Volume 17 (2019)
  Number 4

Full text of the journal: Volume 17 number 4

Contents


Pages

1517–1531 P.F. Alao, H. Kallakas, T. Poltimäe and J. Kers
Effect of hemp fibre length on the properties of polypropylene composites
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Effect of hemp fibre length on the properties of polypropylene composites

P.F. Alao*, H. Kallakas, T. Poltimäe and J. Kers

Laboratory of Wood Technology, Department of Materials and Environmental Technology, Tallinn University of technology, Ehitajate tee 5, EE19086 Tallinn, Estonia
*Correspondence: percy.alao@taltech.ee

Abstract:

Hemp fibre (HF) is a natural fibre that has gained increased application in interior material for automobile industries (Sanjay, et al., 2016). However, good interfacial bonding between fibre/matrix is necessary to enhance the mechanical properties of the composite (Pickering, et al., 2007). This study focuses on the effect of fibre length, alkali and silane treatments on the mechanical and physical properties of hemp fibre reinforced polypropylene composites. Compression moulding technique was used to produce the composite, fibre lengths of 50, 100 and 150 mm were selected and combined with polypropylene powder at a fibre/PP ratio of 60/40%, a pressure of 1.67 MPa and temperature between 160–200 °C. The results obtained show that longer fibres enhanced mechanical strength. The tensile test result, for instance, shows a 21% increase in flexural strength at 150 mm compared to the fibre length of 50 mm. The modification resulted in a 46% decrease in strength, especially for 150 mm long fibres. This may have been as a result of fibre damage, inadequate modification, less quality fibre or higher initial moisture content in the modified fibres as observed from FTIR spectroscopy. Further investigation of these factors is required to be able to conclusively determine if they may have affected the mechanical performance (Alao, 2018).

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1532–1546 G. Bekele, N. Dechassa, T. Tana and J.J. Sharma
Effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and vermicompost fertilizers on productivity of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in Babile, Eastern Ethiopia
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Effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and vermicompost fertilizers on productivity of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in Babile, Eastern Ethiopia

G. Bekele¹*, N. Dechassa², T. Tana² and J.J. Sharma²

¹Depatment of Plant Sciences Bedele College of Agriculture and Forestry, Mettu University, P.O.Box 138, Ethiopia
²School of Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Haramaya University, P.O.Box 138, Ethiopia
*Corresponding author: getme.bekele@gmail.com

Abstract:

Though groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a main cash crop for smallholder farmers in several districts of eastern Ethiopia, its yield is very low. Farmers apply little or no fertilizers to grow the crop possibly because no generic or recommended fertilizers rates available for farmers. Therefore field experiments were conducted for two consecutive cropping seasons in Babile district, to prove the hypothesis that one of the major factors that severely reduce the yield of the crop was lack of nutrients in the soil with the objective of investigating the effects of applying mineral NP fertilizers and vermicompost on the productivity of improved groundnut variety ‘BaHa-Gudo’. The experiment was 3 × 3 × 3 factorial with three replications laid down in a randomized complete block design comprising nitrogen (0, 23 and 46 kg N ha-1), phosphorus (0, 46 and 92 kg P2O5 ha-1) and vermicompost (0, 2.5 and 5 t vermicompost ha-1). The data on crop growth, nodulation and yield were collected and subjected to analysis of SAS 9.2 software. Means separation were made using Duncans Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5% level of significance. The results revealed that growth, yield attributes, and yields were significantly (P < 0.01) affected by the main and interactions effect of the treatments. The pod yield obtained from combined application of 46: 46 kg N: P2O5 ha-1 and 2.5 t vermicompost ha-1 exceeded the pod yield produced from nil application of fertilizers by about 100%. The economic analysis also indicated that the highest marginal rate of return (671%) and net benefit ($ 1,830) ha-1 were obtained from combined application of 46: 46 kg N: P2O5 ha-1 and 2.5 t vermicompost ha-1. From the results it could be concluded that applying the aforementioned doses of fertilizers combination would enable farmers increase productivity of groundnut so as to enhance farmers’ income and livelihoods.

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1547–1559 V. Bulgakov, S. Ivanovs, M. Arak and J. Olt
Theoretical research of force interaction of a flexible cleaning blade with a beet root head
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Theoretical research of force interaction of a flexible cleaning blade with a beet root head

V. Bulgakov¹, S. Ivanovs², M. Arak³ and J. Olt³

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Heroyiv Oborony street 15, Kyiv UA 03041, Ukraine
²Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Liela street 2, LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE 51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: semjons@apollo.lv

Abstract:

The most common technology of removing the sugar beet haulm in the world is a continuous cut of the entire mass of the green haulm with further additional removal of the upper parts of the sugar beet heads, which is carried out without extracting the roots from the ground. This is the scheme according to which most top harvesting machines, manufactured in the world, now operate. However, we have found in our studies that, due to additional cutting off the upper parts of the root crop heads, up to 10% of the sugar-bearing mass is lost. Besides, there is an urgent need for immediate processing of the sugar beet root crops, as losses of the sugar juice occur, and bacteria enter inside of the root crop through the cut-off part, causing rotting. Therefore, a more favourable operation for harvesting root crop tops is not cutting off their heads but cleaning them from the residues of the foliage. In addition, the operation of cleaning the sugar beet roots from the residues of the foliage is subject to rather high requirements due to the absence of the green and dry residues on the heads of the roots, as well as the losses and damage of the root crops themselves. The purpose of this investigation is to develop a theory of the force interaction of the flexible cleaning blade with the sugar beet head in the process of its cleaning when the blade is mounted on the vertical driving shaft. The methods used of the investigation are those of modelling, higher mathematics and theoretical mechanics, as well as programming and numerical calculations on the computer. As a result of the research, an equivalent scheme was developed and a mathematical model was constructed describing the force interaction of the flexible cleaning blade with the surface of the sugar beet root.

