Volume 17 (2019)
  Number 1

Full text of the journal: Volume 17 Number 1

Contents


Pages

5–12 A. Aboltins and P. Kic
Determination of the mass diffusion coefficient of wood by thin-layer drying kinetics
Abstract |

Determination of the mass diffusion coefficient of wood by thin-layer drying kinetics

A. Aboltins¹* and P. Kic²

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technology, Institute of Agricultural Machinery, Cakstes blvd.5, LV–3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamycka 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: aivars.aboltins@inbox.lv

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to present the method of using thin layer drying under controlled conditions, to obtain variable moisture diffusion coefficient expression of wood drying. The obtained relationship parameters can then be used for a larger sample drying process simulation. This paper includes the theoretical study of changes of moisture content determination in wood in response to high temperature of the drying air (105 °C). A 1-D diffusion model with a variable concentration-dependent diffusion coefficient is considered. This problem is solved, using the differential scheme. Paper described theory and experimental results of wood drying by the high temperature at 105 °C. For studies have selected five types of wood: oak (Quercus robur), beech (Fagus silvatica), spruce (Picea abies), scots pine (Pinus silvestris), and larch (Larix decidua). Experimental measurements and modelling results are given.

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13–21 O.L. Akangbe, J. Blahovec, R. Adamovský, M. Linda and M. Hromasova
Effects of selected process parameters on the compaction of carob powder
Abstract |

Effects of selected process parameters on the compaction of carob powder

O.L. Akangbe¹*, J. Blahovec², R. Adamovský¹, M. Linda³ and M. Hromasova³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kamycka 129, CZ16521 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Physics, Kamycka 129, CZ16521 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Prague, Czech Republic
³Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering, Kamycka 129, CZ16521 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: akangbe@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The effects of important process parameters on mechanical response during the densification of an industrial food powder were investigated and important phenomena described using the power rule. The factors studied had highly significant effects on mechanical response. The effects of the models in predicting the behaviour of the system were also highly significant. The findings are of relevance to processing and handling of food powders.

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22–32 L. Argentel-Martínez, J. Garatuza-Payán, T. Arredondo, E.A. Yépez
Effects of experimental warming on peroxidase, nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase activities in wheat
Abstract |
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Effects of experimental warming on peroxidase, nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase activities in wheat

L. Argentel-Martínez¹², J. Garatuza-Payán¹³, T. Arredondo⁴, E.A. Yépez¹³*

¹Instituto Tecnológico de Sonora, 5 de febrero, 818 Sur, Col. Centro, Cd. Obregón, Sonora, México, CP: 85000
²Instituto Tecnológico del Valle del Yaqui, Calle 600, Block 611, Bácum, San Ignacio Río Muerto, Sonora, México, CP: 85275
³Laboratorio Nacional de Geoquímica y Mineralogía, Sede Regional Sur de Sonora, 5 de febrero, 818 Sur, Col. Centro, Cd. Obregón, Sonora, México, CP: 85000
⁴Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica. Camino a la Presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas, Sección 4, San Luis Potosí, México, CP: 78216
*Corresponding author: enrico.yepez@itson.edu.mx

Abstract:

Given the effects of climate change and its significant consequences on plant productivity, it is necessary to evaluate the enzymatic responses of the most important crops such as wheat (Triticum durum L.). We examined the response of foliar peroxidase activity, nitrate reductase, and glutamine synthetase to experimental increments of temperature (+2 °C) under field conditions following conventional agricultural practices. Foliar samples, in both control and warming treatments were taken during growth, tillering and flowering phenophases to test the peroxidase activity. Similarly, nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase activities, and glutamine content were measured during the heading phenophase. Due to the effects of experimental warming, peroxidase activity significantly increased. The nitrate reductase activity was also higher in the warming treatment, suggesting a high nitrogen metabolism efficiency. Whereas, the increase observed in the glutamine synthetase activity, and consequently the glutamine content, evidenced a biochemical signal of an early senescence due to the effect of warming.

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33–48 V. Bulgakov, S. Pascuzzi, S. Nikolaenko, F. Santoro, A. Sotirios Anifantis and J. Olt
Theoretical study on sieving of potato heap elements in spiral separator
Abstract |

Theoretical study on sieving of potato heap elements in spiral separator

V. Bulgakov¹, S. Pascuzzi², S. Nikolaenko¹, F. Santoro², A. Sotirios Anifantis² and J. Olt³*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Heroyiv Oborony street 15, UA03041 Kiev, Ukraine
²Department of Agricultural and Environmental Science (DiSAAT), University of Bari Aldo Moro, Via Amendola, 165/A, Bari, IT70125, Italy
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

One of the principal problems in the harvesting of potatoes is the cleaning of the lifted heap from soil and plant impurities. The low quality in the performance of this harvesting work process operation is the main cause of the withdrawal from fields of considerable amounts of fertile soil. In order to facilitate choosing the optimal parameters for the new design of the spiral potato heap cleaning unit, a mathematical model of sieving the soil impurities through its cleaning spirals has been developed. The obtained analytical expressions have been solved with the use of a PC and the results have been used for plotting the graphic relations between the parameters of the examined process of a variable-mass body’s motion on the surface of a spiral, which have made it possible to select the optimal design and kinematic parameters of the spiral cleaning unit under consideration. The obtained graphic relations indicate that the rate of sieving in the spiral separator depends on many factors, including the initial mass, the design dimensions (spiral’s radius, helix angle etc.), the frictional properties of the surface, the angular parameters of the position of the potato heap elements on the spiral’s surface, and the angular velocity of the rotational motion of the spiral roll itself.

