková and Z. Lehocká

Research Centre for Plant Production – Research Institute of Plant Production,Bratislavská cesta 122, 921 68 Piešťany, Slovak Republic; e-mail: klimekova@vurv.sk

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to evaluate yields and selected qualitative parameters of spring barley cultivated after three preceding crops (sugar beet, winter wheat, maize for grain) in the years 2003–2008. farm yard manure was added to the preceding crops at a dosage of 40 t ha-1. A long term stationary field experiment was established on loamy luvi-haplic chernozem in south-western Slovakia. Statistically higher yields were recorded after sugar beet (5.38 t ha-1) than either maize for grain (4.77 t ha-1) or winter wheat (3.54 t ha-1). TGW was statistically significantly higher after maize for grain (43.82 g) compared with winter wheat (42.46 g) and sugar beet (40.93 g). The highest protein content (** P  0.01) was found in the barley crop after sugar beet (12.64%), followed by winter wheat (11.02%) and maize for grain (10.56%). Kolbach’s numbers were statistically higher after winter wheat (37.30) than either sugar beet (35.88) or maize for grain (36.12). The extract and starch content was not statistically influenced by the preceding crop.

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341-346 E. Koskor, R. Muljar, K. Drenkhan, R. Karise, A. Bender, E. Viik,A. Luik and M. Mänd
The chronic effect of the botanical insecticide Neem EC on the pollen forage of the bumble bee Bombus terrestris L.
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The chronic effect of the botanical insecticide Neem EC on the pollen forage of the bumble bee Bombus terrestris L.

E. Koskor¹, R. Muljar¹, K. Drenkhan¹, R. Karise¹, A. Bender², E. Viik¹,A. Luik¹ and M. Mänd¹

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences,Kreutzwaldi Str. 1, Tartu 51014, Estonia; phone: +372 7313396;fax +372 7313351; e-mail: eda.koskor@ut.ee
²Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, Aamisepa 1, Jõgeva alevik 48 309, Jõgeva, Estonia

Abstract:

The botanical insecticide Neem EC is allowed for use as a pest control agent in organic farming. Although the preparation is considered safe for honey bees, its effect on bumble bees has been less studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sublethal chronic doses of the botanical insecticide Neem EC (1% azadirachtin) on the pollen forage of the bumble bee Bombus terrestris L. Four pairs of colonies (one pair consisting of a test and a control colony) were placed at 0, 400, 800 and 1200 m from leguminous fields. Prior to taking the colonies to the field the test colonies were fed with a sublethal dose of Neem EC (0.01 ppm azadirachtin in the food) for a three-week period, whereas the control colonies were fed untreated food. Pollen loads of homing bees were removed and analysed. Our results show that sublethal doses of Neem EC may affect the pollen forage of bumble bees.

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347-354 R. Kosteckas, V. Liakas, A. Šiuliauskas, V. Rauckis,E. Liakienė, E. Jakienė
Effect of Pinolen on winter rape seed losses in relation to maturity
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Effect of Pinolen on winter rape seed losses in relation to maturity

R. Kosteckas², V. Liakas¹, A. Šiuliauskas¹, V. Rauckis²,E. Liakienė¹, E. Jakienė¹

¹Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentų str. 11, Akademija, Kaunas distr., LT-53361,Lithuania; e-mail: vytautas.liakas@gmail.com
²UAB “Kustodija”, Laisvės pr. 117A, Vilnius, LT-06118, Lithuania;e-mail: raimondas@kustodija.lt

Abstract:

Research objective: To determine the effect of Pinolen (Aventrol) and carbamate solutions on winter rape seed yields under Lithuanian conditions. Research place and time: Bariunai agricultural holding, Joniskis region., Lithuania. Trials were carried out in 2007–2008. Trial field soil: JDg8-K(LVg-p-w-cc) Calc(ar)i-Epihypogleyic Luvisols. Research methods: Field trials, and biometric analysis of rape plants. Research data evaluation: Two-year research data confirmed the hypothesis of the authors that, in the winter rape crop, leaf-spray fertilization with Pinolen (0.5–1.0 l ha-1) solutions three weeks before crop maturity results in the formation of an elastic capsule around the siliques and prevents them from splitting open with consequent loss of seed. Pinolen efficacy is greater in disease or pest damaged crops, and crops harvested late. From the economic and labour planning points of view, leaf-spray fertilization of winter rape with Pinolen should be combined with additional leaf-spray fertilization with carbamate solutions (20 kg ha-1). Leaf-spray fertilization of winter rape with Pinolen (1.0 l ha-1) + carbamate (20 kg ha-1) solutions resulted in seed yield increases: in the 2007 trial by 0.64 and in the 2008 trial by 0.320 t ha-1. Of the total seed augmentation, the Pinolen effect accounted for 33.3%. The protective efficacy of the capsule starts to decrease five weeks after leaf spray fertilization of the crop with these solutions. Key words: winter rape (Brassica napus var. oleifera), Pinolen, Carbamate, seed loss, seed productivityINTRODUCTION

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355-362 R. Kosteckas and A. Marcinkevičienė
The integrated evaluation of the influence of catch crops and manure on spring barley agrocenosis in organic farming
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The integrated evaluation of the influence of catch crops and manure on spring barley agrocenosis in organic farming

R. Kosteckas and A. Marcinkevičienė

Department of Soil Management, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentu 11,Akademija, Kaunas district, LT–53361, Lithuania, tel. +370 37 752211;e-mail: lzuustotis@hotmail.com

Abstract:

Details of the field experiments which were carried out in the Kazliskiai organic farm from 1999–2001 were needed for our investigations. The integrated evaluation method enabled us to make complex evaluation of the influence of catch crops (red clover, common ryegrass, white mustard and winter rape) for green manure and animal manure on spring barley agrocenosis in organic farming. The variances of the 11 indicators were subdivided into scales of 9 points. The resulting evaluation points were marked in a network diagram. The evaluation threshold, which is equal to 5 points, was also marked. The integrated evaluation index, consisting of the average of evaluation points, its standard deviation and standard deviation of the average of evaluation points which are below the evaluation threshold, was calculated. The influence of red clover for green manure on barley agrocenosis, according to the calculated integrated evaluation indices, is stronger than that of other catch crops and manure.