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1560–1567 J.O. Castro, T. Yanagi Junior, A.L. Abreu, P.F.P. Ferraz, G.B. Moura, D. Cecchin and L. Conti
Use of thermography for the evaluation of the surface temperature of Japanese Quail submitted at different temperatures
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Use of thermography for the evaluation of the surface temperature of Japanese Quail submitted at different temperatures

J.O. Castro¹, T. Yanagi Junior¹, A.L. Abreu², P.F.P. Ferraz¹, G.B. Moura¹, D. Cecchin³* and L. Conti⁴

¹Federal University of Lavras, Agricultural Engineering Department, Campus Universitário, PO Box 3037 Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
²Federal University of Lavras, Agricultural Department, Campus Universitário, PO Box 3037 Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
³Federal University Fluminense, Department of Agricultural Engineering and Environment, Campus Praia Vermelha, São Domingos, Niterói, BR24.210-240 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
⁴University of Firenze, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and forestry (DAGR), Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
*Correspondence: patricia.ponciano@ufla.br

Abstract:

Thermography has been gaining more space in analyzes of the superficial thermal profile of birds since it is a non-invasive way of evaluating thermal comfort. This study aims to evaluate the influence of different air temperatures (tair) from 20 °C to 32 °C on the maximum, average and minimum surface temperature (STmax, STaverage and STmin) of Japanese laying quails. The experiment was performed in four wind tunnels, where the continuous air temperature within each tunnel, 20 °C, 22 °C, 24 °C, 26 °C, 28 °C, 30 °C and 32 °C represented treatment, with 20 °C being the control treatment. Two experiments, of 21 days each, were carried out. For each experiment, we used four replicates and eight quails in each repetition, in a completely randomized design. Thermographic images of each repetition were made weekly through the Fluke Ti55 camera and analyzed using SmartView® software. The STmax, STaverage and STmin of each repetition were obtained by delimiting the area of the quails within the cages. Significant differences were observed between ST as the room temperature increased. The ST of quails behaved similarly from 28 °C on. Both head and feet had higher temperatures. It was possible to verify that air temperatures above 22 °C promoted an increase in the maximum, average and minimum surface temperatures. The highest surface temperatures are found in the head and foot region.

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1568–1576 M. Dąbrowska, A. Świętochowski and A. Lisowski
Physicochemical properties and agglomeration parameters of biogas digestate with addition of calcium carbonate
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Physicochemical properties and agglomeration parameters of biogas digestate with addition of calcium carbonate

M. Dąbrowska*, A. Świętochowski and A. Lisowski

Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Department of Agricultural and Forestry Machinery,
Faculty of Production Engineering, Nowoursynowska 166, PL02-787 Warsaw, Poland
*Correspondence: magdalena_dabrowska@sggw.pl

Abstract:

The aim of the work was to determine the physical properties of digestate from biogas production – either with or without the addition of calcium carbonate and to determine the parameters of its compaction. The material for research was obtained from an agricultural biogas plant specialized in processing cattle manure, vegetable pomace, chicken manure and maize silage. The parameters of compaction of digestate were experimentally determined and its net calorific value was calculated based on the gross calorific value. Physical properties were determined according to standards. The moisture content of liquid digestate was 96%. Mechanical separation allowed to decrease the water content by 19% and addition of 20% of calcium carbonate by 30%. It was found that digestate with addition of calcium carbonate is not suitable to use for energy purposes, because of its low net calorific value (5.2–5.9 MJ kg-1), however it can be used for fertilizer purposes in relation to its chemical composition. Without  additives, the net calorific value was 14.9 MJ kg-1, but due to the high moisture content of the raw material it is unprofitable to dry it and burn. On the other hand, it was proved that it is possible to obtain pellets of appropriate density out of the digestate using 40 mm of the die height and 0.3 g of single portion of the material.

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1577–1590 L. Dubova, A. Senberga, I. Alsina, L. Strauta and I. Cinkmanis
Development of symbiotic interactions in the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) roots
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Development of symbiotic interactions in the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) roots

L. Dubova¹*, A. Senberga¹, I. Alsina¹, L. Strauta² and I. Cinkmanis³

¹Institute of Plant and Soil sciences, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Laboratory of Biotechnology, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Strazdu street 1, LV-3004 Jelgava, Latvia
³Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Food Technology, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: Laila.Dubova@llu.lv

Abstract:

Double-inoculation of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) seeds before sowing with rhizobium bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi is a known agronomic practice. It improves symbiotic nitrogen fixation and enhances legume supply with mineral elements and water. Effective symbiosis makes it possible to replace some of the required mineral fertilizer needed for plant growth with symbiotically fixed. This will ensure more environmentally friendly agricultural production. The formation of an effective symbiosis depends on a number of biotic and abiotic factors affecting the biochemical signals released by the partners. The biochemical mediator for symbiosis formation is flavonoids. The aim of this experiment was to test the effects of rhizobial and mycorrhizal inocula on symbiosis formation under different temperatures. Beans are an important source of protein for animal feed and human consumption. Four cultivars of faba beans were used – two V. faba var. minor Beck. -‘Fuego’ and ‘Lielplatone’, and two V. faba var. major Harz. – ‘Bartek’ and ‘Karmazyn’. The combination of microorganisms for seed inoculation influenced the frequency of root mycorrhization and abundance of arbuscules. The content of flavonoids in seed exudates correlated (r = 0.93) with germination temperatures. The use of mycorrhizal fungi alone or in combination with rhizobia reduced the amount of flavonoids in the bean seed exudate. In the pot experiment the amount and size of nodules significantly differed between cultivars. Use of mycorrhizal preparation mitigated the effect of inadequate germination temperature. Higher degree of mycorrhization and more intense formation of arbusculs formation was observed in the bean roots grown in vegetation pots in comparison with field ones. Local bred ‘Lielplatone’ had significantly better compatibility with microsymbionts in local agroclimatic conditions.