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49–59 F.A. Damasceno, J.A. Osorio, C.E. Alves Oliveira, P.F.P. Ferraz and L.F. Brandão
Assessment of a low-cost solar water heating systems in farrowing facilities
Abstract |

Assessment of a low-cost solar water heating systems in farrowing facilities

F.A. Damasceno¹*, J.A. Osorio², C.E. Alves Oliveira¹, P.F.P. Ferraz¹ and L.F. Brandão³

¹Department of Engineering, Federal University of Lavras, BR37200-000 Lavras - Minas Gerais, Brasil
²University National of Colombia, Faculty of Agrarians Science, Department of Agricultural and Food Engineer, Calle 59 A N 63-20, CO050001 Medellín, Colombia
³Department of Engineering, Federal University of Ouro Preto, BR35400-000 Ouro Preto – Minas Gerais, Brasil
*Correspondence: flavio.damasceno@deg.ufla.br

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to develop a prototype solar heater using alternative materials and then to compare its thermal efficiency against that of two other commercial solar heating systems when heating the floor of piglet housing. To evaluate the thermal heaters, temperature sensors were installed in the inlet and outlet of each floor and the thermal reservoir. The results showed good performance, however the thermal efficiency of the alternative heater was lower than the conventional systems. However, due to the construction of this solar collector with alternative materials its cost was relatively low and its operation is easier than the other conventional heater, therefore this heater is a good alternative to use for small livestock producer.

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60–76 G. Falcone, T. Stillitano, F. Montemurro, A.I. De Luca, G. Gulisano and A. Strano
Environmental and economic assessment of sustainability in Mediterranean wheat production
Abstract |

Environmental and economic assessment of sustainability in Mediterranean wheat production

G. Falcone¹, T. Stillitano¹, F. Montemurro², A.I. De Luca¹*, G. Gulisano¹ and A. Strano¹

¹Department of Agriculture, Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria, Feo di Vito, IT89100 Reggio Calabria, Italy
²Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria - Research Centre for Agriculture and Environment, Bari, Italy
*Correspondence: anna.deluca@unirc.it

Abstract:

This study proposes the application of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and economic evaluations conducted on different cereal production systems in semi-arid environments. Two different crop management systems of durum wheat were analysed by distinguishing Continuous Cropping (CC) and Crop Rotation (CR) with vetch, that are conducted through two different levels of crop intensification (in terms of tillage and fertilization strategies): Conventional (Conv) and Conservative (Cons). The resulting four scenarios were examined using LCA methodology to assess the environmental impacts, and the Production Cost (PC) analysis to estimate the economic results. Overall, the findings of this research provide an opportunity to identify sustainable crops management strategies.

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77–85 O. Gayosso-Barragán, A. López-Benítez, S.A. Rodríguez-Herrera, J.N. Ek-Maas, D.M. Hidalgo-Ramos and J.S.G.J. Alcala-Rico
Studies on combining ability in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)
Abstract |
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Studies on combining ability in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

O. Gayosso-Barragán, A. López-Benítez*, S.A. Rodríguez-Herrera, J.N. Ek-Maas, D.M. Hidalgo-Ramos and J.S.G.J. Alcala-Rico

Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Departamento de Fitomejoramiento, Calzada Antonio Narro 1923, MX25315 Saltillo, Coahuila, México
*Correspondence: alfopezbe_2000@hotmail.com

Abstract:

The present study was done seven elite tomato lines (Solamun lycopersicum L.) of determinate and indeterminate growth with good yield potential and good combining ability, using diallel fashion without reciprocals to produce 21 F1s. General combining ability (GCA) and Specific combining ability (SCA) analysis were conducted, with Diallel-SAS, assessing six yield and component traits. Results showed highly significant differences (p ≤ 0.01) among genotypes, as well as in GCA and SCA effects in all the characteristics that was assessed, with the exception of Days to First Cut. The results revealed that variance contribution to the yield attributed to the crossings had more non-additive effects (SCA) than additive effects (GCA). Furthermore, Line D4 had the greatest effect on yield in terms of GCA, as well in AFW (Average Fruit Weight), NFP (Number of Fruits per Plant) and PD (Polar Diameter) followed by D3 and K3. These lines can be used as donor parent in future tomato-breeding program. Hybrids K3×D4, R1×Y53, D3×IR13 and F3×Y53 had the highest level of SCA, with average yields of 93 t ha-1. These potential hybrids could be exploited at commercial level after critical testing.

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86–99 V.A. Grokhovsky, V. Volchenko, L.K. Kuranova and O.N. Krasulya
Developing functional sterilised products technology using microwave-cooked semi-finished cod liver products
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Developing functional sterilised products technology using microwave-cooked semi-finished cod liver products

V.A. Grokhovsky¹*, V. Volchenko¹, L.K. Kuranova¹ and O.N. Krasulya²

¹Murmansk State Technical University, Institute of Natural Science and Technology, Department of Food Production Technology, Sportivnaya 13, RU183010 Murmansk, Russia
²Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Technology of Animal Products Storage and Processing, Timiryazevskaya street 49, RU127550 Moscow, Russia
*Correspondence: v.grokhovsky@mail.ru

Abstract:

Cod liver which is extracted in significant amounts from fish during the process of gutting and harvesting by fishing vessels in the North Atlantic and Barents Sea is a very valuable raw material for producing ‘natural’ tinned foods that have not undergone any additional treatment and which do not have any additional ingredients, but its use is limited due to lipid instability in long-term storage in a frozen state. The authors advise that the production and use of pre-treated semi-finished products which are based on the use of cod liver is managed by means of a microwave-cooking process which results in a product that is more stable for frozen storage. Any semi-finished fish oil product that is extracted during microwave processing can also be used in food production.
The variants that can be included in using these semi-finished products are discussed here when it comes to the technology that is involved in functional multicomponent products (such as natural and paste tinned foods with the addition of sauces, vegetables, mushrooms, meat, and fish protein isolate).