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363-368 J. Lanauskas, A.Valiuškaitė, N. Kviklienė, A. Sasnauskas and N. Uselis
Assessment of apple cultivars for organic fruit cultivation
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Assessment of apple cultivars for organic fruit cultivation

J. Lanauskas, A.Valiuškaitė, N. Kviklienė, A. Sasnauskas and N. Uselis

Lithuania, Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Orchard management department, Kauno 30,LT-54333 Babtai, Kaunas distr., Lithuania; e-mail j.lanauskas@lsdi.lt

Abstract:

In 2005–2008 apple tree cultivars and selections were tested at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture in an organic apple tree orchard. Apple trees on rootstock B.396 were spaced at distances of 4 x 2 m; the orchard floor was a cultivated soil. The bioinsecticide Bioshower against aphids was applied once a year, fungicides were not used. Apple trees of cultivars. ‘Pilot’ and ‘Pinova’ were significantly affected by apple scab (Venturia inaequalis Cke. Wint), and ‘Lodel’ – by apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha (Ellis et Everh.) Salm).Apple trees of the cultivar. ‘Aldas’ and selection 18501 were the most vigorous. In 2007–2008 the greatest average yield was from the cultivars ‘Florina’, ‘Rosana’, selections 20,490 and 22,1709.1–14.7 t ha-1. These same cultivars and selections were the most yield efficient. The greatest average fruit weight was from cultivar. ‘Witos’ (272 g), the smallest from the cultivars ‘Pilot’, ‘Pinova’, ‘Goldrush’ and ‘Lodel’ (111–137 g). The highest taste score was from ‘Goldstar’, ‘Rubinola’, ‘Topaz’, ‘Rajka’ and ‘Lodel’ apples.

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369-373 Z. Lehocká, M. Klimeková, M. Bieliková and L. Mendel
The effect of different tillage systems under organic management on soil quality indicators
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The effect of different tillage systems under organic management on soil quality indicators

Z. Lehocká, M. Klimeková, M. Bieliková and L. Mendel

Plant Production Research Centre – Research Institute of Plant Production Piešťany,Bratislavská cesta 122, 921 68 Piešťany, Slovak Republic, lehocka@vurv.sk

Abstract:

Abstract: The aim of this study was to adapt reduced tillage to organic farming. The effect of tillage by plough (TP) versus tillage by chisel (TS) on selected soil quality indicators was quantified. The experiment was initiated in 2006 on a loam degraded Chernozem on loess in Borovce (near Piešťany) in the western part of the Slovak Republic. The report focuses on the conversion period and investigates changes during the years 2007 and 2008 while tillage intensity was reduced. Soil samples were taken from the depth of 0–30 cm and analysed for soil reaction (pH), soil organic carbon (Corg), total nitrogen (Nt), microbial biomass (Cmic), number of cellulolytic bacteria, earthworm density and biomass. All measured parameters increased in both tillage systems between 2007 and 2008, except Cmic in the TP system. The increase for all parameters was the strongest in the TS system. However only for Cmic (*P < 0.05), earthworm density and biomass (**P < 0.01) the differences between TP and TS were significant.

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374-380 A. Leistrumaitė, Ž. Liatukas and K. Razbadauskienė
The spring cereals traits of soil cover, disease resistance and yielding essential for organic growing
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The spring cereals traits of soil cover, disease resistance and yielding essential for organic growing

A. Leistrumaitė, Ž. Liatukas and K. Razbadauskienė

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto al. 1, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr., LT-58344,Lithuania; e-mail: alge@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Investigation on 12 spring barley and 7 oat genotypes under organic growing system during 2007–2008 revealed that mean yield of oats was 3.3 t ha-1, whereas barley yielded on average 2.3 t ha-1. Also, oats were found to be more resistant to leaf diseases. Oats were severely infected by leaf rust in 2007, but the disease did not correlate (r = –0.17) with yield. The majority of barley genotypes were infected with powdery mildew in both years and with leaf spotting diseases in 2007. Leaf spotting diseases negatively influenced (r = –0.53*) yield. Oats possessing higher vegetative growth rate, higher plant height, large and prostrate leaves, and larger stems were superior to barley by canopy traits during the growing season.

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381-386 Ž. Liatukas and A. Leistrumaitė
Selection of winter wheat for organic growing
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Selection of winter wheat for organic growing

Ž. Liatukas and A. Leistrumaitė

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto al. 1, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr., LT-58344,Lithuania; e-mail: alge@lzi.lt

Abstract:

The study was conducted at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during 2006–2008. Sixteen registered winter wheat varieties and advanced breeding lines were tested. Correlation analysis of traits of winter wheat genotypes grown under conventional and organic systems showed stronger correlations between the traits that had been found to be environmentally more stable. Overwintering, plant height, heading, maturity, lodging and hectolitre weight strongly correlated (r = 0.74**–0.98**) between the growing systems in both years. Soil coverage, which is a very important trait for organic system showed weak or medium correlations (r = 0.43*–0.64**) between the systems tested. Yield and 1000 grain weight mostly correlated with the traits of plant vegetative development, whereas hectolitre weight showed random correlations with the other traits. The yield was found to positively correlate with soil coverage at development stages BBCH41-42, 60-65 and number of productive tillers (r = 0.31*–0.54*).