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1591–1598 V. Dubrovskis, I. Plume and I. Straume
The production of methane from the straw pellets with addition of enzymes
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The production of methane from the straw pellets with addition of enzymes

V. Dubrovskis*, I. Plume and I. Straume

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Engineering, Institute of Energetics, Cakstes blvd. 5, LV3001, Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: vilisd@inbox.lv

Abstract:

Biogas production requires much cheaper raw materials. The use of straw, as not always the full use of agricultural residues, increases the methane yield in pelletised form compared to non-pelletised straw. Lack is the high ratio of carbon to nitrogen content of straw, which leads to a slow and incomplete breakdown of the matter, and less producing substances from which bacteria produce methane.Variety of additives can be used to improve anaerobic digestion process. This article shows the results of the study, where the enzymes alpha amylase and xylanase and catalysts Metaferm and Melafen mixture are used for the digestion process echancement. Investigation was provided in 16 bioreactors operated in batch mode at 38 °C. Additives were filled into 14 bioreactors and only inoculum were filled into two bioreactors for control. The yield of biogas from straw pellets without additives was 0.655 L g-1DOM and methane 0.301 L g-1DOM after 34 days of anaerobic digestion. The yield of biogas from straw pellets with added alpha amylase was 0.652 L g-1DOM and methane 0.318 L g-1DOM. The yield of biogas from straw pellets with added xylanase was 0.689 L g-1DOM and methane 0.347 L g-1DOM. The yield of biogas from straw pellets with added Metaferm and Melafen mixture was 0.638 L g-1DOM and methane 0.254 L g-1DOM. The study demonstrates that the adding of enzymes increases the production of methane.

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1599–1616 I.S. Dunmade
Potential social lifecycle impact analysis of bioenergy from household and market wastes in African cities
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Potential social lifecycle impact analysis of bioenergy from household and market wastes in African cities

I.S. Dunmade

Mount Royal University, Faculty of Science & Technology, Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences, 4825 Mount Royal Gate SW, Calgary T3E 6K6, Canada
E-mail: idunmade@mtroyal.ca or israel_dunmade@yahoo.ca

Abstract:

Bioenergy is touted as a viable source of stable and affordable energy in a number of remote sub-urban centres. This study evaluates the potential social lifecycle impacts of bioenergy production from household wastes and agri-wastes in some African cities. The assessment considered the use of rotten and unsold fruits, vegetables and other related agri-wastes from central open markets in Lagos and Johannesburg as case studies. The 2009 UNEP/SETAC’s social lifecycle assessment (sLCA) guidelines and the associated sLCA methodological sheets are used to evaluate the potential social impacts of bioenergy production from agri-waste on operators/workers, the consumers, the value chain, and the local community. Preliminary results showed that it will provide a lot of benefits such as alternative employment opportunities, improved profits for small businesses, waste minimization, cleaner environment and improved communal health. It will also lead to improvement in energy supply, and alleviation of poverty. However, care has to be taken to protect the bio-digestion facility’s neighbourhood from unpleasant odour, rodents and other organisms that may attempt to feed on the rotting agri-waste. The outcome of this study provides an insight to the necessity for the development of appropriate bioenergy policy/regulation and for the need to take preemptive steps to eliminate/minimize potential negative consequences of bioenergy production on the stakeholders.

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1617–1629 A. Enn and E. Merisalu
Dynamics of work accidents incidence by severity, gender and lost workdays in Estonian agricultural sector and sub-sectors in 2008–2017
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Dynamics of work accidents incidence by severity, gender and lost workdays in Estonian agricultural sector and sub-sectors in 2008–2017

A. Enn* and E. Merisalu

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: anni.enn@student.emu.ee

Abstract:

The risk of dying in a work-related accident is greatest for those employed in agricultural sector. The aim of this study is to analyse the dynamics of work accidents (WA) incidence by severity, gender and lost workdays in Estonian agriculture in 2008–2017. Method: The database of accidents in agriculture (2008–2017) was obtained from the Estonian Labour Inspectorate (ELI). Work accidents statistics is based on official reports of employers. Results: In total 1,683 non-fatal work accidents (NFA) was registered in the past decade, from which 1,235 (79.3%) were minor and 448 (20.7%) severe. In total 13 fatal work accidents (FA) have occurred, which accounts 0.8% of all the WAs (n = 1,696). Although the trends of minor and severe WA cases showed steady increase, the number of FA has remained low. A major part WAs (74%) was registered in farming and horticulture, with prevalence of minor accidents. A severe WA is likely to occur in forestry or very likely in fishery. The proportion of injured male and female was 51.8% and 48.2%, accordingly. In the farming and horticulture sector there were more accidents among women – of all the minor accidents (n = 1,235) 52.1% occurred to women. Of all the severe WAs (n = 448) 61.2% and all the fatal work accidents happened to male workers. About 2/3 of severe WAs caused sick leave 31–90 days and more. Conclusion: The number of WAs in Estonian agricultural sector show steady increase in the past decade. A major part of accidents is minor and mostly occurred in farming and horticulture, and more often with females. Severe and FAs more often occurred in forestry and fishery. Mostly the severe WAs cause long sick leave – a month or more. When to increase work accidents severity level by one step (from minor to severe), the sick leave is increasing significantly.