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100–110 R. Imeri, E. Kullaj, E. Duhani and L. Millaku
Impact of rootstock on heavy metal bioaccumulation in apple plant grown near an industrial source in Obiliq, Kosovo
Abstract |

Impact of rootstock on heavy metal bioaccumulation in apple plant grown near an industrial source in Obiliq, Kosovo

R. Imeri¹, E. Kullaj¹, E. Duhani² and L. Millaku³*

¹Agricultural University of Tirana, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Koder-Kamez, AL1029 Tirana, Republic of Albania
²University of Prishtina, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary, Department of Agriculture, George Bush, nr. 31, XK10000 Prishtine, Republic of Kosovo
³University of Prishtina, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Department of Biology, George Bush, nr. 31, XK10000 Prishtine, Republic of Kosovo
*Correspondence: lulzimmillaku@hotmail.com

Abstract:

Food exposure to heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, As, Zn, Cu and Fe is considered a risk to human health. This study analyzes the level of heavy metals in soil and delicious apple tissues (fruit, leaf, shoot) in three different rootstocks: mm106, m26 and m9 grown in the Obiliq region (considered as a polluted region). The data obtained from the Obiliq areas are compared with those grown in reference clear area. Individual soil samples were collected from each plant to assess metal content in the immediate plant environment. Samples of soil, fruit, leaf and shoot have been analyzed for heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, As, Zn, Cu, Cr and Fe) using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS).
The results indicated that the average concentrations of Pb, Cd, Ni, As, Zn, Cu, Cr and Fe in soil of Obiliq areas were 2.03, 0.15, 6.99, 12.4, nd, 12.3, 4.68, 5.32 mg kg-1 d.w. respectively. The concentration of metals in the apple tissue increased with the increase of heavy metals in soil from polluted area. The accumulation ratios of heavy metals were calculated to assess the potential health risks. The mean concentrations of the heavy metals in the soil were in order of magnitude Ni > Zn > Cr > Cu > Fe > Pb > Cd > As while that in the fruits of apple were in order of magnitude Cr > Fe > Cu > Ni > Pb > Zn > Cd > As; in the leaves were Fe > Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > Ni > Cd > As; in shoots were Zn > Fe > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cr > Cd > As.
Mobility of heavy metals and potentially hazardous in studied lands threatens the quality of apple fruit consumption, with a real risk that these elements (Cd, Pb, Ni and Cr) can enter the food chain.

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111–122 A. Jaunzems and I. Balode
Eduard Stiefel’s linear programming method as tool in agro metrics
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Eduard Stiefel’s linear programming method as tool in agro metrics

A. Jaunzems* and I. Balode

Ventspils University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Economics and Management, Inženieru street 101, LV-3601 Ventspils, Latvia
*Correspondence: jaunzems@venta.lv

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the linear optimization models’ application problems in the research processes and in the didactics processes. Our target is to convince the colleagues about preferences of Eduard Stiefel’s method comparing with widespread George Bernard Dantzig’s simplex method. Indeed, the Stiefel’s method provides researchers and teachers with clear and pithy interpretations of linear model. Our pedagogical praxis during long time period conclusively confirms that Stiefel’s method makes the theory of linear optimization match easier for understanding and for active employing to students especially in the specialities with limited mathematical education. We offer in this paper also some new theoretical concepts and methods adapted for the linear model information analysis (the concept of general optimal plan, the methods of the profounder sensitivity analysis), and we appeal economists to interpret simplex predicates as productions functions in a broad sense.

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123–132 S. Kadyrov and M. Kharitonov
Productivity of corn hybrids in relation to the seeding rate
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Productivity of corn hybrids in relation to the seeding rate

S. Kadyrov and M. Kharitonov*

Voronezh State Agrarian University after Emperor Peter I, Department of Agriculture, Plant and Plant Protection, Michurina 1, RU394087 Voronezh, Russia
*Correspondence: mikh.xaritonoff@yandex.ru

Abstract:

Potential yield of corn hybrids with a different FAO number is limited by not only rainfall amount, average soil and air temperature throughout vegetation period, but also directly depends on plant density. The study and practical application of special agricultural techniques allows us to limit and mitigate the negative impact of these factors on the productivity of maize, depending on the indicators under study and the soil and climatic resources of the cultivation zone. Therefore, the study of the influence of the seeding rate on the growth and development of corn plants remains relevant. The results presented make it possible to choose optimal seeding rates for corn hybrids of early and middle groups of ripeness (FAO 180-280). Overcrowding from 61,000 to 93,000 seeds ha-1 leads to increase in interstage period ‘sprouting–wax ripeness’ of Rodnik 179SV hybrid for 4 days, of MAS 12R and AMELIOR hybrids–for 2 days, and of MAS 30K hybrid – for 3 days. Hybrids Rodnik 179SV and AMELIOR reached maximum height –217 cm and 214 cm respectively – at seeding rate of 73,000 seeds ha-1, while hybrids MAS 12R and MAS 30K grew up to their 213 cm and 223 cm respectively at seeding rate of 77,000 seeds ha-1. Decrease in seeding rate to less than 73,000 seeds ha-1 and, contrary to it, overcrowding of seeds of more than 77,000 seeds ha-1 leads to decrease in corn hybrid plant height. Agronomically, the most efficient for maximizing early ripe Rodnik 179SV and MAS 12R hybrids yields (6.39 and 6.73 t ha-1) and middle-early ripe AMELIOR hybrid yield (6.81 t ha-1) was the seeding rate of 73,000 seeds ha-1, while the highest yield of middle MAS 30K hybrid (7.21 t ha-1) was at the seeding rate of 77,000 seeds ha-1.

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133–143 A. Karlsons and A. Osvalde
Effect of foliar fertilization of microelements on highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corumbosum L.) nutrient status and yield components in cutover peatlands
Abstract |

Effect of foliar fertilization of microelements on highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corumbosum L.) nutrient status and yield components in cutover peatlands

A. Karlsons* and A. Osvalde

Institute of Biology, University of Latvia, Laboratory of Plant Mineral Nutrition, Miera street 3, LV-2169 Salaspils, Salaspils municipality, Latvia
*Correspondence: andis.karlsons@lu.lv

Abstract:

The commercial cultivation of highbush blueberry in Latvia was successfully started during the last 20 years. In 2018, there was an estimated 280 ha of highbush blueberries planted in Latvia with increasing annual hectarage. In general, blueberry is a highly specialized crop that has definite soil agrochemical and climatic requirements: it has low nutrient needs and is sensitive to excessive nutrient levels in the soil. However, balanced and precise mineral nutrition is essential for producing high and quality yield. The study was conducted in the producing planting of highbush blueberry, cultivar ‘Patriot’, during the vegetation season of 2018. The research was carried out to determine the effect of foliar fertilization with micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mo, B) on the productivity, the content of mineral elements in leaves and photosynthesis of blueberries. Field experiment design included foliar fertilizer treatments 0 to 3 times per season. In general, our results revealed that foliar sprays with micronutrients had a positive effect on the berry yield, parameters of photosynthesis and microelement content in leaves of highbush blueberry. It was determined that the application of the foliar fertilizer 4 times per season provided the highest berry yield (134% compared to control) and the highest photosynthetic activity of plants. Our study suggests that correct foliar fertilization can optimize the content of Fe, Zn and B in blueberry leaves.

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144–154 V. Karpenko, S. Pavlyshyn, R. Prytulіak and D. Naherniuk
Content of malondialdehyde and activity of enzyme glutathione-S-transferase in the leaves of emmer wheat under the action of herbicide and plant growth regulator
Abstract |

Content of malondialdehyde and activity of enzyme glutathione-S-transferase in the leaves of emmer wheat under the action of herbicide and plant growth regulator

V. Karpenko¹*, S. Pavlyshyn¹, R. Prytulіak¹ and D. Naherniuk²

¹Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Horticulture, Ecology and Plants Protection, Department of Biology, Instytutska street, 1, UA20300 Uman, Ukraine
²Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Management, Department of Management, Instytutska street, 1, UA20300 Uman, Ukraine
*Correspondence: unuh1844@gmail.com

Abstract:

The article presents the results of vegetation experiment on the influence of different rates of herbicide Prima Forte 195 – 2-ethylhexyl ether 2.4-D + aminopyralid + florasulam (0.5; 0.6 and 0.7 L ha-1) under different application methods of plant growth regulator of a natural origin Wuxal BIO Vita (Ascophyllum nodosum extract + microelements) on the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) as an important indicator of the intensity of peroxide oxidation of lipids in plants and on the activity of enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in the leaves of emmer wheat.
Experimental scheme included 16 experimental variants: 1 – without application of preparations and pre-sowing treatment of seeds (control); 2, 3, 4 – Prima Forte 195, applied to vegetative plants at the rates 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 L ha-1; 5 – Wuxal BIO Vita at the rate of 1.0 L ha-1, applied to vegetative plants; 6, 7, 8 – Prima Forte 195 at the rates of 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 L ha-1 in tank mixtures with Wuxal BIO Vita at the rate of 1.0 L ha-1, sprayed on vegetative plants; 9 – pre-sowing treatment of seeds with Wuxal BIO Vita at the rate of 1.0 L t-1 (background); 10, 11, 12 – Prima forte 195, applied to vegetative plants at the rates of 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 L ha-1 at the background of pre-sowing treatment of seeds with Wuxal BIO Vita at the rate of 1.0 L t-1; 13 – Wuxal BIO Vita at the rate of 1.0 L ha-1 (applied to vegetative plants, treated before sowing with Wuxal BIO Vita at the rate of 1.0 L t-1); 14, 15, 16 – Prima Forte 195 at the rates of 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 L ha-1 respectively, in tank mixture with Wuxal BІО Vita at the rate of 1.0 L ha -1 – spraying of plants and pre-sowing treatment of seeds with Wuxal BІО Vita 1.0 L t-1.
It has been found that under the application of Prima Forte 195 the redox state in the leaves of emmer wheat increased considerably in the direction of increasing the content of MDA. It has also been proved that herbicide Prima Forte 195 and its mixtures with plant growth regulator (PGR) Wuxal BIO Vita caused the changes in the activity of enzyme glutathione-S-transferase, which slightly increased in the initial period in the variants of integrated application of herbicide and plant growth regulator. However, later the GST activity in the variants of integrated application of herbicide and PGR decreased, which indicates stabilization and a positive influence of integrated application of preparations on the detoxification processes in the crops of emmer wheat.