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387-393 H. Lõiveke and K. Sepp
Effect of agrotechnical methods on occurrence of diseases and productiveness of cereals in organic agriculture
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Effect of agrotechnical methods on occurrence of diseases and productiveness of cereals in organic agriculture

H. Lõiveke¹ and K. Sepp²

¹Department of Plant Sciences, Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse Str. 13,75501 Saku, Harjumaa, Estonia; GSM 5101830; fax 6711540; e-mail: heino.loiveke@eria.ee
²Department of Agricultural Research, Agricultural Research Centre, Teaduse Str. 4/6, 75501Saku, Harjumaa, Estonia

Abstract:

The occurrence of diseases and productiveness in organic agriculture depending on sowing time, tillage method and use of manure was studied during 2006, 2007 and 2008. Infection of spring wheat with Septoria leaf blotch and powdery mildew and infection of spring barley with net and leaf blotch in the case of early and 2–2.5 weeks late sowing did not differ significantly towards the end of the vegetation period. The severity of common root rot was also virtually similar. Differences of yield favoured the earlier sowing. The severity of some diseases in spring barley did depend on tillage method. In the case of autumn ploughing the spring barley had less infection with common root rot and foliar diseases compared to the reduced autumn tillage. Yield differences also favoured autumn ploughing. The positive effect of manure on the severity of foliar diseases and common root rot was low or absent, but manure positively influenced productiveness of the cereals.

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394-399 L. Masilionyte and S. Maiksteniene
The changes of mineral nitrogen content in clay loam Cambisol in sustainable and organic agriculture
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The changes of mineral nitrogen content in clay loam Cambisol in sustainable and organic agriculture

L. Masilionyte and S. Maiksteniene

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Joniskelis Experimental StationJoniskelis, Pasvalys district, Lithuania; e-mail: joniskelio_lzi@post.omnitel.net

Abstract:

Experiments were conducted in the Joniskelis Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in 2006–2008 on the clay loam Gleyic Cambisol. The aim of the research – to estimate changes of amount of mineral nitrogen in several humus content soils under influence of fertilization systems with a catch crop of green manure – combinations of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.), oil radish (Raphanus sativus L.), narrowleaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum MOENCH.) in sustainable and organic farming systems. Experiments showed that in late autumn, before incorporation of different catch crops biomass, the lowest amount of mineral nitrogen – 6.21-6.31 mg kg-1 in the soil layer of 0–40 cm was found in the organic farming system. In the sustainable farming system growing white mustard and using nitrogen at low rates – N30 for more intensive straw mineralization, the amount of mineral nitrogen in the soil was significantly – 17.0-15.2% – higher. The highest content of mineral nitrogen – 8.04 mg kg-1 in the soil was found in the fields without catch crops, where N30 was also applied for straw mineralization.

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400-405 H. Meripõld, H. Lõiveke and J. Müür
The effect of differences of conventional and organic farming agrotechnical measures on the compliance of the fodder galega ‘Gale’ seed production to the certification requirements
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The effect of differences of conventional and organic farming agrotechnical measures on the compliance of the fodder galega ‘Gale’ seed production to the certification requirements

H. Meripõld, H. Lõiveke and J. Müür

Department of Plant Sciences , Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture,13 Teaduse St.,75501 Saku, Estonia

Abstract:

Abstract Different sowing rates, row spacing, optimal and reasonable mixtures of herbicides were investigated for the seed production of the Estonian fodder galega Gale (Galega orientalis Lam.). The control of dicotyledonous weeds with herbicides is well justified in the year of sowing because the control remains insufficient in the years of seed production. However, the control of weeds in the years of seed production diminishes the expenditures for seed gathering, drying and cleaning. The control of couch grass is necessary to avoid ergot sclerotia in seed production and gives good results in the years of seed harvesting. The average seed yield of fodder galega was 259 kg ha-1 Desicant Basta 150 SL (glyfosinate-ammonium 158 g l-1) with rate of 1.0 l ha-1 was used before seed harvesting in order to dry the green parts of plants, to favour uniform ripening and to diminish the losses in seed harvesting, which gave an extra yield of 35%. Due to a higher competative ability of weeds, it is expedient to use a bigger sowing rate in the ecological farming, i.e. 10 kg ha-1.

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406-411 L. Metspalu, K. Hiiesaar, K. Jõgar, E. Švilponis, A. Ploomi, I. Kivimägi,A. Luik and N. Mens’hikova
Oviposition preference of Pieris brassicae (L) on different Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. cultivars
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Oviposition preference of Pieris brassicae (L) on different Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. cultivars

L. Metspalu, K. Hiiesaar, K. Jõgar, E. Švilponis, A. Ploomi, I. Kivimägi,A. Luik and N. Mens’hikova

Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences,
¹ Kreuzwaldi St, 51014, Tartu; e-mail: Luule.Metspalu@emu.ee

Abstract:

Abstract Cabbage White Butterfly, Pieris brassicae L. is widely distributed pest world wide and causes severe damage to white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. alba L.). We studied oviposition preference of P. brassicae on six different cabbage cultivars in the field experiment. As in Estonia farmers grow rather numerous cabbage cultivars, the determination of more resistant cabbage cultivars is of great importance for farmers. Significantly more eggs were laid on the late cultivars ‘Krautkaizer’ (52% of all of the counted eggs) and ‘Turquoise’ (40%). The mid season cultivars ‘Krautman’, and ‘Lennox’ were chosen more or less to the same extent (2.5–5%). P. brassicae adults avoid the early cultivars ‘Parel’ and ‘Golden Acre’.

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412-418 N. Mikhailouskaya and I. Bogdevitch
Effect of biofertilizers on yield and quality of long-fibred flax and cereal grains
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Effect of biofertilizers on yield and quality of long-fibred flax and cereal grains

N. Mikhailouskaya and I. Bogdevitch

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Kazintsa 62, 220108 Minsk, Belarus;e-mail:brissa5@mail.belpak.by, bionf@yandex.ru

Abstract:

Application of biofertilizers provides the implementation of biological mechanisms of plant nutrition, growth promotion and protection. These are arguments for the use of biofertilizers as elements for nutrient management in organic agriculture, along with low cost and environmental safety. Azobacterin and Kaliplant were developed in Belarus. Natural N2-fixing bacteria are acting agents of Azobacterin. Kaliplant contains a natural strain of K-mobilizing bacteria. Both strains possess P-solubilization activity. The effects of biofertilizers on crop yield and quality were studied in field experiments on Luvisol soils. The contribution of biofertilizers for the crop yield increment varied in range from 8–30%. Azobacterin applications were most effective for barley and long-fibred flax. Kaliplant inoculations were mostly profitable for winter rye and winter triticale. Biofertilizers positively influenced crop production quality. Reliable increase of protein content and the improvement of amino acid composition in cereal grains were observed.