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1630–1638 G.A.S. Ferraz, R.C. Avelar, N.L. Bento, F.R. Souza, P.F.P. Ferraz, F.A. Damasceno and M. Barbari
Spatial variability of soil fertility attributes and productivity in a coffee crop farm
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Spatial variability of soil fertility attributes and productivity in a coffee crop farm

G.A.S. Ferraz¹*, R.C. Avelar², N.L. Bento¹, F.R. Souza³, P.F.P. Ferraz¹, F.A. Damasceno¹ and M. Barbari⁴

¹Federal University of Lavras – UFLA, Departament of Agricultural Engineering, University Campus, Postal Code 37200-000 Lavras-MG, Brazil
²AVELAR ASSESSORIA LTDA - Consultoria em Cafeicultura – Monte Carmelo – MG, Brazil
³Rural University of Rio de Janeiro – UFRJ, BR-465, Km 7, Postal Code 23.897000 Seropédica-RJ, Brazil
⁴Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry (DAGRI), Università degli Studi di Firenze, Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Itália
*Correspondence: gabriel.ferraz@ufla.br

Abstract:

Coffee cultivation is of great importance to Brazilian agribusiness, as coffee occupies extensive production areas and is one of the most exported Brazilian products. To maintain coffee production numbers, productive techniques must be adopted that optimize productive system use. The objective of this work was to apply geostatistical techniques in the evaluation of soil fertility attributes to construct maps of variability in soil fertility parameters and the productivity of a coffee crop in the municipality of Monte Carmelo, Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil. The work was developed with coffee of the cultivar Mundo Novo 379/19, and 19 sample points were georeferenced in Universal Transverse Mercator coordinates. Spatial dependence of the fertility and productivity parameters was analysed via classic semivariogram fitting and interpolation by ordinary kriging using the statistical computer system, R. All parameters evaluated showed high degrees of spatial dependence. The attribute values varied along the sampling points, except for the sodium (Na) contents, which had similar values in all samplings. The studied parameters ranged from 80 to 200 metres. It is conclusion, the use of productivity maps linked to soil chemical attributes can be useful for determining the occurrence of variable productivity rates throughout the area, allowing the adoption of corrective practices for subsequent crops and thus making the maps very useful tools for producers.

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1639–1648 M. Hruška, P. Vaculík, M. Kůrka, T. Hajlich and P. Benda
Holding the wheel in passenger cars in countries with driving on the right and left side depending on the driver’s side preference
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Holding the wheel in passenger cars in countries with driving on the right and left side depending on the driver’s side preference

M. Hruška*, P. Vaculík, M. Kůrka, T. Hajlich and P. Benda

Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Building, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Praha 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: jabko@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This paper deals with the assessment of the differences in how passenger car drivers hold a steering wheel with left and right-side steering in specific driving modes. The findings are compared to the generally-accepted optimal position in terms of active and passive safety, as well as long-term effects on the health of the driver. The research described in this work was conducted on a sample of randomly selected drivers in the Czech Republic, the UK and Australia using electronic questionnaires. The data was then subjected to a statistical evaluation, which looked primarily at the difference between the way in which the steering wheel was held in countries with driving on the right and driving on the left. Another parameter for statistical data evaluation was the used side preference of individual drivers. On the basis of a statistical evaluation of the obtained data, it was found that there is a difference in the way the steering wheel is held in the assessed traffic situations between drivers driving on the right and drivers driving on the left. The results of this work can be used in the design process of passenger car cabins, in particular in the field of adaptation of the control devices of particular models to the needs of drivers in individual countries based on the type of traffic. The results of the work point out the necessity to make innovations in the design of passenger car cabins with regard to the type of traffic in which the vehicle will be operated, which could lead to a better application of innovations, and thereby better possibilities of positively influencing traffic safety and the health of drivers.

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1649–1664 O. Kostenko, H. Lapenko, Ye. Prasolov, T. Lapenko and A. Kalinichenko
Increasing the effectiveness of aggregates for planting sugar beet stecklings to receive elite seeds
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Increasing the effectiveness of aggregates for planting sugar beet stecklings to receive elite seeds

O. Kostenko¹, H. Lapenko¹, Ye. Prasolov¹, T. Lapenko¹ and A. Kalinichenko²*

¹Poltava State Agrarian Academy, Engineering and Technological Faculty, Department of Life Safety, 1/3, Skovorody street UA36003 Poltava, Ukraine
²University of Opole, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Technology, Institute of Technical Sciences, Dmowskiego street 7–9, PL45–759 Opole, Poland
*Correspondence: akalinichenko@uni.opole.pl

Abstract:

Planting sugar beet stecklings with planting machine is one of the stages in the technological process of producing elite seeds. The analysis of the experience of using planting units for planting stecklings showed a number of disadvantages: poor quality of planting stecklings without spacing stability and the absence of parameter control; unregulated applying nutrients and granules of water preservation to the roots negatively affect the development of plants. The aggregate having openers of the planting device was designed, and the system of supplying the spray of nutrients and growth stimulator is envisaged. The technological process is conducted in the following way: during the movement of equilateral triangles of the planting cones mechanism the root is planted in the soil. To eliminate the drawbacks while planting stecklings, the openers of the planting device for the roots having the diameter of 50–120 mm were designed. Owing to them free falling roots in the soil is ensured and their lifting together with the cone to the soil surface is prevented. The research has shown that root plant spacing depends on the angular and forward velocities of the device.
The draft resistance of furrow openers and soil compaction depend on the furrow width and depth and the distance between the axes of quadrangles and the unit rear compaction wheels.
Improving the planter, taking into account biological peculiarities of plant development, meeting the requirements of energy saving and economic expediency was proved.