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155–164 G. Karráa, T. Ivanova, M. Kolarikova, P. Hutla and V. Krepl
Using of high-speed mills for biomass disintegration
Abstract |

Using of high-speed mills for biomass disintegration

G. Karráa¹, T. Ivanova¹*, M. Kolarikova¹, P. Hutla² and V. Krepl¹

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Department of Sustainable Technologies, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
²Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p.r.i., Drnovská 509, CZ161 01 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: ivanova@ftz.czu.cz

Abstract:

The need for mechanical disintegration of biomass is very current topic with regard to the requirements of an agrarian sector, beside the importance of a material’s moisture content reduction to be used in further applications. The drawbacks of commonly applied devices are the limited use of moist biomass and high energy consumption for disintegration. In collaboration with LAVARIS company, there were tested two high-speed mills LAV 400/1R with single rotor (used for a first milling) and LAV 300/2R with double rotors (used for a second milling), which were primarily designed for crushing of concrete, rubber and construction waste. The goal of the new technical solution was a disintegration of biomass on example of pine sawdust and miscanthus together with examination of simultaneous drying in order to achieve a desired fraction (particle size) and moisture content of biomass material. Experimental tests on high-speed mills have shown the following results: in case of pine sawdust about 98% of output particle size after passing through the first and second milling was smaller than 1.5 mm, and smaller than 1 mm for miscanthus (sieve analysis method was used for determination), i.e. significant reduction was achieved comparing to initial particle size. Moisture content of the materials after disintegration (first and second) decreased from 37.08% to 8.55% for pine sawdust and from 24.43% to 7.19% for miscanthus. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the mechanical disintegration of biomass by high-speed mills has a great potential to become an effective part of raw materials’ pre-treatment technology, not only in agriculture, but also in production of different types of biofuels.

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165–175 S.A. Lasmini, I. Wahyudi, R. Rosmini, B. Nasir and N. Edy
Combined application of mulches and organic fertilizers enhance shallot production in dryland
Abstract |
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Combined application of mulches and organic fertilizers enhance shallot production in dryland

S.A. Lasmini*, I. Wahyudi, R. Rosmini, B. Nasir and N. Edy

Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tadulako University, Jl. Soekarno-Hatta Km 9, ID 94118 Palu, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia
*Correspondence: srianjarlasmini@gmail.com

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine the type of mulch and organic fertilizer that can induce suitable changes in the microclimate and chemical properties of soil for the promotion of growth and yield of shallot on dryland. A factorial randomized block design experiment with two factors and three replications was constructed. The first factor was mulches consisting of rice straw, coconut husk, silver-black plastic mulch, and without mulch. The second factor was the organic fertilizers composed of either composted cow manure, Gliricidia leaf compost (each applied at 5 t ha-1), and no organic fertilizer. Among all treatments tested, straw mulch with 5 t ha-1 cow manure (L1P1) decreased the soil temperature from 36 °C to 30 °C and increasing the soil moisture from 7% to 37%. This, in turn, increased the cation exchange capacity by 24.32 meq 100 g-1, pH by 6.83, C organic from 0.74 to 2.72%, C/N ratio by 13.27%, total N by 0.29%, total P from 20.02 to 28.86 mg 100 g-1 and K2O by 39.16 mg 100 g-1. In addition, the growth and yield of shallot were positively affected, as assessed by plant height, leaf number, root length, root dry weight, total leaf area, number of bulbs per hill, bulb diameter, weight of fresh bulbs, and bulb yield. The yield of bulbs increased from 4.27 to 10.22 t ha-1 after L1P1 treatment. This study demonstrates the application of straw mulch and 5 t ha-1 cow manure could enhance the yield of shallot cultivation on drylands.

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176–185 N. Lebedová, R. Stupka, J. Čítek, M. Okrouhlá and K. Zadinová
Effect of feed restriction on muscle fibre characteristics and meat quality traits in pigs
Abstract |
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Effect of feed restriction on muscle fibre characteristics and meat quality traits in pigs

N. Lebedová*, R. Stupka, J. Čítek, M. Okrouhlá and K. Zadinová

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Animal Science, Kamýcká 129, CZ16500 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: lebedova@af.czu.cz

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feed restriction on muscle fibre composition and meat quality traits in pigs. Forty crossbred pigs (Pietrain × Large WhiteSire) × (Landrace × Large WhiteDam) were divided into two feeding groups: ad libitum (AL) and restricted (R1). The effects of feed restriction on muscle fibre characteristics of the musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis (MLLT) and meat quality traits were evaluated. Muscle fibres were stained and classified as fibre types I, IIA, and IIB. For each muscle fibre type, the fibre density, fibre cross-section area (CSA), and fibre proportion were determined. Fibres IIB were divided into small- (diameter < 46 μm), medium- (diameter 46–86 μm) and large-sized (diameter > 86 μm) fibres. The AL group had significantly lower (P < 0.05) percentage area of IIB fibres and lower (P < 0.01) CSA of IIB fibres than did the R1 group. The R1 group had significantly greater content of large-sized IIB fibres and smaller content of medium-sized IIB fibres than did the AL group (P < 0.05). The group fed ad libitum had greater backfat thickness and smaller lean meat content and tended to have better meat quality traits compared to the restricted group. The results of this study show that strong feed restriction had a negative effect on muscle fibre composition, especially on the amount of large-sized fibres IIB, which are associated with poor meat quality.