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419-424 J. Moudrý, jr, P. Konvalina, J. Moudrý, L. Friebel and J. Friebelová
Perennial grasslands and agroenvironmental programme effects
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Perennial grasslands and agroenvironmental programme effects

J. Moudrý, jr¹, P. Konvalina¹, J. Moudrý¹, L. Friebel² and J. Friebelová²

¹University Of South Bohemia, Faculty Of Agriculure,Studentská 13, České Budějovice, 370 05
²University Of South Bohemia, Faculty Of Economy, Studentská 13, České Budějovice, 370 05

Abstract:

Farming on grasslands is an important part of organic faming. There is a perceptible trend of increasing acreages of grasslands in organic farming in the Czech republic too. Adjustment of subventions has an inconsiderable influence on this trend. Subventions should be balanced in a sufficient measure for supporting of organic farming in all directions, nevertheless in current situation the increasing of acreage of grasslands is too strong and share of grasslands in organic farming is too high. It provokes a degradation of production function of organic farming and insufficient utilization of arable land. This article is focused on the analysis of farming of selective file of farms with accent on farming on grasslands and use of the agroenvironmental programmes.

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425-429 J. Nadzeikienė, A.P. Sirvydas, R. Čingienė,R. Vasinauskienė and P. Kerpauskas
Plant protection by foam in the thermal control process
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Plant protection by foam in the thermal control process

J. Nadzeikienė, A.P. Sirvydas, R. Čingienė,R. Vasinauskienė and P. Kerpauskas

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Kauno r. Studentu 15, LT 53356, Lithuania;tel: (+370) 37 75 23 17; e-mail: paulius.kerpauskas@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

During thermal weed control a high temperature medium exterminates weeds and culture plants without distinction. The problem of preserving germinating plants from thermal extermination therefore arises. Stable foam can be used to protect germinating agriculture plants from the thermal extermination. Using 100°C water steam for weed control for the sprouted carrot crop, till 40 days after the sowing, was investigated, and it was found that it is necessary to use preservatives. Extermination of carrots without preservatives depends upon the carrots’ development stage. It is advisable to use stable foam for plant protection from extermination, when biometric parameters of weeds and agricultural plants are similar. Sprouting agricultural plants covered with a stable foam layer are completely protected from thermal extermination, when 100°C water steam is sprayed at a distance of 8 cm to the plant. In the foam covered plant medium the temperature reached 39°C ± 4.2.

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430-435 R. Nekrošienė
Cultivation possibilities for Thyme, an important medicinal plant, in Western Lithuania
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Cultivation possibilities for Thyme, an important medicinal plant, in Western Lithuania

R. Nekrošienė

Botanical Garden of Klaipėda University, Kretingos 92, LT–92327 Klaipėda, Lithuania;tel. + 370 46 398833, fax. + 370 46 398837; e-mail: rita_nekrosiene@mail.ru

Abstract:

The cultivated medicinal plant production covers only 4–6% of the demand for raw material of the pharmaceutical industry in Lithuania, suggesting that medicinal plant cultivation may be an alternative business for organic farming. Phenology and biological parameters (plant height in flowering phase, number of twigs, air-dry mass), occurrence of diseases and pests of some medicinal plants, as Thymus serpyllum, T. pulegioides and T. vulgaris were studied in the field collection at the Botanical Garden of Klaipeda university (Western Lithuania) in 2001–2006. It was established that the beginning of the vegetation period of T. pulegioides was the same in different years. The amount of precipitation and average air temperature at the beginning of vegetation had influence on the preparation time of medicinal material by thyme, especially T. pullegioides and T. vulgaris. Air-dry mass of T. pulegioides was by 4–18 g m-2 more than the mass of T. serpyllum and T. vulgaris. Pests infected Thymus by 4.5–8.8%; severity of diseases varied from 0.5 to 4.5% in different years.

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436-443 B. Petkeviciene
The effects of climate factors on sugar beet early sowing timing
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The effects of climate factors on sugar beet early sowing timing

B. Petkeviciene

Rumokai Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculturepost LT-4293 Zalioji, district Vilkaviskis, Lithuanian;tel: +370-342-49422, +370-342-49435; e-mail: rumokai@post.omnitel.net

Abstract:

Important environmental variables that affect determination of sugar beet growing processes are temperature, precipitation and soil moisture. The optimal time for sugar beet sowing was determined in the variety testing trial conducted at the Rumokai Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during the period 2000–2006. This time was found to be when the mean daily temperature for three subsequent days reached the limit of base air temperatures (> 10ºC). The sowing time was found to strongly correlate (r = 0.9*) with the amount of precipitation and accumulated base temperatures (> 5ºC) in March and May. The potential of sugar beet root biomass and white sugar correlated moderately strongly with the duration of the growing season (r = 0.55 and 0.62) and sowing time (r = −0.64 and −0.70).Data from the sowing timing trial averaged over the period 2000–2004 suggests that in thecase of early sowing the soil moisture at sowing depth was 16.3. With the delay of sowing soil moisture decreased. At early sowing the stand density was by 3.3  lower compared with the average (99,900 plants ha-1). One week’s delay in sowing reduced roots by 4.7 t ha-1 and white sugar 0.9 t ha-1 and increased alpha amino nitrogen content in roots by 2.58 mg 100g-1.