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1665–1678 A. Kubule, Z. Indzere and I. Muizniece
Modelling of the bioeconomy system using interpretive structural modelling
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Modelling of the bioeconomy system using interpretive structural modelling

A. Kubule*, Z. Indzere and I. Muizniece

Riga Technical University, Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Azenes iela 12/1, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: anna.kubule@rtu.lv

Abstract:

Due to European and global resource efficiency efforts, the bioeconomy research and the search for new bioresource valorisation alternatives has become topical. Bioeconomy directly concerns such major sectors of the economy as agriculture, forestry, fishery, as well as other indirect bioeconomy sectors. However, the practical implementation of bioeconomy has had quite low implementation rate, which is partly caused by the multitude and variety of factors that affect the bioeconomy system. This paper evaluates seven bioeconomy affecting factors (particularly related to biotechonomy concept) and links between them in order to promote successful implementation of bioeconomy. To evaluate these factors interpretive structural modelling method (ISM) is used. The application of ISM method allows to not only identify the factor interaction links, but also to graphically represent their directed structure. The results show that three out of seven factors have the strongest interrelation, namely, climate change, bioresources and technologies. This research can be complimented by further adding other factors that could be influencing for bioeconomy development, for example, financial resources, human health, well-being, and so on; therefore, to reach better understanding about influential factors and bioeconomy dependency on them; also, system dynamics approach could be used in order to fully uncover the factor interaction links.

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1679–1687 M. Mahfudz, S. Saleh, M. Antara, A. Anshary, S. Bachri, U. Made, U. Hasanah and R.A. Rauf
Adoption and advantages of eco-friendly technology application at the Shallot farming system in Indonesia
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Adoption and advantages of eco-friendly technology application at the Shallot farming system in Indonesia

M. Mahfudz¹*, S. Saleh¹, M. Antara², A. Anshary¹, S. Bachri³, U. Made¹, U. Hasanah¹ and R.A. Rauf²

¹Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tadulako University, ID94118 Palu, Indonesia
²Department of Agribusiness, Faculty of Agriculture, Tadulako University, ID94118 Palu, Indonesia
³Department of Marketing, Faculty of Economic, Tadulako University, ID94118 Palu, Indonesia
*Correspondence: shahabsaleh@gmail.com

Abstract:

This study aimed to evaluate the benefits farmers obtained by adopting eco-friendly technologies on local shallot cultivation in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. The technology applied includes; trap crops, biofertilizers (bokashi and mycorrhiza arbuscular) biopesticides (Beauveria bassiana and Trichoderma sp.) and plastic mulch. Ninety-nine shallot farmers were selected, consisting of 35 farmers who applied the technology (adopters) and 64 farmers who did not (non adopters). Characteristics, rates of adoption, and benefits of both groups of farmers were measured and analyzed. The results showed that the level of technology adopted by the farmers was high and supported by farmer characteristics, particularly their age and education. The application of technology increases the production of shallots and the total profits of farmers by 29.5% and 79.1% respectively. In addition, adopters can reduce the costs of chemical inputs by around 69.5%. Therefore, the technology introduced provides multiple benefits for farmers; economically and environmentally.

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1688–1704 P. Matějka, J. Kadeřábek and V. Shapoval
Measurement Robotic Arm (MRA) for the evaluation of localization sensors properties
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Measurement Robotic Arm (MRA) for the evaluation of localization sensors properties

P. Matějka¹*, J. Kadeřábek² and V. Shapoval²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ16500 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16500 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: matejkapavel@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The purpose of this longitudinal project is to verify the dynamic properties of the Real Time Kinematic receivers (‘RTK’). For this purpose, a verification method using Measurement Robotic Arm (‘MRA’) described in this paper has been developed. This device can be moved along a circular trajectory in a horizontal surface. Using the methodology described in this paper, the absolute position of the MRA trolley in absolute time can be defined with absolute accuracy and can serve as a reference for the verification of RTK receivers positioning. Its movement, including its breaking, can be controlled via a PC app and various sensor properties can be monitored. The position of the trolley is determined by the encoder. A Hall sensor indicates the absolute start position of one full turn. The absolute time marks of the measurement and the time synchronization of the microprocessor based on Pulse Per Second (‘PPS’) were obtained from the standard GNNS receiver. This study provides information about a proposal solution of the MRA reference system in terms of the frame construction description, the design of electronic equipment and the design of a software solution for processing and logging of messages. This paper also presents the results of three tests performed to verify the functionality and reliability of the MRA system: PPS time accuracy verification, the quantity and correctness of sent messages according to the arm instantaneous speed, and a real RTK verification test. The MRA also can be used to verify the dynamic properties of other localization devices.

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1705–1713 A. Melicharová, J. Mašek and P. Novák
Impacts of some cultivated crops on water erosion in the Central Bohemia Region
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Impacts of some cultivated crops on water erosion in the Central Bohemia Region

A. Melicharová*, J. Mašek and P. Novák

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: melicharovaa@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This paper aims at assessing the impact of crops on water erosion parameters. Water erosion is the most common cause of damaging agricultural land in the Czech Republic. This is due to the large average slope of land and the prevailing soil types. The field trial was based on a site with an average slope of 5.4°. The primary objective was to assess the effect of the crop on the surface runoff and soil loss. The crops cultivated in the experiment were winter wheat, rape, potatoes, corn and oats (conventional tillage for all variants). Black fallow was used as the comparative variant (without vegetation). There is a light cambisol on the experimental field. To assess erosion, the method of microplots was used. The physical properties of the soil were also evaluated. The results show the risk of growing wide-rows crops (potatoes, corn). The soil loss in these crops was similar to the variant without vegetation.