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186–193 V. Liška
The energy intensity of the briquetting process in terms of profitability of waste treatment
Abstract |

The energy intensity of the briquetting process in terms of profitability of waste treatment

V. Liška

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
E-mail: vliska@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Modern agricultural industry is a source of a considerable amount of waste, which can come in various forms and states. Such waste, and not just agricultural waste in the form biomass, is highly desirable for further processing, depositing or utilising its energy potential. Briquetting technology is suitable for all these purposes. The briquetting press for industrial use is complex technical equipment. The economy of its operation has a major impact on the profitability of the produced briquettes and hence on the efficiency of waste and biomass processing as such. The paper deals with the energy demands of briquetting in terms of waste treatment and economic profitability of production in the whole context of waste processing as a whole.

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194–205 M.M. Marenych, V.V. Hanhur, O.I. Len, Yu.M. Hangur, I.I. Zhornyk and A.V. Kalinichenko
The efficiency of humic growth stimulators in pre-sowing seed treatment and foliar additional fertilizing of sown areas of grain and industrial crops
Abstract |
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The efficiency of humic growth stimulators in pre-sowing seed treatment and foliar additional fertilizing of sown areas of grain and industrial crops

M.M. Marenych¹, V.V. Hanhur², O.I. Len³, Yu.M. Hangur³, I.I. Zhornyk¹ and A.V. Kalinichenko⁴*

¹Poltava State Agrarian Academy, Faculty of Agro-Technology and Ecology, Department of Selection, Seed Growing and Genetics, 1/3 Skovorody street, UA36003 Poltava, Ukraine
²The Institute of Pig-Breeding and Agro-Industrial Production of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Shvedska mohyla street, UA36013 Poltava, Ukraine
³Poltava M.I. Vavilova State Agricultural Experimental Station of the Institute of Pig-Breeding and Agro-Industrial Production of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, 86 Shvedska mohyla street, UA36014 Poltava, Ukraine
⁴University of Opole, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Technology, Institute of Technical Sciences, Dmowskiego street 7–9, PL45–759 Opole, Poland
*Correspondence: akalinichenko@uni.opole.pl

Abstract:

The aim of the research was to establish the effectiveness of preparations, made on the basis of humic and fulvic acids on the yields of crops in case of different methods and amounts used. The experiments were held with varieties and hybrids of winter wheat, soya, corn, and sunflower. Based on the obtained results of investigation during the period of 2015–2017, the positive impact of foliar additional fertilizing with 4R Foliar Concentrate growth stimulator on the basis of humic and fulvic acids on the formation of productivity of the main crops sown areas was established.
Proceeding from the results of the research, the using of growth stimulators based on humic and fulvic acids, which contain high concentrations of these substances, can be recommended as an expedient and efficient measure of raising the productivity and improving qualitative indicators of corn, sunflower, soya, and winter wheat yields.

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206–219 V.A. Mazur, H.V. Pantsyreva, K.V. Mazur and I.M. Didur
Influence of the assimilation apparatus and productivity of white lupine plants
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Influence of the assimilation apparatus and productivity of white lupine plants

V.A. Mazur, H.V. Pantsyreva*, K.V. Mazur and I.M. Didur

Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, Soniachna street 3, UA21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine,
*Correspondence: pantsyreva@vsau.vin.ua

Abstract:

Artificial regulation of the growth and development of cultivated plants aimed to increase biological productivity and improve the quality of eco-friendly products is an important goal of modern agricultural production. Application of the natural growth stimulators and bacterial agents is quite relevant and effective. The field research was conducted on the basis of the research farm ‘Agronomichne’ of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, village Agronomichne, Vinnytsa district, Vinnytsia region, Ukraine. Features of the growth and development of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) plants are examined. There has been established a positive effect of the combination of inoculation with the bacterial agent and growth stimulator on the productivity of white lupine, which is important for the formation of high and stable yields. The papers presents the results of studies on the effect of pre-sowing seed treatment and foliar nutrion under conditions of the right-bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine on the assimilation apparatus of white lupine plants. It has been established that bacterial agents and growth stimulators increase white lupine productivity due to optimization of the studied technological methods of cultivation. The optimal leaf surface area that provided maximum grain yield has been determined. The research has established a positive effect of pre-sowing seed treatment with the bacterial agent Rhizohumin and the growth stimulator Emistym C and foliar nutrition with Emistym C on the chlorophyll content in the white lupine leaves. The influence of the investigated technological methods on the formation of the assimilation surface area and chlorophyll synthesis in the leaves of white lupine has been proved. The preparations studied induce intensive development of the photosynthetic apparatus, yield increase, improvement of the yield structure and they improve grain quality under conditions of right-bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. The issue of seed bacterization and application of growth stimulators requires a more detailed study. Therefore, such researches are relevant and significance in terms of both practical and scientific value.