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444-450 V. Pilipavičius, P. Lazauskas and S. Jasinskaitė
Weed control by two layer ploughing and post-emergence crop tillage in spring wheat and buckwheat
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Weed control by two layer ploughing and post-emergence crop tillage in spring wheat and buckwheat

V. Pilipavičius, P. Lazauskas and S. Jasinskaitė

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Dept. of Soil Management, Studentu 11, LT-53361Akademija, Kaunas r., Lithuania; tel.: +370 37 75 22 11, fax: +370 37 75 22 93;e-mail: vytautas.pilipavicius@lzuu.lt, petras.lazauskas@lzuu.lt; sonata.jasinskaite@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

Experiments were carried out at the Kazliškiai organic farm of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture in the period of 2002–2003. The aim of the work was to investigate elements of non-chemical weed control methods as main soil tillage, pre-sowing and post-sowing tillage. According to theoretical preconditions and data of the experiment, it is proved that total turnover of the layer in organic agriculture is a very important means of weed control decreasing weediness of the crop and increasing harvest. Two types of plough in combination with different pre-sowing and post-sowing soil tillage implements and technologies in crops of spring wheat and buckwheat were investigated. Spring wheat crops were grown comprising two varieties differing in plant height for additional investigations of their crop smothering power for weeds. It was proven that, for weed control, two-layer ploughing technology was favourable to conventional ‘cultural’ ploughing technology and that taller varieties had greater smothering power for weeds than shorter ones.

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451-456 A. Ploomi, K. Jõgar, L. Metspalu, K. Hiiesaar, E. Švilponis, I. Kivimägi,N. Men'shykova, A. Luik, I. Sibul and A. Kuusik
Effect of cultivar on oviposition preference of the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
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Effect of cultivar on oviposition preference of the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

A. Ploomi¹, K. Jõgar¹, L. Metspalu¹, K. Hiiesaar¹, E. Švilponis¹, I. Kivimägi¹,N. Men'shykova¹, A. Luik¹, I. Sibul² and A. Kuusik¹

¹Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences,Kreutzwaldi 1, Tartu 51014, Estonia; e-mail: angela.ploomi@emu.ee
²Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences,Kreutzwaldi 5, Tartu 51014, Estonia

Abstract:

The oviposition preference of the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was investigated on white cabbage cultivars under field conditions in two vegetation periods. Significantly less eggs were laid on cultivar ‘Golden Acre’. There were no differences in the number of eggs found on the cultivar ‘Lennox’, ‘Krautman’, ‘Krautkaiser’ and ‘Turquoise’. The cultivar ‘Parel’ showed different results during experimental period. The data on cabbage moth oviposition preferences can be used in sustainable plant protection strategies in organic farming.

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457-464 K. Romaneckas, R. Romaneckienė and V. Pilipavičius
Non-chemical weed control in sugar beet crop under intensive and conservation soil tillage: I. Crop weediness
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Non-chemical weed control in sugar beet crop under intensive and conservation soil tillage: I. Crop weediness

K. Romaneckas, R. Romaneckienė and V. Pilipavičius

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Dept. of Soil Management, Studentu 11, LT-53067Akademija, Kaunas r., Lithuania; tel.: +370 37 75 22 33, fax: +370 37 75 22 93;e-mail: kestas.romaneckas@lzuu.lt, romanr@one.lt, vytautas.pilipavicius@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

The effect of non-chemical weed control under different soil tillage on sugar beet crop weediness was investigated at the Experimental Station of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture in a silty loam Luvisol during the period of 2004–2005. The aim of the experiment was to establish the influence of soil tillage intensity, living and straw mulch on the number and dry mass of weeds in the sugar beet crop. Treatments of the trial were the following: I. Soil tillage (factor A): 1. intensive (straw loosening, moldboard ploughing; control variant) (IT); 2. conservation (straw loosening) (CT); II. Non-chemical weed control (factor B): 1. hand weeding, twice (control variant) (HW); 2. spring barley living mulch (SBM); 3. annual ryegrass living mulch (ARM); 4. white mustard living mulch (WMM); 5. spring oilseed rape living mulch (SRM); 6. winter wheat straw mulch (WSM).According to the results of investigations, in conditions of intensive soil tillage the highestchoking of weeds was observed by annual ryegrass (ARM) and white mustard (WMM) living mulches. In sugar beet row spaces, which were mulched with winter wheat straw mulch (WSM) there was a large number of weeds but their mass was not high. Conversely, in conservation soil tillage conditions the lowest weed infestation and dry mass of weeds were observed in straw mulch (WSM) up to 4 cm. White mustard living mulch (WMM) also influenced weed dry mass decrease though its number was high.

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465-470 L. Sarunaite, I. Deveikyte, R. Semaskiene and Z. Kadziuliene
The influence of grain legumes on spring wheat yield formation and phytosanitary state
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The influence of grain legumes on spring wheat yield formation and phytosanitary state

L. Sarunaite, I. Deveikyte, R. Semaskiene and Z. Kadziuliene

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto al. 1, Akademija, Kedainiai LT-58344, Lithuania;e-mail: lina@lzi.lt

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of grain legumes on spring wheat yield, its quality and phytosanitary state in an organic farming system. The experiment was carried out in 2007 and 2008 at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in Dotnuva on a loamy Endocalcari-Ephypogleyic Cambisol. Grain legumes – pea, lupine, bean, vetch and wheat were sown as intercrops and sole crops, and were grown organically for grain. The productivity and phytosanitary state of spring wheat sole crops or intercrops depended on the species of grain legume, however, the results varied over the experimental years. In 2007, the vetch and wheat intercrop produced a significantly higher grain yield than wheat in sole crop or in other intercrops. In 2008, no advantages of legume and wheat intercrops were revealed. The nitrogen content was higher in wheat when it was grown with legumes.