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1714–1721 D. Nemeikšytė and V. Osadčuks
Robotic electromechanical object control by means of variable structure system
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Robotic electromechanical object control by means of variable structure system

D. Nemeikšytė and V. Osadčuks

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Engineering, 5 J. Cakstes blvd., Jelgava LV-3001, Latvia
E-mail: nemeiksyte.daiva@llu.lv, vitalijs.osadcuks@llu.lv

Abstract:

The practical purpose of robot design is to transfer types of complex human activities that require much effort, are monotonous and harmful. The robotic systems differ from traditional automation measures in terms of their universality and the possibility to reconstruct them quickly which enables them to create flexible automation production measures on the basis of universal equipment. Therefore, the subject matter of the present article is constituted by manipulator robot control system methods (semi-continuous control method, coordinator parameter control method and adaptive control method etc.) and the aim of the present study is to cover the said manipulator robot control system methods in order to assess the problems relating to their application and to provide the potential solutions. In analysing studies by other authors and assessing the results based on them, the following results of the present article were obtained: having regard to the peculiarities of control object model, due to their universality, theoretical methods of systems with semi-continuous control are the most attractive. The approach of other studies is also improper as it is claimed that the dynamics of electric executive equipment may be neglected and control moments can be formed in the same way as breakage functions and the problem which occurred may partly be solved, by using the advantages of the system with semi-continuous control in the pre-limiting situation which occurs by approximating semi-continuous control by means of continuous functions. The fundamental gap of the majority of electromechanical object control studies is, first of all, related with the fact that the phase variables are considered measurable, so the necessity arises to note that the entire complex of measurement equipment may lead to a significantly more expensive control system; moreover, measurement equipment adds additional dynamics to the control system and makes the synthesis procedure even more complex.

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1722–1734 J.I. Orisaleye, S.O. Jekayinfa, R. Pecenka and T.B. Onifade
Effect of densification variables on water resistance of corn cob briquettes
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Effect of densification variables on water resistance of corn cob briquettes

J.I. Orisaleye¹, S.O. Jekayinfa², R. Pecenka³* and T.B. Onifade²

¹University of Lagos, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, PMB 56, Akoka, Nigeria
²Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Department of Agricultural Engineering, PMB 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
³Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy, ATB, Department of Post-Harvest Technology, Max-Eyth-Allee 100, DE14469 Potsdam, Germany
*Correspondence: rpecenka@atb-potsdam.de

Abstract:

Solid biofuels can be used in heat and power generation applications. The utilization of agricultural residues for this purpose would be of immense benefit to rural communities of developing countries where the resource is being produced. Water resistance is a crucial property for transport and storage of biomass briquettes under moist climate conditions. In this study, the effect of process and material variables on the water resistance property of corn cob briquettes was investigated. The water resistance of briquettes produced ranged between 32.6 and 94.8% for die temperature between 90 °C and 120 °C, hold time from 7.5 to 15 minutes and die pressures between 9 and 15 MPa. A higher die temperature resulted in an increase in the water resistance of the biomass briquettes. Also, increasing the hold time improved the water resistance of the briquettes. Using a particle size less than 2.5 mm resulted in higher briquette water resistance property compared to briquettes produced from particle sizes greater than 2.5 mm. It was also shown that the effect of the interaction of the temperature with particle size on the water resistance of corn cob briquettes was statistically significant (p < 0.05).

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1735–1749 A. Roumani, A. Biabani, A.R. Karizaki, E.G. Alamdari and A. Gholizadeh
Effects of salicylic acid and spermine foliar application on some morphological and physiological characteristics of isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk) under water stress
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Effects of salicylic acid and spermine foliar application on some morphological and physiological characteristics of isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk) under water stress

A. Roumani*, A. Biabani*, A.R. Karizaki, E.G. Alamdari and A. Gholizadeh

University of Gonbad Kavous, Faculty of Agricultural and Natural Resources, Department of Crop Production, Crop Physiology, IR4971799151 Golestan, Iran
*Correspondence: azamroumani2012@gmail.com; abs346@yahoo.com

Abstract:

Yield as well as concentration of relevant component in many medical plants are influenced by growing condition water stress. Field experiment was done based on a randomized complete block design with 18 treatments and three replications, at Gonbad Kavous University, Golestan, Iran in winter 2016. Irrigation treatment with three levels (normal irrigation, water stress imposed at flowering stage or at seed filling stage) was placed in main plot. Salicylic acid (SA) with three levels (control, 0.4 and 0.8 mM) and spermine (Spm) with two levels (control and 0.02 mM) were assigned in sub-plots. Result showed the foliar application SA and Spm treatments under normal irrigation and cutoff irrigation at seed filling stage have significantly affected relative water content, electrolyte leakage and membrane stability index, but under cutoff irrigation at flowering stage did not significantly affected measured traits. Exogenous applications of SA and Spm applied increased the plant height, 1,000 grain weight and biological yield in compared to the non-use product at normal irrigation regime. Foliar spraying SA and Spm under cutoff irrigation at flowering stage did not significantly affected measured traits. Application product especially SA0.8 mM and Spm0.02 mM under cutoff irrigation at seed filling stage increased the most characteristics in compared to control. Foliar application of phenolic compounds such as salicylic acid and polyamines like spermine can be considered as an effective measure to reduce the adverse effects of water stress and ultimately increase the yield and yield components of isabgol.