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220–233 M. Mõtte, J. Lillemets and R. Värnik
A systematic approach to exploring the role of primary sector in the development of Estonian bioeconomy
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A systematic approach to exploring the role of primary sector in the development of Estonian bioeconomy

M. Mõtte*, J. Lillemets and R. Värnik

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Economics and Social Sciences, F.R. Kreutzwaldi 1a, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: mati.motte@emu.ee

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic overview of biomass production and the use of biomass for the production of key products, as well as to map businesses operating in the field of bioeconomy in Estonia. The importance of primary sector in Estonian economy has decreased over the last decade. At the same time, the competitiveness of primary sector has increased, which will, in the future, contribute towards a stable production of biomass. Therefore, bioeconomy and respective business models are some of the key ways of coping with climate change. Innovative ways to transform the use of natural resources in a conscious manner are being mapped in Estonia as well as in other member states of the European Union. Comprehending the current use of biomass is essential for finding new sustainable management solutions. Acknowledging these aspects, the study explores biomass production in Estonia. One of the aspects observed during the period 2014–2017 is the proportion of the primary sector in total gross value added and the use of biomass in the food and feed industry. The results of the paper are presented in the form of Sankey diagrams, which illustrate noteworthy connections.

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234–244 S. Murtic, J. Jurkovic, E. Basic and E. Hekic
Assessment of wild plants for phytoremediation of heavy metals in soils surrounding the thermal power station
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Assessment of wild plants for phytoremediation of heavy metals in soils surrounding the thermal power station

S. Murtic¹*, J. Jurkovic², E. Basic¹ and E. Hekic¹

¹University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Physiology, Zmaja od Bosne 8, BA71 000, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
²University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Chemistry, Zmaja od Bosne 8, BA71 000, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
*Correspondence: murticsenad@hotmail.com

Abstract:

The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the phytoextraction potential of three main wild plant species: annual nettle (Urtica urens L.), daisy fleabane (Stenactis annua (L.) Ness.) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) that grow spontaneously in heavy metal contaminated areas near the thermal power station in Kakanj, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Analyses of the heavy metal content (Ni, Fe, Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Mn) in soil and plant samples taken from the examined area were performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results obtained revealed that the examined soils are polluted by Ni and Pb and contain relatively high value of Cr and Fe. Annual nettle, daisy fleabane and yarrow have not shown high efficiency in the absorption and accumulation of heavy metals from polluted soils, and therefore these plants are not be considered as potential phytoremediators of soils on the examined area. Furthermore, the results of the study undoubtedly confirm the fact that the total content of heavy metals in soils is not a sufficient parameter for estimating the toxicity of heavy metals in soils and consequently for their transfer and accumulation in plants.

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245–260 S. Palisoc, Y.A. Malabuyo, R.C. Pereja and M. Natividad
Determination of heavy metals in root crops using bismuth nanoparticles modified graphene paste electrode
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Determination of heavy metals in root crops using bismuth nanoparticles modified graphene paste electrode

S. Palisoc¹², Y.A. Malabuyo¹, R.C. Pereja¹ and M. Natividad¹²*

¹De La Salle University, Condensed Matter Research Laboratory, Physics Department, 2401 Taft Avenue, PH 922 Manila, Philippines
²De La Salle University, Condensed Matter Research Unit, CENSER, 2401 Taft Avenue, PH 922 Manila, Philippines
*Correspondence: michelle.natividad@dlsu.edu.ph

Abstract:

Electrochemical detection of lead (Pb2+) and cadmium (Cd2+) was accomplished via anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) using bismuth nanoparticle (BiNP) modified graphene paste electrode (GPE). The electrode was fabricated by mixing bismuth nanoparticles, graphene, and mineral oil and the mixture was packed in a Teflon syringe. The best electrode was determined by varying the amount of BiNP while the amount of graphene and mineral oil were kept constant at 0.21 g and 0.80 μL, respectively. The highest peak currents were obtained using 1.5 mg BiNP modified GPE. The ASV parameters, namely accumulation time, deposition time, and accumulation potential, were optimized. The calibration curve, analytical sensitivity, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of the optimized electrode were determined. The correlation values for Pb2+ (R2 = 0.9409) and Cd2+ (R2 = 0.9086) in the calibration curves showed a positive linear relationship between the anodic peak current and heavy metal concentration. The LOD for both Pb2+ and Cd2+ is found to be 100 ppb. The application of the modified electrode on real sample analysis was performed using root crops purchased from local supermarkets. According to ASV and AAS analyses, most of the samples contained Cd2+ while only a few contained Pb2+. Other metals, such as Fe2+ and Cu2+, were also detected via ASV.

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261–270 B. Rivza, M. Kruzmetra, I. Gudele and D. Foris
Digitalization as an essential growth factor contributing in SME development (experience of Latvia and Romania)
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Digitalization as an essential growth factor contributing in SME development (experience of Latvia and Romania)

B. Rivza¹*, M. Kruzmetra¹, I. Gudele¹ and D. Foris²

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Economics and Social Development, Economics and Regional Development Institute, Svetes street 9, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Transilvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Food and Tourism, Department of Engineering and Management in Food and Tourism, B-dul Eroilor 29, RO500036 Brasov, Romania
*Correspondence: baiba.rivza@llu.lv

Abstract:

In today’s global economy, entrepreneurship is an important economic growth engine for the European Union. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are the backbone of Europe’s economy, providing 85 % of all new jobs. The European Commission aims to promote entrepreneurship and improve the business environment for SMEs, to allow them to realise their full potential in today’s global economy (EC.2015. COSME). The expansion of SMEs in today’s environment is increasingly influenced by the use of digital networks. The present research focuses on the characteristics of digital environment use by SMEs in two EU Member States – Romania and Latvia. Groups of entrepreneurs that produced both goods and services and differed in number of the employed and geographical location were surveyed in each country. The information acquired revealed the technological and economic characteristics of the digitalization process in each country, highlighting both similarities and differences. An analysis of the data gives an opportunity to identify main priorities to enhance SME digitalization processes in the future. The first of them is the accessibility of competent workers in digitization and digitalization.