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471-476 V. Seibutis, I. Deveikytė and V. Feiza
Effects of short crop rotation and soil tillage on winter wheat development in central Lithuania
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Effects of short crop rotation and soil tillage on winter wheat development in central Lithuania

V. Seibutis, I. Deveikytė and V. Feiza

Lithuanian Institute of AgricultureInstituto aleja 1, Akademija, Kedainiai distr., LT-58344, Lithuania;e-mail: vytautas@lzi.lt

Abstract:

A three year (2005–2008) field experiment was conducted in Central Lithuania to study the effects of different crop rotations (spring oil-seed rape-spring barley-winter wheat; winter wheat-spring rape; winter wheat monocrop) in conventional (ploughing to a 20–22 cm depth) and reduced (stubble cultivation to a 10–12 cm depth) soil tillage systems on winter wheat yield and its components. Winter wheat grain yield increased in the three-course crop rotation in the conventional (ploughing) cultivation system. However, wheat grain yield decreased by only 1.4 % in reduced tillage (stubble cultivation) compared to conventional tillage. Shortening of crop rotations, or different soil tillage systems used, did not exert any adverse effect on the variation of the number of grains per ear and the length of straw. The results of the study indicate that the different crop rotations in two soil tillage systems in Central Lithuania did not significantly affect wheat grain yield components.

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477-484 K. Sepp, J. Kanger and M. Särekanno
Influence of soil tillage methods on the weediness and yields of spring wheat, spring barley and field pea in organic crop rotation
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Influence of soil tillage methods on the weediness and yields of spring wheat, spring barley and field pea in organic crop rotation

K. Sepp, J. Kanger and M. Särekanno

Department of Agricultural Research and Monitoring, Agricultural Research Centre,Teaduse 4/6, EE75501, Saku, Estonia; e-mail: karli.sepp@pmk.agri.ee

Abstract:

The influence of different soil tillage methods – (1) reduced tillage without soil inversion, 8–10 cm (RT), (2) ploughing only 18–25 cm (P) and (3) stubble cultivation, 8–10 cm and ploughing, 18–25 cm (SC+P) on the weediness and yield of grain crops are analysed in this paper. The studies were made in an organic crop rotation: spring barley with undersown red clover/timothy – red clover/timothy – red clover/timothy – spring wheat – field pea, which was set up at Kuusiku Testing Centre in 2003. There were only a few wandering perennials (WP) on the experimental plots of SC+P and grain yields of spring wheat, spring barley and pea were highest. The WP spread quickly on the P plots and the grain yield of spring wheat and pea were lowest. The weediness of WP in the case of RT was lower than with P, but higher than SC+P. Conversely, the number of annual weeds in the summer wheat and pea was highest in SC+P. The grain yield of spring barley was lowest using RT. Key words: annual weeds, organic farming, ploughing, reduced tillage, stubble cultivation, wandering perennial weedsINTRODUCTION

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485-491 A. Sinkevičienė, D. Jodaugienė, R. Pupalienė and M. Urbonienė
The influence of organic mulches on soil properties and crop yield
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The influence of organic mulches on soil properties and crop yield

A. Sinkevičienė, D. Jodaugienė, R. Pupalienė and M. Urbonienė

Lithuanian University of Agriculture,Studentų 11 Akademija, LT-53356 Kaunas distr. Lithuania;e-mail: ausrasinkevicienelzuu@gmail.com

Abstract:

The application of organic mulches as a soil cover is effective in improving the quality of soil and increasing crop yield, especially in organic farming. The field experiment was carried out in the Pomological Garden of Lithuanian University of Agriculture in 2005–2008. The soil type – Calc(ar)i- Endohypogleyic Luvisol. Treatments: 1) without mulching; 2) chopped wheat straw; 3) peat; 4) sawdust; 5) grass.The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of different mulches on soilproperties and crop yield.All examined organic mulches significantly decreased soil temperature. Mulched plotsalso had higher soil moisture content throughout the experimental period. The highest soil moisture content was in plots mulched with peat or sawdust. The tendency of a higher amount of available phosphorus in the soil in mulched plots in 2005–2006 was established. The positive effect of grass mulch on available potassium in the soil was estimated.Mulching decreased weed density. During all years of the experiment significantly highercrop yields were obtained in grass-mulched plots. Peat mulch significantly decreased weed number although it has a significant negative effect on crop yield.

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492-497 R. Skuodienė and R. Nekrošienė
Effect of perennial grasses ploughed in as green manure on the occurence of net blotch in spring barley
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Effect of perennial grasses ploughed in as green manure on the occurence of net blotch in spring barley

R. Skuodienė¹ and R. Nekrošienė²

¹Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Vėžaičiai Branch, Gargždų 29, LT–96216 Klaipėda distr.,Lithuania; tel: + 370 46 458233; e-mail: rskuod@vezaiciai.lzi.lt
²Botanical Garden of Klaipėda University, Kretingos 92, LT–92327 Klaipėda, Lithuania;e-mail: rita_nekrosiene@mail.ru

Abstract:

Experiments were carried out in the Vėžaičiai Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture (West Lithuania) in 2005–2007. The aim of this research was to assess the impact of using perennial legumes (red and white clover, lucerne) and timothy as green manure in crop rotation on the occurence of net blotch disease (causal agent Drechslera teres (Sacc.) Shoem.) in spring barley. Preceding crops of spring barley were winter triticale and winter rye (perennial grasses were preceding crops of these winter cereals). The yearly occurence of net blotch disease was high: incidence was about 70.00–100.00% severity; at the spring barley booting stage (BBCH 37-39) – from 4.45 to 12.25%, at milk maturity stage (BBCH 73-75) – 43.75–70.95%. The variously-managed perennial grasses in the crop rotation had a significant effect on the occurence of net blotch: the spring barley grown after timothy was 1.1–1.5 times less affected in 2005 and 2007, compared to the spring barley grown after red and white clovers, and about 1.2 times less affected grown after lucerne, compared with spring barley grown after other grasses in 2006.

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498-504 J. Slepetys
Green manure legumes for organic seed production of Phleum pratense
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Green manure legumes for organic seed production of Phleum pratense

J. Slepetys

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto al.1, LT 58344, Kedainiai District, Lithuania;e-mail: jonas.slepetys@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Experiments conducted during the period 2003–2008 were designed to study the effects of six legume species (Trifolium pratensis, Medicago sativa, Trifolium repens, Galega orentalis, Medicago lupulina, Trifolium resupinatum) ploughed down as green manure on the seed yield of timothy (Phleum pratense). Legumes were undersown into barley. In the first year of production legumes were chopped and ploughed down for green manure in June. The sown timothy was used for seed for three years. Trifolium resupinatum grew luxuriantly in the year of sowing, however, it completely disappeared after winter. Depending on the legume species before ploughing down, the content of nitrogen accumulated in the above ground part and roots was 165–272 kg ha-1, phosphorus 16–25 kg ha-1, and potassium 75–165 kg ha-1. According to the data averaged over three years of production, the highest timothy seed yield was obtained having ploughed down a mixture of the three legumes (Trifolium pratensis + Medicago sativa + Trifolium repens). Having ploughed down legumes, the positive effect on seed yield of timothy was more substantial in the second and third years of production.