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1750–1760 C. Senhaji, F. Gaboun, R. Abdelwahd, S.M. Udupa, A. Douira and D. Iraqi
Development of an efficient regeneration system for bombarded calli from immature embryos of Moroccan durum wheat varieties
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Development of an efficient regeneration system for bombarded calli from immature embryos of Moroccan durum wheat varieties

C. Senhaji¹²*, F. Gaboun¹, R. Abdelwahd¹, S.M. Udupa³, A. Douira² and D. Iraqi¹

¹Biotechnology Research Unit, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), B.P. 415, Avenue de la Victoire, Rabat, Morocco
²Laboratory of Botany, Biotechnology and Plant Protection, Faculty of Sciences-University Ibn Tofail, University campus, B.P. 133, 14000 Kénitra, Morocco
³ICARDA–INRA Cooperative Research Project, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, B.P. 6299, Rabat, Morocco
*Correspondence: chaimae.310@gmail.com

Abstract:

One of the biggest obstacles limiting genetic transformation of durum wheat is the lack of an efficient regeneration system for bombarded tissues. Our study aims to optimize culture conditions for regenerating bombarded calli from immature embryos of four durum wheat varieties ‘Amria’, ‘Chaoui’, ‘Isly’ and ‘Marouane’, through comparing the effects of phytohormones (IAA, zeatin and their interaction) and nitrogen amount and sources on callus induction and plant regeneration. Both tested induction media induced approximately the same rate of induced calli for all the tested varieties. However, the interaction of the induction and the regeneration media showed a highly significant effect on plantlet regeneration for all tested varieties. After bombardment, IM1/RM2 combination proved to be the favourable medium with up to 200% and 120% plantlets regenerated for ‘Chaoui’ and ‘Isly’ varieties respectively. Encouraging results obtained in this study will help to promote the research in genetic transformation and its improvement.

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1761–1768 I. Simakova, E. Volf, V. Strizhevskaya, O. Popova, V. Kozyreva and E. Karagulova
Blends of unrefined vegetable oils for functional nutrition
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Blends of unrefined vegetable oils for functional nutrition

I. Simakova*, E. Volf, V. Strizhevskaya, O. Popova, V. Kozyreva and E. Karagulova

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Saratov State Vavilov Agrarian University, Teatralnaya sq. 1, RU 410012 Saratov, Russia
*Correspondence: simakovaiv@yandex.ru

Abstract:

The unbalanced ratio of ω-3/ω-6 of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) causes a number of alimentary-dependent diseases, and the intake of capsulated forms as biologically active additives does not always take into account the established eating behavior of the population and the hedonic aspect of food consumption in general.
The Saratov region is one of the leading agricultural regions in the Russian Federation, one of the leaders in the cultivation and processing of low-used but valuable oily raw material, such as seeds of mustard, milkthistle, camelina, safflower.
The object of the study were the above listed oils and their food compositions obtained by blending. The functionality and biological efficiency of the initial oils were investigated by gas-liquid chromatography. Applying the methods of mathematical modeling, new food systems with the specified characteristics were designed (achieving the optimal ratio of ω-3: ω-6 acids). The most promising samples were selected through sensory analysis. Functional and sensory properties were taken as reference points for selection. The developed mathematical model is applicable to this food system, which was proved by the study conducted empirically. As a result of the work performed, blends of elite unrefined vegetable oils with health-promoting properties were obtained; their use in nutrition is designed to contribute to the formation of a healthy and active longevity in general, as well as to the minimizing the deficit of essential factors of nutrition in the child’s body, athletes in the popular sports and sports of records.

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1769–1778 M. Stehlík, A. Czako, M. Mayerová and M. Madaras
Influence of organic and inorganic fertilization on soil properties and water infiltration
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Influence of organic and inorganic fertilization on soil properties and water infiltration

M. Stehlík¹²*, A. Czako¹, M. Mayerová¹ and M. Madaras¹

¹Division of Crop Management Systems, Crop Research Institute, Drnovská 507, CZ 16106 Prague, Czech Republic
²Department of Agricultural Machines, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamýcká 129, CZ 16521 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: martin.stehlik@vurv.cz

Abstract:

Soil aggregate stability (SAS) belongs to the most important parameters determining the quality of soil and fertilizer influence on soil aggregation. We evaluated the relationship between SAS, hydro–physical soil properties and infiltration rates in three long–term field experiments founded in 1956 on different soils. Soil properties under three fertilization regimes–no fertilization, farmyard manure, farmyard manure and mineral fertilization–were evaluated at silty loam Chernozem, silty loam Phaeozem and sandy loam–loam Cambisol. A significant impact of fertilization on SAS was found, even though the differences in SAS were rather low. The lowest SAS was recorded at plots with manure and mineral fertilization (25.1%) compared with plots without fertilization (28.7%) and plots with manure–only fertilization (28.2%). The highest SAS (36.5%) and the highest semi–capillary porosity (SP; 11%) were observed at sandy loam–loam soil. Hydro–physical soil properties were more favourable at fertilized plots (SP 9.6% and bulk density ρb 1.31 g cm-3) compared with unfertilized ones (SP 8.8% and ρb 1.35 g cm-3). The lowest SP (8.32%) and the highest ρb (1.37 g cm-3) were recorded at Phaeozem, which corresponded with the lowest SAS (19.4%). Chernozem had similar soil texture to Phaeozem, but SAS (24.7%), SP (9%) and ρb (1.27 g cm-3) were more favourable. Despite the low level of statistical significance due to the large variation of infiltration measurements, a higher infiltration rate was recorded at fertilized plots (45 mm hour-1) compared to unfertilized ones (35 mm hour-1).