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271–280 I. Szabó, M. Hushki, Z. Bártfai and L. Kátai
Modelling of operator’s focusing scheme along working hours: harvesting operation
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Modelling of operator’s focusing scheme along working hours: harvesting operation

I. Szabó, M. Hushki, Z. Bártfai and L. Kátai*

Szent István University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Mechanics and Machinery, Páter K. street 1, HU2100 Gödöllő, Hungary
*Correspondence: katai.laszlo@gek.szie.hu

Abstract:

In consistent with the growing research activities regarding the Farm 4.0 concept, it is valuable to consider each possible chance of enhancement which is expected to contribute positively to the productivity and the safety of planned operations. Human centred design concept is becoming essential for the multitasking vehicles market, which promotes the research experiments aiming to understand the human behaviour inside the vehicle cabins to proceed with upgrading the design, planning and production procedures based on validated inputs leading to introducing reliable solutions for more productive and safety conduct of operations. The accurate and deep analysis of the operator behaviour inside the cabin will lead to a better understanding for the problems and issues need to be resolved in new designs in addition to providing the production planning (i.e. manpower planning and working shift period) with the necessary data to ensure achieving the maximum efficiency and effectiveness. In this research, the operator’s glance behaviour inside the tractor cabin is studied during the harvesting operation to develop a model for the change of operator’s focusing scheme along working hours.

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281–294 O.A. Vysokova, T.A. Kalinina, T.V. Glukhareva, A.A. Kochubei and O.A. Cherepanova
The effect of the 1,2,3-triazolo[5,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazines on Solanum lycopersicum L. seed germination
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The effect of the 1,2,3-triazolo[5,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazines on Solanum lycopersicum L. seed germination

O.A. Vysokova¹, T.A. Kalinina¹, T.V. Glukhareva¹²*, A.A. Kochubei³ and O.A. Cherepanova³

¹Ural Federal University, Mira street 19, RU620002 Ekaterinburg, Russia
²Postovsky Institute of Organic Synthesis, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Sofia Kovalevskaya street 22, RU 620990, Ekaterinburg, Russia
³Botanical Garden UB RAS, 8 Marta street 202a, RU620144 Ekaterinburg, Russia
*Correspondence: taniagluhareva@yandex.ru

Abstract:

In recent years chemical pesticides are being replaced by environmentally friendly and universal means of plant protection that are able to exert a complex effect on the plant (stimulate growth and development, improve metabolic processes, develop resistance to pathogens, etc.). The effect of new synthetic growth regulators of the 1,2,3-triazolo[5,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazine class and trade phytohormones (6-BAP, GA and TDZ) on the growth processes, growth energy and vitality of tomato seeds, as well as morphological parameters of seedlings was researched in this article. It was revealed that the effect of synthesized compounds on seed vigor and viability of seedlings are superior to commercial phytohormones. In the early stages of germination the seed vigor of tomato seeds treated with the compounds TT1-TT5 were superior to one in treatments with phytohormones and in control experiment. As a result of the experiment, the most viable seedlings were formed into the treatments TT1, TT2 and TT3 (in all studied concentrations). Tomato seedlings treated with 6-BAP and GA at a concentration of 5 mg L-1 produced the worst results.

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295–306 A. Zeidmane and T. Rubina
Mathematics education for sustainable agriculture specialists
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Mathematics education for sustainable agriculture specialists

A. Zeidmane¹ and T. Rubina²

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Information and Technologies, Department of Mathematics, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of information and Technologies, Department of Computer Systems, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: Anda.Zeidmane@llu.lv; Tatjana.Rubina@llu.lv

Abstract:

One of the Sustainable Development objectives is to promote life-long learning opportunities for all, but one of the Lifelong Learning competences is mathematical competence, which can be obtained studying mathematics at schools and universities. The question is how much and whether the course of mathematics should be included in the curriculum of the agronomy specialties at universities. The aim of the article is to highlight the insufficient amount of higher mathematics in the education of agriculture specialist in the context of sustainable development.
The objectives of the study: to identify the importance of mathematics for agronomy specialists by analysing the role of the mathematics education for agronomy specialists and to analyse the proportion of mathematics courses in the curriculum of the agronomy programmes in the Baltics States and the Baltic Sea region’s higher education institutions. The mathematics education is important for agronomy specialists in many fields. Agronomy specialists need knowledge and skills in basic mathematics, in statistical analysis and interpretation, mathematical modelling, in scientific methods, in economic analysis. The knowledge and skills in a direct and indirect means is provided by mathematical studies at universities. In order to analyse the proportion of mathematics courses in study programmes of Agriculture, Agronomy and Horticulture, three universities of the Baltic States were compared: the Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Aleksandras Stulginskis University (Lithuania) and Estonian University of Life Sciences. For a more comprehensive analysis and comparison several universities from the Baltic Sea region were chosen that provide studies in agricultural sciences. Unfortunately, not all agronomy programmes in the Baltic Sea region contain the higher mathematics course that would help to understand the role of derivatives, integrals, and differential equations in the modelling process, as well as further developing general problem-solving skills.

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