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505-510 A. Stankeviciene, V. Snieskiene and V. Varkuleviciene
The diversity of pathogenic fungi in the rhizosphere of pot-plants of different phytopathologic state
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The diversity of pathogenic fungi in the rhizosphere of pot-plants of different phytopathologic state

A. Stankeviciene, V. Snieskiene and V. Varkuleviciene

Kaunas Botanical Garden of VMU, Ž. E. Žilibero 6, LT 46324 Kaunas Lithuania;e-mail: a.stankeviciene@bs.vdu.lt

Abstract:

The mycological research works of two groups have shown that pathogenic fungi species, potentially dangerous for plants, from genera Fusarium (4 species), Pythium (5), Verticillium (4) and Thielaviopsis basicola functioned in the rhizosphere of 8% of healthy-looking plants and 76% of sick plants. After a long unfavourable treatment easily adapting plants were injured most slightly and plants of a hard adaptation group were injured most strongly.

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511-516 M. Starast, N. Galynskaya, K. Jõgar, T. Tasa, K. Karp and U. Moor
Blueberry diseases survey in Estonia
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Blueberry diseases survey in Estonia

M. Starast¹, N. Galynskaya², K. Jõgar¹, T. Tasa³, K. Karp¹ and U. Moor¹

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences,Department of Horticulture, Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
²The Central Botanic Garden, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 2B Surganava St.,Minsk BY-220012, Republic of Belarus
³Plant Production Inspectorate, Teaduse 2, Saku, Harjumaa 75501, Estonia;e-mail: marge.starast@emu.ee

Abstract:

In Estonian University of Life Sciences at the Department of Horticulture a blueberry-cultivation project was started in 1997. Nowadays blueberry cultivation is developing into a promising activity for small farms and efforts have been made to maintain blueberries in the different regions of the country. Surveys were conducted to determine the occurence of diseases in commercial blueberry fields at three farms of South Estonia. One plantation was located on peat (abandoned peat pits) soil and two plantations on mineral soil. Pesticides were not used in the blueberry plantations. Diseases were observed at the end of harvesting time (late August) in 2006. Several lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.), highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L.) and half-highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum x V. angustifolium.) cultivars were represented. In all plantations several plant diseases were found whereby Pucciniastrum vaccinii Wint. occured often. Lowbush blueberry plants were more disease-resistant than highbush and half-highbush blueberries. In the plantation located on peat soil the infection of diseases was lower.

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517-521 L. Talgre, E. Lauringson, H. Roostalu, A. Astover and A. Makke
Phytomass formation and carbon amount returned to soil depending on green manure crop
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Phytomass formation and carbon amount returned to soil depending on green manure crop

L. Talgre¹, E. Lauringson¹, H. Roostalu², A. Astover² and A. Makke¹

¹ Department of Field Crops and Grasslands, Institute of Agricultural and EnvironmentalSciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: liina.talgre@emu.ee
² Department of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Institute of Agricultural and EnvironmentalSciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia

Abstract:

The trials were carried out during the 2004–2006 growing seasons at the Department of Field Crop and Grassland Husbandry of the Estonian University of Life Sciences. Various green manures and ensuing cereals were studied in respect of phytomass formation and quantity of C returned to soil. The highest amount of organic matter was applied by red clover (8.91 Mg ha–1) and lucerne (8.41 Mg ha–1), and the lowest by unfertilized barley. The total phytomass of pure sowings of barley ranged, depending on the nitrogen fertilizer norm, from 6.55 to 11.54 Mg of dry matter per hectare, of which the grain yield constituted 37.3–43.2%. Sowings of lucerne and red clover added 3.44–3.82 Mg C ha–1 to soil, while sowing of bird’s-foot trefoil supplemented 1.99 Mg C ha–1. Preceding crop determined the phytomass of ensuing crops and the amount of C returned to soil. The amount of C of the oats grown after clover was 5.32 Mg C ha–1, whereas 3.28 Mg C ha–1 was returned to soil. Lucerne pure sowing resulted in 3.17 Mg C ha–1 returned to soil. When oats were preceded by barley (without manure), 2.53 Mg C ha–1 was returned to soil.

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522-527 I. Tamm, Ü. Tamm and A. Ingver
Spring cereals performance in organic and conventional cultivation
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Spring cereals performance in organic and conventional cultivation

I. Tamm, Ü. Tamm and A. Ingver

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 1 Aamisepa St., 48309 Jõgeva, Estoniae-mail: ilmar.tamm@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

The field trials were carried out at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute to compare grain yield and quality characteristics of spring wheat, barley and oat in organic and conventional conditions. Thirteen varieties of each cereal crop were tested during the four trial years (2005–2008). By the results turned out that all the spring crops were able to produce comparatively high yields in organic conditions after a suitable precrop. Oat as the most unpretentious crop was the highest yielding in organic trial and had the best weeds suppressing ability among the spring cereals. The most widely spread weeds were (Chenopodium album) and (Viola arvensis). Among the quality traits protein content was the most influenced by the management regime having evident decrease in organic conditions. A yield gap between organic and conventional production depended on crop, precrop and growing conditions.