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1779–1787 M. Toom, L. Talgre, P. Pechter, L. Narits, S. Tamm and E. Lauringson
The effect of sowing date on cover crop biomass and nitrogen accumulation
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The effect of sowing date on cover crop biomass and nitrogen accumulation

M. Toom¹²*, L. Talgre², P. Pechter¹, L. Narits¹, S. Tamm¹ and E. Lauringson²

¹Estonian Crop Research Institute, J. Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva, Estonia
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: merili.toom@etki.ee

Abstract:

Cover crops are important tools for reducing nitrogen (N) leaching from the soil and improving the nutrition of cash crops. In northern regions with short autumns it is important to maximise the growing season of cover crops to achieve sufficient biomass and N accumulation. The objective of the study was to evaluate the biomass and N accumulation of cover crops at different sowing dates in August.
Field experiment at Estonian Crop Research Institute was conducted in 2017 and 2018 with white mustard (Sinapis alba L.), phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.), field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Cover crops were sown on August 3, 8, 14 and 18 in 2017 and August 3, 8, 13, 17 and 23 in 2018.
The two year experiment showed that biomass and N accumulation of cover crops were reduced with delayed sowings, but the reduction mainly depended on cover crop species.
White mustard, field pea and faba bean accumulated significantly higher amount of biomass and N than phacelia, buckwheat and berseem clover at all sowing dates in both years. Because of a rapid decrease in biomass, the optimum sowing time for phacelia and buckwheat should not be later than middle of August. In both year berseem clover produced the modest amount of biomass and therefore more suited as spring sown cover crop in Estonian conditions.

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1788–1799 O. Ulianych, V. Yatsenko, I. Didenko, N. Vorobiova, O. Kuhnyuk, O. Lazariev and S. Tretiakova
Agrobiological evaluation of Allium ampeloprasum L. variety samples in comparison with Allium sativum L. cultivars
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Agrobiological evaluation of Allium ampeloprasum L. variety samples in comparison with Allium sativum L. cultivars

O. Ulianych¹, V. Yatsenko¹*, I. Didenko¹, N. Vorobiova¹, O. Kuhnyuk¹, O. Lazariev² and S. Tretiakova³

¹Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Horticulture, Ecology and Plants Protection Department of Vegetable Growing, Instytutska street, 1, UA20300 Uman, Ukraine
²Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Management, Department of Ukrainian and Foreign Languages, Instytutska street, 1, UA20300 Uman, Ukraine
³Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Agronomy, Department of Plant growing, Instytutska street, 1, UA20300 Uman, Ukraine
*Correspondence: slaviksklavin16@gmail.com

Abstract:

The purpose of investigation is to study the biological and morphological features, to establish the economic and valuable characteristics of the introduced and local forms of Allium ampeloprasum L. in comparison with Allium sativum L. and to study the effect of removal of the scape in the yield. The studies used field, statistical, settlement and analytical methods. The weight of the bulb without removing the inflorescence shoot of the cultivar Sofiivskyi was 28.4–53.3 g smaller than the variety samples No. 2 and No. 3 respectively. With removing the scape the difference increased by 60.5–68.6 g. The yield of No. 2 variety sample Allium ampeloprasum L. without removing the scape was lower than the standard by 1.7 t ha-1 while the variety sample No. 3 exceeded the standard by 1.1 t ha-1. With the removal of inflorescence shoot the yields of variety samples No. 2 and No. 3 exceeded the cultivar Sofiivskyi by 1.6 and 2.2 t ha-1. It has been established according to the researches that introduced forms of Allium ampeloprasum L. have high indicators of economic and valuable characteristics, but they are limited in the first years of cultivation, by the period of adaptation to the new soil and climatic conditions.

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1800–1807 D. Urbancl, J. Krope and D. Goričanec
Torrefaction – the process for biofuels production by using different biomasses
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Torrefaction – the process for biofuels production by using different biomasses

D. Urbancl*, J. Krope and D. Goričanec

University of Maribor, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Smetanova street 17, SI2000 Maribor, Slovenia
*Correspondence: danijela.urbancl@um.si

Abstract:

Torrefaction process is a mild pyrolysis, where biomass material is converted into solid fuel with higher heating value. The results of torrefaction at different temperatures in a range from 220 to 400 °C for three varied materials, oak wood, mixed wood and dehydrated, granulated sewage sludge are presented. The torrefaction process started with warm up stage, which took place for 30 minutes, after that sample was torrefied for 2 hours at constant temperature. The process continued with cool down stage. The energy demands were covered by electric power, while the flue gasses were not integrated in the process. The influence of the operating temperatures are analysed in order to determine optimal operation parameters to get the torrefied biomass with highest calorific value. Furthermore, the optimal operation time according to the largest increase in calorific value for each material is evaluated. The results of calorific value, mass drop and chemical compositions such as elemental analyses are also presented. Results show that heating values increase with raising temperature for both wood samples. The heating values for sewage sludge increases to approximately 320 °C, after that temperature are unchangeable. Torrefied oak wood samples were more fragile at higher temperatures in comparison to raw or torrefied oak wood samples at lower temperatures. At torrefied sewage sludge samples the changes in fragility are not detected due to pre-prepared granulates of sludge.

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1808–1822 O. Zinina, S. Merenkova, D. Tazeddinova, M. Rebezov, M. Stuart, E. Okuskhanova, Zh. Yessimbekov and N. Baryshnikova
Enrichment of meat products with dietary fibers: a review
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Enrichment of meat products with dietary fibers: a review

O. Zinina¹, S. Merenkova¹*, D. Tazeddinova¹, M. Rebezov¹, M. Stuart², E. Okuskhanova³, Zh. Yessimbekov³ and N. Baryshnikova⁴

¹South Ural State University (national research university), Lenin Avenue 76, RU 454080 Chelyabinsk, Russia
²Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, 286 Plant Rd, ON K0J 1J0 Chalk River, Canada
³Shakarim State University of Semey, Glinka street 20a, KZ071400 Semey, Kazakhstan
⁴Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University, Lenin Avenue 38, RU455000 Magnitogorsk, Russia
*Correspondence: merenkovasp@susu.ru

Abstract:

In recent years, much attention has been paid to the development of food products with properties that can promote well-being and prevent disease. Tested strategies to improve the functional value of meat products through the introduction of dietary fiber are reviewed here. Based on the literature reviewed, the addition of dietary fiber in meat products contributes to the fabrication of products which enhance physiological functions. Furthermore, fibers can be used to improve the quality and yield of meat products.

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