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528-531 K. Tiirmaa, T. Univer and N. Univer
The evaluation of scab resistant apple cultivars in Estonia
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The evaluation of scab resistant apple cultivars in Estonia

K. Tiirmaa, T. Univer and N. Univer

Polli Horticultural Research Centre of the Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciencesof Estonian University of Life Sciences, Polli, 69108, Viljandimaa, Estonia;e-mail: krista.tiirmaa@emu.ee

Abstract:

At Polli Horticultural Research Centre currently over 400 apple accessions are being maintained, including 47 local cultivars and 14 scab resistant cultivars. Cultivars „Imrus‟, „Chistotel‟, „Orlovim‟, „Pamyat Issayeva‟, „Pervinka‟, „Pioner Orlovski‟ and „Slavyanin‟ were introduced from the All-Russian Research Institute of Breeding of Horticultural Crops at Orel. Cultivars were assessed for tree phenology stage, weight of the fruit, yield per tree, occurrence of apple scab and the biochemical content of the fruit. No scab infections were found on these cultivars during the evaluation years at Polli. „Orlovim‟ was the earliest and „Pioner Orlovski‟ the latest bloomer. „Chistotel‟ and „Slavyanin‟ achieved the highest yield per tree. „Pamyat Issayeva‟ and „Pervinka‟ gave the largest fruits. All 7 cultivars possessed relatively high levels of acidity and because of that they are not best suited for fresh consumption.

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532-535 T. Univer, K. Põrk and N. Univer
Living grass mulches in strawberry cultivation
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Living grass mulches in strawberry cultivation

T. Univer, K. Põrk and N. Univer

Polli Horticultural Research Centre of the Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciencesof Estonian University of Life Sciences, Polli, 69108, Viljandimaa, Estonia;e-mail: toivo.univer@emu.ee

Abstract:

Strawberries grow best on soils with high organic matter content and high fertility levels. Green manure crops were used successfully as a substitute for farm manure. Another opportunity to increase organic matter content of soil is to grow groundcover crops, for example grass species, between strawberry rows. Proper management can reduce weeds, erosion on slopes, soil compaction, dust and mud. Potential disadvantages of using cover crops between rows include the consumption of nitrogen and other nutrients as well as water. The aim of this research was to elucidate the impact of various living mulches on plant vegetative growth and yield of cv. ‘Bounty’. Different living mulches were evaluated at the Polli Horticultural Research Centre during 2001–2003. The following living mulches were compared: natural grass cover, red fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, timothy, orchardgrass, and white clover.

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536-541 A. Valiuškaitė, L. Raudonis, J. Lanauskas, A. Sasnauskas and E. Survilienė
Disease incidence on different cultivars of apple tree for organic growing
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Disease incidence on different cultivars of apple tree for organic growing

A. Valiuškaitė, L. Raudonis, J. Lanauskas, A. Sasnauskas and E. Survilienė

Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Laboratory of Plant Protection, Kauno 30,LT-54333 Babtai, Kaunas distr., Lithuania; e-mail: a.valiuskaite@lsdi.lt

Abstract:

The incidence of diseases in fourteen apple cultivars and three hybrids planted in an orchard and managed under an organic system were examined in Lithuania in 2007–2008. Infection by leaf blotch (Phyllosticta spp.), apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha), bark diseases and physiological damage to fruit were evaluated. During experimental years apple trees cv. ‘Aldas’ were the most damaged by leaf blotch, the disease incidence and intensity was 42% and 13%, respectively. Cultivars ‘Florina’, ‘Enterprise®’, ‘Roksana’, ‘Rajka’ and hybrid No 20490 were damaged less than 10% by leaf blotch. The most damaged (39–55%) by scab on leaves were cvs. ‘Pilot’ and ‘Pinova’ apple trees; meanwhile, the fruits were slightly damaged. Powdery mildew was observed only in cv. ‘Lodel’, the incidence was 23%. Physiological damage was observed mostly on cvs. ‘Goldstar’ and ‘Aldas’ fruits. No bark diseases were observed on any apple tree cultivars and hybrids.

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542-547 A. Velykis, S. Maiksteniene, A. Arlauskiene, I. Kristaponyte and A. Satkus
Mechanical weed control in organically grown spring oat and field pea crops
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Mechanical weed control in organically grown spring oat and field pea crops

A. Velykis, S. Maiksteniene, A. Arlauskiene, I. Kristaponyte and A. Satkus

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Joniskelis Research Station,Joniskelis, LT–39301 Pasvalys District, Lithuania; e–mail: velykisalex@gmail.com

Abstract:

Experiments to study the effects of weed harrowing in an organic farming system were carried out during 2005–2007 at the Joniskelis Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture on a clay loam Gleyic Cambisol. Spring oat (Avena sativa L.) and field pea (Pisum sativum L.) crops were harrowed once and twice with a Regent spring-tine harrow at pre-emergence, early post-emergence and late post-emergence stages. This study indicates that at early growth stages of crops the uprooting effect of harrowing could be more important for weed control than at late stages. Early post-emergence harrowing (at 2–3 leaf stage) was the most effective for spring oat. Twice (pre-emergence and early post-emergence) harrowing of oat was not more effective than early post-emergence harrowing once, since early harrowing stimulates new sprouting of weeds. Pea crop damage by harrowing was less when the crop was harrowed at late post-emergence (beginning of stem elongation) stage. No difference of crop yield was determined among the treatments.

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548-554 E. Veromann, M. Saarniit, R. Kevväi and A. Luik
Effect of crop management on the incidence of Meligethes aeneus Fab. and their larval parasitism rate in organic and conventional winter oilseed rape
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Effect of crop management on the incidence of Meligethes aeneus Fab. and their larval parasitism rate in organic and conventional winter oilseed rape

E. Veromann, M. Saarniit, R. Kevväi and A. Luik

Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences,Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: eve.veromann@emu.ee

Abstract:

The occurrence of Meligethes aeneus adults, larvae and larval parasitism rate was studied in organic and conventional winter oilseed rape fields in Estonia. No insecticides were used in fields with either management. In the conventional field, significantly more M. aeneus adults and larvae were found than in the organic field, whereas the larval parasitism rate was significantly greater in the organic winter rape field. This study showed that organic cropping system enhanced the occurrence of parasitoids and diminished the incidence of pest attack in winter oilseed rape.

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